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DREWS, LL.D. Revised, Enlarged, and in great part Rewritten by 
CiiARLTON T. Lewis, Ph.D., and Charles Short, LL.D., Professor 
of Latin in Columbia College, N. Y. Royal 8vo, 2033 pp.. Sheep, $6 50. 

* * * Amoug the peculiar fcatnrefi which distingniBb the present work may be noted 
the comparative breadth of its i<copc mid tlie comprehensiveuess of its details. The list 
of Latin authors to whose works it affords a key contains more than thirty names not re- 
ferred to in Frcnnd or Andrews, many of which have never been used before in the prepara- 
tion of a general lexicon of thelnugua^e. * • • In regard to the Latin orthography, the pres- 
ent Dictionary, moreover, claims the attention of students as the only work which embo- 
dies' the results of recent investigations by philologists like I^itschel, Corssen, Brambach, 
and others, and which are accepted as authorities in tlie latest and best editions of the 
Latin classics. * • * The present state of the science of etymology is more completely rep- 
resented in this work than In any previous Dictionary.— X I". Tribune, 

This lexicon must supersede all its rivnls for common use. * * * As a hand lexicon, to lie 
on the desk and receive corrections and additions in the margin, no existing book in any 
langnnge is so well fitted as this. It contains many new words. • * • It removes many er- 
rors. Orthi>graphy, etymology, and accidence have been corrected by the best and latest 
authorities. Many words are rightly explained which have long misled lexicographers. 
— J. E. B. Mayob, Prafetmor of Latin at Cambridge L^nitertity, Kwjlandj in **Xotes and 
QufrifSf" London. 

It is the riiiest and richest fruit of modern scholarship. Notwithstanding the fulness 
with which great nnmbers of words are presented, the disposition and arrangement are so 
clear and distinct that no intelligent young student will be discouraged in the use of this 
comprehensive work.— 06«5n;rr, N. Y. 

The last thirty or forty years have witnessed extraordinary advances In pnre scholar- 
ship, archaeology, and especially philology, and a good dictionary must incorporate the r«- 
snlts obtained by a thi>usand investigators in all these fields. Our editors have, at all 
events, as a reference to the book will show, rightly appreciated their duties, and have not 
Hpared labor in collecting from every source available new matter. • • • The improvements 
are such as to defy quotation, both from their length and their intrinsic character. New 
words are added, new and more happy quotations are introduced, meanings are more care- 
fully diflferentiatcd and arranged, and new interpretations suL'gested. * * * The etymolog- 
ical notes certainly far surpass in accuracy and fulness anything as yet attempted in any 
dictionary Athentpurn, London. 

Everything that later research has brought to the elucidation of the Latin tongue has 
been Incoi-porated in this huge volume. The study of philology during the past twenty 
years has brought so many valuable facts to light as to render the dictionaries that have 
long done seirice to students far from adequate to the demands made upon them. This 
Latin Dictionary cannot fail to supercede thoj«e hitherto in use, and to win the thanks of 
every Latin scholar. • * * Nothing has been left undone to make it all Ihot can be desired 
by students as an assistance, or by mature scholars as n source of reference.— Safwrtfa^ 
Erening Guzftte^ Boston. 

We have made several tests to discover the number of new words introduced. The 
first two pages tested gave examarieo, examinatn'x, exaporior, exnrdco, fxarmatio, one new 
word in every ten. Two pages. In a different portion of the volume, gave us rerrcabilis^ 
re/'remo^ recnieifigo, rectiangtUum^ rfctificatio^ recu«ativun, one new word in every seven. 
How greatly the value of the Dictionary is thus augmented can be readily seeu.^Lutticran 

Harperi Latin. Dictionary, 

This is the most complete of all the classical dictionariea. * * * The more the book is ex- 
amined, the more delighted moBt every scholar be with its exhaastivc character, with its 
comprehensiveness and accnntcy. Its etymology meets the latest demands of t<cholar8hip : 
we have not only the Greek, Sanscrit, and other ancient relations, bnt the modern, Gothic, 
Anglo-Saxon, German, English, etc. The definitions, boih the literal and the figurative, 
are clear and (hll, the citations from classic anthors are abnndant, and there is besides in- 
formation of various kinds that will assist the student to understand thajmcieut life. « • * 
It is, in short, a marvellous piece of work, and must with thorough scholars supersede all 
other Latin dictionaries.— Har(A>''(2 Covtrant. 

A complete digest of the results of criticism and research in this field.— X l\ Evening 

Habfxbs* Latin Diotioiiary has received the cordial commendation of the followiuo; 
eminent philological scholars : 

Prcjiident Noau Portxk, Tale College. 

Professor Hkmby Drislkb, Columbia College. 

Professor Qkobgk M. Lakx, Harvard Univer- 

Professor W. W. Goodwin, Harvard Univer- 

Professor Cuarlks D. Morris, Johns Hop- 
kins University. 

Professor B. L. Gildkbslkevk, Johns Hop- 
kins University. 

Professor William A. Paokarb, Princeton 

Professor Traoy Pkck, Cornell University. 

Professor C. J. Hinkkl, Vassar College. 

Professor Rodkrt Lowell, Union College. 

Professor Fbanois A. Jaokbon, University 
of Pennsylvania. 

Professor Edward H. Griffin, Williams 

Professor Amos N. Citrrirr, Iowa State Uni- 

Professor Frank Smallry, Syracuse Univer- 

Professor G. K. Babtholoxxw, Cincinnati 

Professor H. S. Fribzk, University of Mich- 

Professor Oscar Howks, Madison University. 

Professor Joun Avkry, Bowdoin College. 

Dr. William Evxkrtt, Principal Adams 
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Professor T. A, Tuaohkr, Yale College. 

Mr. Ckoil F. p. Banouoft, Principal Phillips 
Academy, Audover, Mass. 

Professor H. A. Dearborn, Tufts College. 

Professor Clrmrnt L. Smith, Harvard Uni- 

Mr. Moses Mkrrill, Head -Master Boston 
Latin School. 

Mr. W. G. MoCabe, Head-Master University 
School, Petersburg, Va. 

Mr. W. C. Collar, Head -Master Roxbury 
Latin School. 

Professor W. C. Morry, University of Roch- 

Professor F. D. Allen, Yale College. 

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Professor T. B. Lindsay, Boston University. 

ProfMSor H. Nbttlxbuip, Oxford Univer- 
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Professor J. £. B. Mayor, Cambridge Uni- 
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Professor E. P. Croweli., Amherst College. 

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Paul's School, Concord, N. H. 

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By WM. J. ROLFE, A.M. 

Shakespeare's Flays. 

The Heicliant of Venioe. 

The Tempest 

JolinB OoBsar. 


As Ton Like It 

Hemy the FiftL 


Heniy the Eighth. 

lOdsnmmer-Night'B Dream. 

Biohard IH 

Siohard the Second. 

Much Ado Abont Nothing. 

Antony and Oleopatra. 

Borneo and Jnliet 


Twelfth Night 

The Winter's Tale. 

King John. 

Henry IV. Part L 

Henry IV. Part XL 

King Lear. 

Taming of the Shrew. 

All 's Well that Ends WelL 


Oomedy of Errors. 


Merry Wives of Windsor. 

Measure for Measure. 

Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

Love's Labour's Lost 

Timon of Athens. 

Select Poems of Oliver Goldsmith. 
Select Poems of Thomas Gray. 

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hla "Rtymalosi^m i 
VUiur*," ba produt:.>i1 
tTxily prodirluui hiiniber '. 

»li» marc titlu of mMot, HII 

■»'b(i," DpnbtUa* no «crKi|i 
Mor* lo allcniila;* (An rlymo. 

u" RrliolMkllU' In uiaitliMi to 
iirl,.K nimrir balfa rwtotT * 

"WlUamaMnof "tvha'R 
•f bla BMUfnuou 

'lofMmdy nf 

for Utai «• 














FUiLic iiBsiav 

tfret. uMi^ AW 
» 19&0 L 



Key to the Gemeral Pi^n of the Dictionary ...» 

List of Abbretiations xi 

Concise Etymological Dictionary or the English Lan- 
guage 1 

CoRREcnoNS and Notes 578 

Afpendix : 

I. List or Premxes 580 

IL Suffixes SS6 

III. List of Aryan Roots SS? 

Brief Index to the above Roots .... 597 

IV. Homonyms $98 

V. List of Doublets 599 

VI. Distribution of Words according to the Lan- 

guages from which they are derived . . 603 

Supplement 613 


The present work is not a mere abridgement of my larger Etymo- 
logical Dictionary, such as might have been compilecl by a diligent 
book-maker, but has been entirely rewritten by myself; and I have 
found that the experience gained by writing the larger work has been 
of considerable assistance to me in making occasional slight improve- 
ments. My object has been to produce a convenient hand-book for 
the use of that increasing number of students who wish to learn 
the history of the English language, and who naturally desire to have 
Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic forms presented to them rightly spelt and 
accentuated, a point which seldom receives sufficient attention. 

One distinguishing feature of this abridgement, as well as of my 
larger Dictionary, is that all the forms cited can actually be found in 
the usual books of reference, except when marked by an asterisk, in 
which case they are theoretical. 

Conciseness has been attained by presenting the results in the 
briefest possible form ; but I have, at the same time, endeavoured to 
guard against becoming obscure. In my opinion, the habit, frequently 
adopted, of citing supposed cognate words (often misspelt) without 
saying what their meanings are^ is a very bad one, and leads to guess- 
ing and vagueness. It is, accordingly, to be understood that, when I 
do not give the meaning of cognate words, it is because their sense 
agrees with that of the English word so nearly as to prevent ambiguity. 
Thus under hite^ which is derived from the A. S. Mtan^ to bite, I cite 
the Dutch, Icelandic, Swedish. Danish, and German forms without 
explanation, because they all mean precisely the same thing ; but the 
Latin and Sanskrit forms are used with a slight difference of sense ; 
and I accordingly give that sense. 

I do not, in general, give the history of the use of the word under 
discussion, unless there is some special point which is necessary to be 
known for the sake of the etymology. For such history, accompanied 
by illustrative comments, references, and discussions, I must refer 
students to the unabridged work. 

In the course of writing this abridgement, I have taken occasion 
to introduce several corrections, which, in the larger work, are only to 
be found in the Addenda* 


§ 2. The words selected. The word-list contains nearly all 
the words of most frequent occurrence, with a few others that are 
remarkably prominent in literature, such as unantled. Homonymous 
forms, such as hay (used in five senses), are numbered. 

§ 3. Definitions. Definitions are omitted in the case of common 
words ; but explanations of original forms arb added wherever they 
seemed to me to be necessary. 

§ 4. Language. The language to which each word belongs is 
distinctly marked, in every case, by means of letters \dthin marks of 
parenthesis. Here the symbol - is to be read as * derived from.* 
Thus Ahh^ is (F.-L.-Syriac); i.e. a French word derived from 
Latin ; the Latin word being, in its turn, of Syriac origin. 

The 'order of derivation is always upward or backward, from early 
to earlier forms. 

The symbol -f is employed to distinguish forms which are merely 
CQgnais^JiiXi^ are adduced merely by \iray of illustrating and confirming 
the etymology. Thus, hiU is a purely English word, derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon biian. The other Teutonic forms, viz. the Du. bijlerty IceL 
bitay Swed. hita^ Dan. bide^ G. beissen^ ind the other Aryan forms, viz, 
'LdX.findere (base^^-) and Skt bhid^ to cleave, are merely cognate and 
illustrative. On this point, there conmionly exists th6 most singular 
confusion of id^as ; and there are inany Englishmen who are ac- 
customed to derive English, of all things, from Modern High German I 
I therefore introduce diis symbol + by way of warning. It has its 
usual algebraical value of plus or additional; ahd indicates 'additional 
information to be obtained from the comparison of cognate forms.' 

§ 5. Symbols of Languages. The symbols, such as F. » French, 
are not used in their usual vague sense, so as to baffle the enquirer 
who wishes to filid the words referred to. Every symbol has a special 
sense, and has reference to certain books, in one at least of which the 
word cited may be found, sis I have ascertained for myself by looking 
them all out I have purposely used, as far as was practicable, cheap 
and easily accessible 'authorities. The exact sense of each symbol is 
given in the Kst below. 

§ 6. Boots. In some cases, words are traced back to their original 
Aryan roots. The root is denoted by the symbol V) to be read as 
• root.' Thus bear, to carry, is from V BHAR. A list of roots, with 
their meanings, is given in the Appendix, p. 587 ; and a similar list, 
with fuller explanations and numerous examples, in the Appendix to 
my larger Dictionary. 

§ 7. Derivatives. The symbol Der., i.e. Derivatives, is used to 
introduce forms related to the primary word. Thus, under Agent, 
I give Act, and again, under Act, such mere derivatives as act-ion, 
act'ive, &c. 




Arab. — Arabic ; as in Richardson*s Per- 
sian and Arabic Diet., ed. F. John- 
son ; 1839. See also Devices Sup- 
plement to Little's F. Diet 

A. S. — Anglo-Saxon ; as in the dictionaries 
by B^worth, EttmUller, Grein, Leo, 
and Lye; and in the Vocal>alaries 
edited l^ T. Wright 

BaTar. — Bavarian ; as in SchmeIIer*s 
Bayerisches Worterbnch ; 1837- 

Bret — Breton ; as in Legonidec*s Bret. 
Diet., ed. 18 a I. 

Cd — Celtic; used as a general term for 
Irish, Gaelic, Welsh, Breton, Cornish, 


Com. — Cornish; as in Williams* Diet ; 

Dan. — Danish ; as in Ferrall and Repp ; 

Do. — ^Dutch ; as in the Tanehnitz Dutch 
Diet Old Dutch words are from 
Ondemans, Hexham (1658), or 
Sewel (1754). 

K — Modem £i^lish; as in Webster*s 

M.E.— Middle l&iglish (English from 
the thirteenlli to t^e fifteenth cen- 
turies inclusive) ; as in Stratmann's 
Old English Diet, aid edition, 1878. 

F. — ^French. Most of the forms cited 
are not prfcdsely modem French, but 
fromCotgrave*s Dictionary, ed. 1 660. 
This accounts for citation of forms, 
foch as F. recreation, without ac- 
cents; the F. accents being purely 
modem. See also th^ dictionaries 
by Brachet and Littr^. 

p. F.--01d French; as in the dictionaries 
by Buigny, Roquefort, or (in some 
cases) Cotgrave. 

Fries. — ^Friesic ; as in Richthofen, 1840. 

GaeL «— Gaelic ; as in Macleod and 
Dewar, 1839. 

G.— German ; as in Fliigel, ed. 1861. 

M. H. G. — Middle Hi^ German; as 
in Wackemagel*s Worterbuch, 

O. H. G. — Old High German ; as in the 
same Tolnme. 

Gk.— Gieek; as in Liddell and Scotfs 
Lexicon, 1849. 

Goth. — Moeso-Gothic ; as in Skeal*s 

Glossary, 1868. 
Heb. — Hebrew ; as in LeopoId*s Diet., 

Hind. — Hindustani ; as in Forbes, Bate, 

and Wilson^s Glossary of Indian 

Icel. — Icelandic ; as in Cleasby and Vig- 

fusson, 1874. 
Irish.— Irish; as in O'Reilly, 1864, 
Ital.— Italian ; as in Meadows, 1857. 
L. — Latin ; as in White and Riddle, 1 876. 
Low G. — Low German ; as in the Bremen 

Worterbuch^ l^6^, 
Lith. — Lithuanian ; as in Nesselmann^s 

Diet, 18^1. 
Low L. — Low Latin ; as in the Lexicon 

Manuale (abridged from Ducange) 

by Maigne d*Amis, 1866. 
M. £. — Middle English ; see under E. 

M. H. G. — Middle High German; see 

under O. above. 
Norw. — Norwegian ; as in Aasen*s Norsk 

Ordbog, 1873. 
O. F. — Old French ; see under F. above. 
O. H. G.— Old High German ; see under 

G. above. 
O. Sax. — Old Saxon ; as in the Heliand, 

ed. Heyne. 
Pers. — Persian ; as in Richardson*s Arab. 

and Pers. Diet; or in Palmer's Pers. 

Diet, 1876. 
Port. — ^Portuguese ; as in Vieyra, 1857. 
Prov. — Proven9al ; as in Raynouard's 

Lexique Roman, and Bartseh's Chres- 

tomathie Proven^ale. 
Russ. — Russian ; as in ReifTs Diet, 1876. 
Seand. — Scandinavian ; used as a general 

term for Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, 

and Norwegian. 
Skt.— Sanskrit ; as in Benfey*sDiet., 1 866. 

Span Spanish; as in Meadows, 1856. 

Swed. — Swedish; as in the Tauehnitz 

Diet., or in Widegren. 
Swed. dial. — Swedish dialects; as in 

Rietz (1867). 
Teut. — Teutonic ; a general term for 

Dutch, German, and Scandinavian. 
Turk. — Turkish; as in Zenker's Diet., 

W. — Welsh; as in Spurrell, 1861, 




ace. — acctxsatlve case, 

adj. — adjective. 

adv. — i^dverb. 

A. V. — Authorised Version pf the Bible, 

cf. — confer, Le. compare. 
Ch. — Chaucer, 
comp.— <:oinparative. 
dat — dative case. 
Der. — Derivative, 
dimin. — diminutive, 
f. or fern. — feminine, 
frequent. — frequentative* 
gen.— genitive case, 
i.e. — id est, that is. 
inf. — infinitive mood, 
inteij. — inteijection. 
lit. — literally, 
masc — ^masculine, 
neut — neuter. 

nom. — ^nominative case. 

obs.— obsolete. 

orig.— original, or originally. 

pi. — plursd. 

prep. — ^preposition. 

pres. part. — present participle. 

pres. t — present tense. 

pp. — past participle. 

prob. — probably. 

pron . — pronoun. 

prov. — provincial. 

q. v.— quod vide « which see. 

5. V. — sub verbo = under the wprd. 

pt t. — past tense. 

sb. — suostantive. 

Shak. — Shakespearp. 

sing. — singular. 

superl. — superlative. 

jtr. — translated, or translation. 

trans. — transitive. 

V. or vb. — ^verb. 

Some of the longer articles are marked off into sections by the use 
of the Greek letters p, y- This is merely intended tq make matters 
clearer, by separating the variqus statements from each other. 

Notes at the end of an article are marked off by beginning with 
the symbol %. XIV, XV, XVI, mean that the word was introduced 
in the 14th, 15th, or ^[6th century, respectively. Hyphens are freely 
introduced to §hew the efymological divisipn of a woni. Thus, under 
CedCy the word concede is derived from Lat ctm-cedere ; meaning that 
concederc can be resolved into con- and cedere. This etymological 
division is often very different from that usually adopted in printed 
books when words have to be divided ; thus, capacious can only be 
divided, etymologically, as cap-ac-i-ous^ because cap^ is the root- 

Theoretical forms are marked by italics. Thus the E. ewer answers 
to O. F. ewere* or etaat're*, a water-jug ; though this form is not found, 
we may be sure it existed, for the O. F. ewe, water, actually occurs. 

The symbols 8 and J> are both written for /h. In Icelandic, b has 
the sound of /A in Mn^ and S that of /h in tAa/; but the M.£. and A.S. 
symbols are confused. The M.E. symbol 5 commonly represents ^^ at 
the beginning of a word, and gh in the middle. A. S. short and long 
vowels, such as a and d, are as distinct from each other as c and 
7, or o and « in Greek. 



A, indef. art. (E.) See An. 

A- (i), as in a-down — A. S. ofddnt. (E.) 
Here «- — A. S. ^; see Of, Off. 

A- (a), as in ^oot. (E.) Put for on foot ; 
see On. % Inis is the commonest value 
of the prefix a-. 

A- (3), as in a-lon^, (E.) Here tf- — 
A. S. and" y see Along. 

A- (4), as in eL-rise, (E.) Here a- = A. S. 
a- ; see Arise. 

•^ (S)* as in a-chievit astringent, (F. — 
L. ; or L.) Here a * F. i « L. a</, to ; 
s<e Ad*. 

A- (6), as in advert, (L.) Here a-^'L.a; 
see Ab- (i). 

A- (7)t as in a-mend, (L.) Here a-mend 
hforg-mund; and^-L. « or^x; see Ex-. 

A- (8), as in a-Au. (F.) For A^las ; see 

A- (9), as in a-fyss. (Gk.) Here a- «* Gk. 
d- or dr- ; see Un-, Abyss. 

A* (10), as in a-do, (£.) For at do; set 
At, Ado. 

A- (ii), as in a-wart. (E.) Here a- ^ 
M. E.^-, »-, A. S. ^- ; see Aware. 

A- (I a), as in a-paee. (E.) Here a is the 
iodef. art. ; see An, Apace. 

A-(i3),asiaa-tiaj/. (Du.) Tor Dm. hcud 
vast ; see Avast. 

Abh> (i), prefix, (L.) L. o^, from ; short 
form a ; extended form abs. Cognate with 
£. efi see Of. In F., it becomes a- or av- ; 
see AdTmntage. 

Ab- (2), prefix. (L.) Put for L. ad, to, 
when b follows ; see Abbreviate. 

Aback. (£.) For on dacA, A,S.ondac; 
see A- (2) and Back. 

Abaft. (£.) From the prefix tf- (a), and 
^^, short for bi-afi, by alt. Thus a-d-a/t 

■* 00 by aft, i. e. at the part which lies to 
the aft. Cf. M. £. dia/ten, Gen. and Exod. 
d377; A.S. beaften. See A- (a), By, and 

Abandon; see A- (5) and Bon. 


Abase ; see A- (5) and Base. % Some- 
times confused with abash in M. E. 

Abash. (F.) M. E. abaschen, abaischen, 
abasen.^O. F. esbahiss-, stem of pres. part, 
of esbahir (F. ibahir\ to astonish. — O.F. 
es' ( — L. ex, out, very much); and bahir, 
to express astonishment, a word of imita- 
tive origin from the intcrj. bah I of astonish- 
ment. % Sometimes confused with abase 
inM.E. See Bashful. 

Abate ; see Batter (i). Doublet, hate. 

Abbot. (L.— Syriac.) Vi.'E. abbot, abbod, 
A. S. abbod. — TL abbat- (nom. abbas), an 
abbot, lit. a father. - Syriac abba, a father; 
see Rom. viii. 15. 

abbess. (F. — L. — Syriac.) M. E. cUt- 
besse. — O. F. abesse, abaesse. — L. abbat-issa. 

— L. abbat' (as above), and -issa = Gk. -:aao, 
fem. suffix. 

abbey. (F. — L. — Syriac.) lA.F..abbeye. 

— O. F. abeie. — Low L. abbat-ia. 
Abbreviate ; see Brief. 
Abdicate ; see Diction. 
Abdomen. (L.) L. abdomen (stem db- 

domin-), lower part of the belly. 

Abduce, Abduction ; see Duke. 

Abed. (£.) For on bed; see A- (a) and Bed. 

Aberration ; see Brr. 

Abet, to incite ; see Bite. Der. bet, short 
for abet, sb. 

Abeyance, expectation, suspension. (F. 

— L.) F. ab^tance, suspension, waiting 
(Roq.) — F. a ; and Mint, pres. pt. of O. ¥. 
bJer (F. bayer), to gape, expect anxiously, 
•i L. ad, at ; and badare, to gape. 

Abhor ; see Horrid. 

Abide (i), to wait for. (E.) ; see Bide. 

Abide (2), to suffer for, pay for. (E.) In 
Sh. ; corrupted from M. E. abyen, to pay for, 
lit. to buy up, redeem. — A. S. dbycgan, dbic- 
gan, to pay for. See A- (4) and Buy. 

Abject, mean ; see Jet (i). 

Abjure ; see Jury. 

Ablative. (L«) L. ablatiuus, lit. taking 



away. — L. ab, from ; and latum (^ /latum), 
to bear, take, allied to iollere, to take. See 

Ablaze. (E.) For on blaze ; see ▲- (a) 
and Blaze. 

Able ; see Habit. Der. ability^ L. ace. 

Ablution; see Lave. 

Abnegate ; see Negation. 

Aboard. (£.) For on board; see A- (3) 
and Board. 

Abode, sb. ; see Bide. 

Abolish. (F.-L.) F. aboh'ss-, stem of 
pres. pt. of a^^/ir.-»L. abolere, to abolish. 

Abominate ; see Omen. 

Abortion ; see Orient. 

Abound ; see Undulate. 

About. (E.) M. E. abutm, abouten ; 
A.S. dbdtan, onbdtan ; short for on-be-tltan, 
lit. on-by-outward ; where iitan^ outward, is 
from lit, out. See A- (2), By, and Out. 

Above. (E.) lll,'E„aboven,abufen\ K.S, 
dbilfan, short for an^fc-ufan^ lit. on-by- 
npward ; where ufan^ upward, is extended 
from Goth, uf, up. See A- (2), By, Up. 
(A. S. ufan « G. oben, A. S. be-ufan — Du. 

Abrade, to scrape off; see Base. Ber. 

Abreast. (E.) Put for on breast; see 
A- (2), and Breast. 

Abridge ; see Brief. 

Abroach, to set. (E. and F.) Put for 
to set on broach ; see A- (2) and Broach. 

Abroad. (E.) M. £. abrood\ put for on 
brood', lit. on broad ; see A- (2) and Broad. 

Abrogate ; see Bogation. 

Abrupt ; see Bupture. 

Abscess ; see Cede. 

Abscind. Abscissa ; see Bescind. 

Abscond, to go into hiding. (L.) L. 
abscondere, to hide. ^ L. abs, away ; condere, 
to hide. Condere is from con- (cum), to- 
gether, and 'dere, to put, allied to L. dare, 
to give ; ^e Date, 
sconce (i), a small fort, bulwark. (Du. 

"iF.«iL.) Also applied to a helmet, and 
even to the head. -• O. Du. schantse (Du. 
schans), a fortress, sconce. -• O. F. esconser, 
to hide, cover ; pp. escons, -• L. absconsus, 
used (as well as abscondttus) as pp. of abs- 
condere, to hide (above). 

sconce (2), a candle-stick. (F. » L.) 
M. E. sconce, scons, a covered light, lantern. 
— O. F. esconse, a dark lantern (Roquefort). 
. L. absconsa, a dark lantern (in late L.) ; 
Irom Lf absconsus, hidden. 

Absent. (L.) XIV cent. — L. absent; 
stem of ab'Sens, being away. ^ L. o^, away; 
-sens, being, occurring also in pra-sem. 
Here -sens is an older form of ens, beings 
from V AS, to be. See Present, Sooth. 
Der. absence, F. absence, L. absentia^ 

Absolute, Absolve ; see Solve. 

Absorb. (L.) L. absorbere,. to suck up. 
-• L. ab, away ; sorbere, to sup up. 4- GL. 
fio<l>4€iv, to sup up. Der. absorpt-ion, froia 
pp. absorptus. 

Abstain ; see Tenable. 

Abstemious. (L.) L.a^j/^xntW, refrain- 
ing from strong drink, -i L. cU}s, from ; iSr> 
mum, strong drink, whence temu-lentm^ 
drunken. (^TAM.) 

Abstract; see Trace (i). 

Abstruse ; see Intrude. 

Absurd ; see Surd. 

Abundance. (F.-L.) Y.abondanci,m 
L. abundantia. See Undulate. 

Abuse ; see Use. 

Abut, to project towards. (F. — L. and 
G.) O. F. abouter, to thrust towards.— I* 
cui, to ; O. F. boter, to thrust. See A- (5) 
and butt (i), s.v. Beat. 

Abyss, a bottomless gulf. (L. — Gk.) 
Milton. L. dbyssus. — Gk. dfivaffos, bottonh 
less. — Gk. d-, short for dy-, neg. prefix ; and 
fivacbs, depth, akin to Bathos. See A- 
(9), Un- (1). 

Acacia, a tree. (L. — Gk.) L. acacia,^ 
Gk. dKcuela, the thorny Egyptian acada.** 
Gk. dxU, a point, thorn. (^ AK.) 

Academy. (F. - L. - Gk. ) F. acadhnie, 
» L. academia. -• Gk. diKahiniua, a grove 
where Plato taught, named from the hero 

Accede; see Cede. Der. access, at* 

Accelerate; see Celerity. 

Accent; see Cant (i). 

Accept ; see Capacious. 

Access ; see Cede. 

Accident; see Cadence. 

Acclaim ; see Claim. 

AccUvity. (L.) XVII cent. As if from 
F. cuclivit^*. — L. accliuitatem, ace of ao» 
cliuitas.^h. ac; for ad; and cliu-us, slop* 
ing, a slope; see Iiean (i). (^KLI.) 

decUvity. (F.-L.) Y . dkliviti,^l^ 
decliuitatem, ace. of de-cliuitas, a down* 
ward slope. 

proclivity. (L.) From L. procliuitat, 
a downward slope, tendency.— L./ro-r/if#iM-9 
sloping forward. 

Accommodate; see Mode. 



ipany; see Company. 

iplice; see Fly* 

apliBh ; see Plenary. 

d ; see Cordial. 

t ; see Coast. 

JLt ; see Putative. 

Ltre. (F. - L. ?) F. accoutrer, 

also accoustrer, to dress, array, 
[uite uncertain; perhaps (i) con- 
.'ith F. couture, a sewing, coudre, 
and L. consuere, to sew together 

or (i) with L. cuiiura, tillage, 
Scheler) ; or (3) with O. F. coustre, 
sacristan who had charge of sacred 
:s, from Low L. custor*'=^h, custos, 
ian, keeper. 

tion ; see Crescent. , 

B ; see Crescent, 
aulate ; see Camnlate. 
'ate ; see Core. 

"sed, cursed. (£.) M. £. acorsien, 
prefix ; and cursian, to corse ; see 
and Curse. 
le ; see Cause, 
(torn ; see Custom, 
he 'one* on dice. (F.-»L. — G3c.) 
.•iO.F. Ar.-»L. ar.-»Gk. ^r; said 
le Tarentine pronunciation of flf. 

Not cognate with One. 
Uiloufl, headless. (Gk.) Gk. <i/r/^ 
adless. » Gk. d-, un- ; and kc^oA^, 
gnate with £. Head, 
ity ; see Acid. 

a pain. (£.) M. £. ake, a better 
A. S. acCf ece, A. S. Leechdoms, 
Iso M. £. aken, vb. pt. t. 00k ; A. S. 
^AG, to drive, agitate; as in L. 
eel. aka (pt t. 6k, pp. ekit\ to 
>ee Agent. % Spelt ache by con- 
ith Gk. &x^t which is cognate with 

ve; see Capital (i). 
»matiCy colourless. (Gk.) See 
nd Chromatic. 

sour, sharp. (F.—L. ; ^rL.) F. 
li. ac-idus, lit. piercing. (^ AK, to 

Der. cLcid-i'ty ; acid-ul-ai-ed (L. 
ts, dimin. oiacid-us), 
>ity. (F.-L.) XVI cent. F. acer- 

ace. acerbitatem (nom. acerbitas), 
s. — L. acer-b-us, bitter. — L. ctc-er, 
t. piercing. 
f top. (Gk.) Gk. &ic-fi^, top, sharp 

ite, monkshood. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
t.^L,. aconitum. ^Gk, dx6viroy, a 
3 called frcm growing kv dic6p<utf 

on steep sharp rocks.— Gk. d«-or)}, a whet- 
stone, sharp stone. 

aorid, tart. (L.) Coined by adding -id 
to L. acr-, stem of acer, O. L. ac-rus^ sharp. 

aciimony. (F.-L.) ¥.acrimoine,^t», 
acri'tnon-ia.'^'L. acri-, for acer (above). 

aorobat, a tumbler. (Gk.; or F. — 
Gk.) F. acrobate. — Gk. dxpopArrp, lit. 
one who walks on tiptoe. — Gk. SMpo-v, a 
point, neut. of Sjc-pos, pointed ; and ffaros^ 
verbal adj. of /ScuVciv, to walk ; see Come. 

acropolis, a dtadel. (Gk.) Lit ' upper 
city;* Gk. ixpos, pointed, upper; and 
v6Ku, a city ; see Police. 

acrostic, a short poem in which the 
initial letters spell a word. (Gk.) Gk. 
djcpoarixiov, » Gk. dxpO'S, pointed, also first ; 
and (rrlx^oy, dimin. of arlxos, a row, order, 
line, from ^STIGH; see Stirrup. 

acumen. (L.) L. ac-u-mcn, sharpness, 

acute. (L.) L. acutus, sharp; pp. of 
ac-u-ere, to sharpen. 

aglety a tag of a lace. (F.-L.) Also 
aygulet, Spenser, F. Q. ii. 3. 26. — F. aiguil- 
Utte, dimin. of aiguilie, a needle.— Low L. 
acucula, dimin. of ac-us, a needle, pointed 

ague, a fever-fit. <F. — L.) Lit. ' acute ' 
attack.— O. F. ague, fem. of agu (F. aigu), 
acute. — L. €icuta {febris), acute (fever); 
fem. of acutus ; see acute (above). 

eager. (F. - L.) M. E. egre. - O. F. 
egre (F. aigrey^'L, acrem, ace. of ac-er, 
sharp. Der. vin-egar, 

exacerbate, to embitter. (L.) From pp. 
of exeuerbare, to irritate. — L. ex, very ; 
acerbus, bitter; see acerbity, above. See 
also Awn, Edjg^e, Egg (2), Eglantine. 
Acknowledge. (£. ; with Scand. suffix,) 
XVI cent. M. £. knowlechen ; the prefix is 
due to M. £. aknowen ( « A. S. oncndwan), 
with the same sense; hence the prefix is 
A- (2). The verb ktunvlechen is from the sb. 
knowleche^ mod. £. kncwledge ; see Know- 
Acme ; see Acid. 

Acolyte, a servitor. (F. — Low L. — Gk.) 
F. acolyte, Cot. — Low L. acolythus. — Gk. 
dKiSXov^or, a follower. — Gk. d-, with (akin 
to Skt. sa-, with) ; /f^Xcv^o;, a path ; so 
that 6jc6Kov9o% = a travelling companion. 
Aconite ; see Acid. 
Acorn. (£.) M. £. acorn, A. S. cecem, 
fruit; properly * fruit of the field,' from 
A. S. acer, a field ; see Acre.+ Icel. akam, 
Dan. agem, Goth, akrcuta-, firuit ; from IceL 



akr, Dan. ager, Goth, akrs, a field. % Not 
from oak. 

AoouBtio. (Gk.) Gk. iiicovariicu; relat- 
ing to hearing (or sound). -• Gk. dirovccF, 
to hear. 

Acquaint. (F.-L.) M.E. acqueynten, 
earlier acointen, — O. F. acoinier, acaintiery 
to acquaint with, •i Low L. ndcognitartt to 
make known (Brachet). -i L. ad^ to ; and 
cognitare*^ formed from cognitus, pp. of 
cognosccre^ to know. See oognisaiioe, 
quaint, s.v. Noble. 

Aoqiiiesce ; see Quiet. 

Acquire ; see Query. 

Acquit ; see Quiet. 

Acre. (E.) M.E. aker. A.S. acer,^ 
Du. akker^ Iccl. akr^ Swed. &ker, Dan. ager^ 
Goth. akrSf G. tuker^ L. ager^ Gk. <l7por, 
Skt. ajra. The orig. sense was either ' pas- 
ture/ or * himting-ground.' (^AG.) Der. 
acor-n, q.v. 

Acrid, Acrimony ; see Acid. 

Acrobat, Acropolis ; see Acid. 

Across. (E. ami Scand.) For dn cross \ 
see A- (2) and Cross. 

Acrostic ; see Aoid. 

Act; seeAffent. 

Acumen, Acute ; see Acid. 

Ad-, prefix. (L.) L. ad^ to, cognate with 
E. At. ^ becomes ac- before c ; of- 
bef. /\ ag- bef. g\ al- bef. / ; an- bef. 
n ; ap- bef. /; ar- bef. r\ as- bef. s; at- 

Adage, a saying. (F.»L.) F. adage. 
•iL. adagium.^h. ad; and agiumyZ. say- 
ing; cf. aio, I say. (^ AGH.) 

Adamant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
adamauntf a diamond, a magnet. — O. F. 
adamant. ^ L. adanianta, ace. of adamas. — 
Gk. aJUk^'Sy a very hard metal or stone ; lit. 
' unconquerable.* -i Gk. d- ( ^r £. un-) \ and 
^fidiiv, to conquer, tame ; see Tame. 

diamond. (F. — L. — G k.) M.E. dia- 
mant. — O. F. diamante corruption of ada- 
mant \ so also Ital. Span, diamante^ G. 

Adapt ; see Apt. 

Add. (,L.) M. E. adden.^'L. addere, lit. 
to put to. — L. ad\ and -dere, to put«=^ar(f, 
to give. (VDA.) See Date (i). 

Adder, a viper. (E.) M.E. addere; 
also naddere, neddtre, [An adder resulted 
from a nadder, by mistake.] A. S. nadre, 
a snake. 4- Icel* n^^^r, Goth, nadrs, G. 
natter, a snake. 

Addict ; see Diction. 

Addled, corrupt, unproductive. (E.) 

M. E. adely foul, applied to an e^ (Stiat- 
mann). Orig. * muddy,* from ATS. eidilt^ 
mud (Grein). Cf. Low G. adele, mud. 

Address; see Begent. 

Adduce ; see Duke. 

Adept ; see Apt. 

Adequate; see Equal. 

Adhere ; see Hesitate. 

Adieu, farewell. (F.) M.E. a di€u.^ 
F. ^ dieUf (1 commit you) to 
Deum, to God. See Deity. 

Adjacent ; see Jet (i). 

Adjoin, Adjunct ; see Join. 

Adjourn ; see Diary. 

Adjudge, Adjudicate ; see Judge. 

Aidjure ; see Jury. 

Adjust; see Just. % Not from O. F. 
ajoster^ mod. F. ajouter. 

Adjutant; seeAJd. 

AdGininister ; see Minor. 

AdmiraL (F.-Arab.) U.E.adminU, 
more oftea amiral.^0, F. amiral, amirait, 
also amire; cf. Low L. admiraldus, a 
prince, chief. -•Arab, amtr, a prince; Me 
Emir. ^ The endings -a/, -ait, -aldus are 
mere suffixes. 

Admire ; see Miracle. 

Admit ; see Missile. 

Admomsh. ; see Monition. 

A-do, to-do, trouble. (E.) M. E. at ds, 
to do ; a Northern idiom, whereby at was 
used as the sign of the infin. mood, as Ui 
Icel., Swedish, &c. See Do (i). 

Adolescent ; see Aliment. 

Adopt; see Optative. 

Adore ; see Oral. 

Adorn ; see Ornament. 

Adown, downwards. (E.) M. E. eidtmi, 
A. S. of-dilnCt lit. off a down or hill.— A. S. 
of, off; sLaddtSn; seeA- (i) and Down (a). 

Adrift. (E.) For on drift ; see A- (a) 
and Drive. 

Adroit ; see Begent. 

Adulation, flattery. (F.-L.) F. adukr 
tion.^L,. SLQC. aduiationem, from adulatio, 
flattery. — L. aduiatus, pp. of adulari^ to 

Adult ; see Aliment. 

Adulterate, to corrupt. (L.) XVI cent i 
— L. adulteraius, pp. of aduiieraret to c(^f- 
rupt.— L. adulter f an adulterer, a de baser 
of money. 

Adumbrate ; see Umbrage. 

Advance, to go forward. (F. — L.) A 
mistaken form, in the XVI cent., for M. £. 
auancen^ avancen. — F. avancer^ to go for- 
ward or before. — F. avant, before. — L. o^, 



ante, before. See Ante-, Van, 

intage. profit. (F. - L.) A mis- 
3rm for M. £. avantage. -• F. avan/- 
»rmed by suffix -a^ from avant, 
see above. 

(nt» Adventure ; see Venture. 
irb ; see Verb, 
irse. Advert, Advertise; see 

oe. Advise ; see Visfon. 
K»ite, AdvowBon ; see Vocal. 
. a cooper*s axe. (E.) M.E. cuise^ 
v. S. adtsa, adese^ an adze. 
ll; see Air. 

, an eagle's nest, brood of eagles or 
(F. -• Low L.) — F. aire, * an airie or 
hawkes;' Cot -i Low L. ar^a, a nest 
ird of prey; of uncertain origin, 
etimes misspelt eyry, by confusion 
.E.<y, anegg. 

letio, tasteful. (Gk.) Gk. al(r$TfTi- 
xreptive. — Gk. aiaOofuu, I perceive. 


Bthetic, relieving pain, dulling 

iin.-»Gk. dp-, not ; and al(T$ijTnc6s, 

(E.) For cn/ar. 
>le ; see Fate. 
r. Affect ; see Fact. 
ar, to confirm. (F. — L.) O. F. 
, to fix the price of a thing (offici- 
Low L. afforare, to fix a price.* 
for a/); andy^rvxv, a market. 
noe, Aiffidavit ; see Faith* 
Ation ; see FiliaL 
ity; see Final. 
DDL; see Firm. 
; see Fix. 

it, to harass. (L.) XVI cent — L. 
r, pp. of affligere^ to strike to the 
,^lL of- (cut) ; ^Xi^fligerCy to dash. 
UGH,BHLAGH.) So also <r^/jV/. 
>. con-flictus ; in-flict ; pro-fiig-ate. 
ence ; see Fluent. 
•d. (E.) Corrupted fi-om afortk, 
xforthen^ to provide, P. PI. fi. vi. 
V. S. geforSian, fopfSian, to further, 
e, provide.— A. S. ge-, prefix; and 
»ith, forward ; see Forth, 
ly, to frighten. (F.—L. and Tent) 
nt, M. E. affrayen, — O. F. effraUr, 
to frighten. — Low L. exfrtatart^ to 
he king's peace, cause an affray or 
lence, to disturb, frighten. — L. ex\ 
Ii,G, /ndu {G./n'ede), peace. (See 
ia, I S 7 8, vii. 121.) Der. affray, sb. 
id, frightened ; pp. of afflray. 

AfiHght; see Fright. 

Afflront ; see Front. 

Afloat. (E.) Yox on float. 

Afoot (E) YoTonfooL 

Afore. (E.) Y on on fort ; A. S. onforan, 

Afraid. (F. ^^U and Teut.) Pp. of 
AfBray, q. v. 

Afresh. (E.) For on fresh or of fresh ; 
see Anew. 

Aft, After. (E.) A. S. aft, eft. again, 
behind ; after, after, both prep, and adv.4- 
Icel. aptan, behind, aptr, aftr, backwards ; 
Dan. and Swed. efter, Du. achter, O. H. G. 
aftar, prep, and adv., behind. ^. Aft is 
an extension from Goth, af, ou; see OIL 
After is a comp. form, like Gk. dvoNr/p-ar, 
further off; it means more off, further of!^ 
hence behind. Der. ab-aft, q. v. ; after' 
ward (see Toward). 

aftermost, hindmost; a corrupt form, 
ioiaftemost. (£.) A.S,aftem€st,Goth.affU' 
mists. The Goth, aft-um-ists is a double 
superl. form. 

Again. (E.) M. E. ayein, A.S. ongegn, 
ongedn,^\,S, on; and gedn, again, in 
return, perhaps connected with gdn, to go. 
^Dan. igient Swed, igen, again. 

against. (E.) Formed with added / 
from M. E ayeines^ against ; extended from 
M.E. ayein, against, with adv. suffix -es. 

— A. S. ongedn, against ; the same as A S. 
ongedn, again ; see above. 4- icel. / g^g»t 
G. entgegen, against 

Agate. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. agate, 
agathe.^L,. achatem, ace of achates. — Gk. 
dxorrjs, an agate; so named from being 
found near the river Achates (Sicily). 

Age. (F. — L.) O. F. aage, edage, — Low 
"L. ataticum.'^h. atati-, crude form of atas 
(short for aui-tas), age. — L. auum, life, 
period. ^ Gk. alitv ; Goth, aiws ; Skt. eva, 
course. (V^.) 

Agent. (L.) XVI cent L. agent-, 
stem of pres. pt of agere (pp. actus\ to do, 
drive, conduct •4'Gk.d7€(v; Icel. o^i; Skt. 
aj, to drive. (^ AG ) See Ache. 

act. (L.) M.E act.'^h. actum, neut 
of pp. actus, done. Der. act-ion, act-ive, 
act-or; act-u-al (L, actua/is); act-u-ar-y 
(L. actuarims) ; act-u-ate (Low L. actuare, 
to perform, put in action). 

agile. (F.-L.) XVI cent T. agile. ^ 
L. agilis, nimble, lit easily driven about. 

— L. agere, to drive. 

agitate. (L.) L. agitatus, pp. oiagitare, 
to keep driving about, frequent of agere* 


ambiguous, donbtful. (L.) L. amb- 
iguus^ doubtful, lit. driving about. ■- L. 
amlht about ; and agere^ to drive. 

oo-agulate. to curdle. (L.) L. coa^i- 
latus, pp. of coagulare, to curdle. — L. 
caagulum, rennet, which causes milk to run 
together. —L. co- {cum)^ together; ag-€re, 
to drive. 

cogent. (L.) L. cogent'^ stemofpres. 
part, of cogere^ to compel ; put for cO'igere 
{'=^con^g€re*)t lit. to drive together. 

cogitate. (L.) L. cogitatus, pp. of 
cogitare, to think; put for c<hagitare *, 

ootmteraot. (Hybrid ; F. and L.) See 
Oounter, and act above. 

enact. (F.-L.) Sh.-F. m, in-L. 
in ; and act. Lit. ' to put in act.* 

exact (I ), precise. (L.) Sh. h, exodus, 
pp. of exigere, to drive out, weigh out — 
L. ex ; and agere, 

exact (a), to demand. (F.— L.) Sh. 
O. F. exacter.^ljyvr L. exaciare,^L, ex, 
out ; and actum, supine of agere, 

examine, to test (F. — L.) ' F. ex- 
aminer. » L. examinare, to weigh carefully. 

— L. examin-, stem of examen, the tongue 
of a balance, put for exagmen * ; cf. exigere^ 
to weigh out.—L. ex, out; <igere, to drive. 

exigent, exacting. (L.) Stem of pres. 
pt of exigere. ^h. ex; and agere, 

prodigal. (F.-L.) O.F.prvdigal.^ 
Low Lat. prodigalis ; due to L. pradigus, 
lavish ; put for prod-agus ♦. — L. prod; 
forth; anda^^r^. 

transact, to perform. (L.) L. trans- 
actus, pp. of transigere, -• L. trans, beyond ; 
and agere. 

Agglomerate, tp mass together. (L.) 
Pp. of L. agglomerare, to form into a mass. 

— L. ag^^ad; and glomer^, stem oiglomtis, 
a mass, ball, clue of thread, allied to 
globus, a globe ; see Globe. 

Agglutinate ; see Glue. 

Aggrandise ; see Grand. 

Aggpravate ; see Grave (a). 

Aggpregate ; see Gregarioui. 

Aggpress ; see Grade. 

Aggprieve ; see Grave (a). 

Aghast, horror-struck. (E.) Misspelt for 
agast, which is short for agasted, pp. of 
M. E. agastcn, to terrify; Ch. C. T. 3343 ; 
Leg. of Good Women, Dido, 345.— A. S. 
A-, prefix ; and g^tan, to terrify, torment. 
p. A. S. gisten, is from the base^«j- « Goth. 
gais- in us-gais-jan, to terrify. (^Gl^IAIS.) 

Agile, Agitate ; see Agent. 

Aglet. (F.-L.) SeeAoid. 


Agpiail, (i) a sore beside the nail, (s) a 
corn on the foot. (E. orY, ^l^ Two 
words appear to be confused here; (i) 
A. S. angnagl, a sorp by the nail (Lye ; as 
unauthorised word), with which cf. O. 
Friesic ogneil, ongneil, apparently used in 
a similar sense : this is from a prefix ofl^, 
signifying afflicting, paining, and na^l\ tee 
Anger and NaU. (a) O. F. angonatlU, a 
botch, sore (Cotgrave) ; allied to Low I4 
anguen, anguincUia, a carbuncle, allied to 
L. angina, quinsy, and angere, to choke. 

Ago, Ag^ne, gone away, past (K) 
M. E. agOt agon, agoon, pp. of the vcfb 
agon, to pass by, pass away. A. S. dgin, ppi. 
of dgdn, to pass away. See A- (4) and Qe. 

Agog, in eagerness. (C.) Put for m 
gog, in activity, in eagerness. * W. gpg^ 
activity; gogi, to agitate. See A- (a). 

Agony. (F. - L. - Gk.) M.E. agonUi 

— F. agonie, — L. agonia. — Gk. dTwiw, 
orig. a contest, -i Gk. dTdiir, contot •• 
Gk. tt7€iy, to drive. (^ AG.) 

antagonist, an opponent. (Gk.) GL 
iyrayowiorifi, an opponent — Gk. ivr-, for 
hni, against; and ir^wvi^oyai, I strugg^ 
from dTcvv, a contest. 

Agp^ee ; see Grace. 

Agriculture. (L.) L. agricultura, cd- 
ture of a field.— L. ag9i, gen. of ager, a 
field; nndcuitura. See Aore and Colony, 
peregprination. (F.-L.) F.peregrimh 
tion.^1^. peregrinationem, ace. oi pertgri' 
natio, a wandering.— L. peregrinatus, pp. 
oi peregrinari, to XiaytX.'^'L. peregrinus, 
foreign, adj. from pereger, a traveller, one 
who passes through a land. — L. ptr^ 
through ; ager, landC field. 

pilgrim. (F.-L.) 0,¥,pelegrin*, cmhr 
found as pelerin, a pilgrim ; but cf. ItaL 
pellegrino,peregrino, a pilgrim. — l^^peregii' 
nus, a foreigner, stranger ; as adj. foreigii; 
see above. 

Agrrimony, a plant. (F. — L. — GIl) 
M.E. agrcmoine, egremoine,^0,Y, f*gp^ 
moine, — L. argemonia, argemone. — Gk» 
dpy€fxdfinj, (Wbate, L. Diet.) — Gk. Apiy6^ 

Agp^ound. (E.) For on ground. 

Ague. (F. - L.) See Aoid. 


Ahead. (E.) For on Aead=in kead,\k 
a forward direction. See A- (a). 

Aid. (F. - L.) M. E. aiden, - O. F. aidiK 

— Low L. aitare, aiutare, shortened form 
of L. adiutare^ frequent, of adiuuare, to 



assist. --L. ad; and iuuare, to help, pp. 
tu/tu. ^(VYU.) 

a4jutant, Ut. assistant.— L. adiu/ant", 
stem of pres. pt« oi adiutartt to assist. 

ooacUutor. (L.) XVI cent.— L. €o-^ for 
con » eum, together; and adiutor^ an 
assistant, from yb. adiutare% 

Ail. (£.) See Awe. 

Aim ; see Bstoem. 

Alp. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. air, eir,^T. 

air. - L. o/r. - Gk. dij/j^ air. (-/AW, WA). 

aeriaL (L.-Gk.) Formed with suffix 

-^ from L. airi'US^ dwelling in the air. — L. 

air, air.— Gk. di^p (above). 

Aisle, the wing of a chnrch. (F. — L.) 
Better spelt aile^^Y. aiU.^\^ ala, a wing. 
Prob. forajr/ez*, dimin. of Axis. 

Ait.(£.) SeelByot. 

Ajar. (£.) Pat for a char, on char, on 
the torn (G. Donglas, tr. of Virgil, b. vii, 
prol.)— A. S. on cerre^ on the turn.— A. S. 
cyrran^ ccrroft, to turn. See Ohar (a). 

Akimbo, in a bent position. (Scand.) 
M. £. tf», see A- (a) ; and Icel. kengboginn, 
bent into a crook, from kengr, a crook, 
twist, kmk, and boginn, bowed, pp. of 
lost verb bjdga^ to bow. See Kink and 

Alrin, of kin. (E.) For of kin. 

Alabaster. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. ala- 
bastre. - O. F. alabastre (F. aibdtre), - L. 
alabaster^ aiabas/rum. — Gk. dxAfictorpov, 
^X&fiaoTos. Said to be derived from Ala- 
basfron, a town in Egypt. (Pliny.) 

Alack. (E. ?) Prob. a corruption of ah ! 
Lordf OT ah/ Lord Christ. (It cannot be 
the same as alas^ 

Alacrity. (L.) Formed, on a supposed 
F. model* from ace. of L. tdacritas, brisk- 
ness. *L. aiacer, brisk. (^AL>. 

allegro, lively. (Ital.-L.) Ital. allegro, 
— L. alacrem, ace oialacer. 

Alarm, Alarum ; see Arms. 

Alas! (F.-L.) M.E. alas,^0,T. alas 
(cL F. kJlas). - O. F. a, ah 1 and las, 
wretched that I ami— L. ah\ and lassus, 
tired, wretched. (Allied to Iiate.) 

Alb. a white vestment. (F. - L.) M. E. 
«i&r.— O.F. o/jtf.— Low L. alba\ fern, of 
L. albus, white. 

album, lit. that which is white. (L.) 
L, album, a tablet, neut. oialbus, 

slbiunen, white of egg. (L.) L. albumen 
mi, also album oui, vrhite of egg. — L. 

aabom. (F. — Ital. — L.) M.E. aubume, 
aakuiUt ong* dtroii-coloiiied or light yel- 

low.— O.F. auburn*, not found, but regn^ 
larly formed from Ital. albumo, or from 
Low L. albumus, whitish, light-coloured. 
Florio explains Ital. albumo by *that 
whitish colour of women's hair called an 
album or abum colour.' Cf. L. alburnum, 
the sap-wood or inner bark of trees (Pliny). 

— L. albuSt white. 

Albatross, a lam sea-bird. (F.-Port. 

— Span. — Arab. — Gk.) F. albatros, formerly 
algatros, — Port, alcatraz, a cormorant, alba- 
tross; Span, alcatraz, a pelican. — Port. 
alcatrus, a bucket, Span, arcaduz, O. Span. 
alcaduz (Minsheu), a bucket on a water- 
wheel.- Arab. al-qSdus, the same (Dozy). 
—Arab, al, the; and Gk. /rdSot, a water- 
vessel ; see Oade. Similarly Arab, saqqa, 
a water-carrier, a pelican, because it carries 
water in its pouch. (Devic ; supp. to Littre.) 

Alchemy. (F.-Arab.- Gk.) O.F. al- 
ehemie, arquemie, — Arab, al, the ; and 
klmyd, alchemy. — Late Gk. x^fitla, chemis- 
try; for xyfifla, a mingling. — Gk. x^*^^f to 
pour out, mix. (^GHU.) 

cheixiist, chymist. (Gk.) Shortened 
forms of alchemist, alchymist, formed by 
dropping the Arab, article al. 

Alcohol. (F.-Arab.) F, aUool, formerly 
also alcohol, applied to pure spirit, though 
the orig. sense was a fine impalpable pow- 
der.— Arab, al, the; and kahdl, kohl, or 
kuhl, a collyrium, very fine powder of anti- 
mony, used to paint the eyebrows with. 

Alcoran ; see Koran. 

Alcove, a recess. (F.- Ital. -Arab.) F. 
alcove. ^IXzX, alcovo, the same as Span. 
alcoba, a recess in a room.— Arab, a/, the; 
and qubbah, qobbah, a vault, arch, dome, 
cupola ; hence a vaulted space. 

Alder, a tree. (E.) M. £. alder, alter 
(d being excrescent). — A. S. air, -f- Du. els ; 
Icel. olr; Swed. al; Dan. elle, el; G. erle ; 
O. H. G. elira ; L. alnus ; Russ. olekha, 
W AL.) 

Alderman. (E.) See Old. 

Ale. (E.) M. E. aU, - A. S. ealu. + 
Icel., Swed., and Dan. ^/; Lithuan. a/»j; 
Russ. oP, olovina. 

Alembic, a vessel for distilling. (F.— 
Span. — Arab. — Gk.) M. E. alembyk. — F. 
alambique (Cot.) — Span, alambique. — 
Arab, al, the ; and anbik (pronounced am- 
bik), a still. — Gk. AfJifit^, a cup, goblet; 
cap of a still. — Gk. d/ifirj, afi0ow, foot of a 
goblet ; allied to L. umbo, a boss. 

Alert. (F.- Ital.-L.) SeeHegent. 

Algebra. (Low L. - Arab.) Low L. 



algebra^ computation.— Arab, a/, the; and 
Jaor, setting, repairing ; also, the reduction 
of fractions to integers in arithmetic ; hence, 
algebra.— Arab, xooi jabara, to set, con- 

Alguazil, a police-officer ; see Vizier. 

Algmn, sandal -wood. (Heb. — Skt.) 
In a Chron. ii. 8, ix. lo; spelt almug, 
I Kings, X. 1 1. ■- Heb. algdmmim, or (trans- 
posed) almuglm ; a borrowed word.— Skt. 
valgU'ka^ sandal-wood; where -ka is a 

Alien. (F.-L.) M. E. a/iVw.-O. F. 
alien, — L. alienus, strange ; a stranger. — L. 
alius, another. -f-Gk. dAAo;, another ; Goth. 
alis, other ; see Else, Allegory. 

alias. (L.) Low L. alias, otherwise.— 
L. alius, 

alibi. (L.) Low L. alibi, in another 
place. — L. o/t-, itoia alius \ and suffix 'bi 
as in i-bi, there, u-bi, where. 

aliquot. (I«.) L. aliquot^ several 
(hence, proportionate). — L. ali-us, other; 
and quol, how many. 

alter. (L.) Low L. alterare, to alter. 

— L. aller, other. — L. «/• (as in al-ius) ; with 
compar. suffix -ter (Aryan -tara), 

altercation, a dispute. (F.-L.) M.E. 
altercalion.'^O. F. <iltercation,^\.. alterca- 
tionem, ace. of altercatio. — L. altercatus, 
pp. oialtercari^ to dispute, speak in turns. 

— L. alter, other, another, 
alternate. (L.) L. altematusy pp. of 

allemare, to do by turns. — L. alter-nus, 
reciprocal. — L. alter (with suffix -na). 

subaltern, inferior to another. (F.— 
L.) F. subalteme. Cot. — L. subaltemus, 
subordinate. — L. sub, under ; alter, another. 

Alight. (£.) See Light (a). 

Alike. (£.) See Like (i). 

Aliment, food. (F. - L.) F. aliment, 

— L. alimentum, food ; formed with 
suffix -mentum from .alere, to nourish. 
W AL.) 

adolescent, growing up. (L.) L. adO' 
Uscent'y stem of pres. pt. of adolescert, to 
grow up. — L. ad, to ; olescere, inceptive 
form of olere, to grow, from atere^ to 

adult, one grown up. (L.) L. adultus, 
pp. of adolescert, to grow up (above). 

coalesce, to grow together. (L.) L. 
coalescere, — L. co-, for con = cum, together ; 
and alescere, to grow, frequent of alere, to 

Alive, in life. (£.) For on live «> in life ; 
see Life. 


Alkali, a salt. (Arab.) Arab, td, the; 
and qcUi, ashes of glass-wort, which aboonds. 
in soda. 

All. (E.) M. E. al, sing.; aUe, pl.- 
A. S. ecil, pi. ealle, -f- Icel. allr\ Swed. oi/; 
Dan. a/ ; Du. a/; O. H. G. al\ Goth, aih, 
pi. allai', Irish uile \ W. oil, 

all, adv., utterly. In the phr. ail-U 
brake (correciiy all to-broke). Judges, ix. 5^ 
Here the incorrect all-to, for 'utterly,* came 
up about A.D. 1500, in place of the old 
iaiom which linked to to the verb ; cf.'Al 
is tobroken thilke regioun/ Chancer, C. T.. 
2750. See To-, prefix, 

alder-, prefix, of all. In alder-liefest 
(Sh.) ; here alder is for alter, A. S. ealra^ 
gen. pi. of eal, all. 

almighty. (E.) A,S. eal-miktig, 

almost. (E.) A. S. eal-m<kst, i.e. quite 
the greatest part, nearly all. 

alone. (£.) M.E. a/ one-vXL one, i.e. 
by oneself; see One. 

already. (£.) M. E. al r^^i « all ready. 

also. (E.) M. £. al so, i.e. quite so. 

although. (E.) M. E. a/, in the sense 
of ' even ; * and though ; see Thoagh. 

altogether. (£.) M. £. al together, 

alway, always. (E.) (i) A.S. ealne 
weg^ tstiy way, an accns. case, (a) M.E. 
alles wcis, in every way, a gen. case. 

as. (E.) Short for also; M. £. also, 
alse, als, as ; see 80. 
Allay. (E.) See Lie (i). 
Allege ; see Legal. 
Allegiance: see Liege. 
Allegory. (F.-Gk.) XVI cent. F.alle^ 
gorie.'^'L.allegoria.^GV., dXkrjyopla, tL de- 
scription of one thing under the image of 
another. — Gk. dXXriyopfty, to speak so as to 
imply something eUe ; Galat. iv. 14.— Gk. 
dtXA.0-, stem of &\ot, other ; and i-yop^itty, 
to speak, from i-yopd, a place of assembly ; 
cf. ayitptiv, to assemble. Gk. dAAot »L. 
alius ; see Alien. ^ 

Allegro. (Ital.-L.) See Alacrity. 
Alleluia. (Heb.) See Hallelujah. 
Alleviate. (L.) See Levity. 
Alley, a walk. (F.-L.?) M.E. aUj^. 
— O. F. alec, a gallery; a participial sb.— 
O. F. aler, alicr, to go ; F. alter, p. The 
etymolo^ of oiler, much and long dis* 
cussed, is not yet settled ; the O. F. form 
is oner, anner, equivalent to Ital. andare, 
to go. Perhaps from L. culnare, to swim 
to, come by water, arrive, come ; or from 
anditare*, put for aditare, to approach. 

Alliance ; see Ligament. 


■tor ; see Iiluid. 

irsition ; see IilnimBiit. 

Kte ; see IiOcoa. 

utlon ; tee IiOQaxdona. 

lal. {L0WL.-O.H.G.?) LowL. 

■s, from allodium, alediMtn, of wbich 

r foim is aledis, a. irtK inberituice. 

lira.) Sopposed tomeui 'all one's 

am O. H. G. alSd, niiere a/- all ; 

1 lelatcd to O. H. C. iiedil. uodai, 

{ana, homestead ; cT. IccL iSal, a 


■athy, a treatmnit by DK^idnes 

Toduce an opposite effect to tlut of 

(Git.) Opposed to ktmerefialhy, 
jV. dAAo-. for iUAm, otlier; and 
lo snHer ; see Alien and Fathoa. 

T (1), to assign, grant ; see Lootu. 
r (s), to praise, apjaove of; see 

'. (F.-L.) Seeliogal. 
Is, AllUBlon ; see Iiudlaronj. 
«. (F.-L. and G.) See liura. 
■ial. (L.) See LaTe. 
Alliance 1 see Dlgament. 
HMO, Almanaak. (F. - Gk. T) 

tiach (Cot.) — Low Ij. almanachus. 

Gk, ix,irvax& (Eusebius), an al- 
^Real origin imkDown; net of 
rifiin (Doiy). 

gaty. (E.) A.S, ealmihtig. From 

illil(F.-L.-Gk.) yi.'E.almaund. 
almaHdre, more correctly, amandrt ; 
nog doe to Span, and Arab, inflaence ; 
, amandt. — L. amy^ala, amygda- 
ilmond: whence the fbrmsani^^'/a, 
:, amyruTla, amyndra (see Brachet). 
\tartiayri, d^ifYSoXor, an almond, 
iner ; sec Alma. 

<Bt. (E.) A.S. m/mcin'; see AU. 
.. (L.-Gk.) M.E. alnusic, later 
A.S. f/niitir/.— LaleL. cUlmasyna. 
'Kt^ttDV&nf, pity; hence iilins. — Gk. 
', iHtiful. — Gk. k\ttir, lo pity. 

almt is a singular form. 
mer. (F. — L.-Gk.) O.T.almat- 
listribiitor of alms. — 0. F. almesiu, 
?, aumSnt. — L lUlmesyria \ &c. 
noaynaiT, relating to alms. (Low 
.) Low L. cUtmosynariui, aa 
■; from (ifccmijjj'jM (above). 
iff, the same as AlEum, q, t. 
• plant. (L.-Gk.) L.oiWtPliny), 
•ljai\ Johnxix. 39. 
. (Scond.) SeelioO. 


Alone. (E.) Sec One, 

Along. (E.) See I.onB (i). 

Aloof (Da.) See IsaS. 

Aloud. (E.) Secliond. 

Alp. (L.) L. Atpes, the Alps; of Celtic 

>rigin. Cf. GaeL alp, a high moDotain. 
Ser. tram-alp-iiu, i.e. beyond the Alps. 

Alpaoa. (Span. — PcniviaD). Span, al- 
fata ; from the Fenirian name. 

Alphabet. (Low I Gk.-Heb.) Low 

X..alf}utbtlum. — QV. £a^ J3^a, the names 
of a and ff, the tint two letters of the 
alphabet. — Heb. dlefii, an on, the name of 
the Gist tetter,' and iitth, a house, the name 
of the second letter. 

Already. (E.) M.E. a/ rtify, quite 
ready ; tee All. 

Al«o. (£.) M.E. (i/»,qaile soi A.S. 
ealraii ; tee All. 

Attar 1 see Altitude. 

Alter, Altorcation, Altamate; see 


Although. (E.) M. E. at thegh ; see 
All and Though. 
Altitude. (F.-L.) XIV cent.- F. 0//1- 

tudi. — L. — aliiiudo, height, — l^a/iut, high. 

altar. (L.) A.S. n/Carx, Matt. T.14.— 
L. allare. an altar, high place, — L. alius. 

alto, high voice. (ItaL - L) IlaL alio. 
~L. alius. 

ooDtralto. (Ital.— L.) Ital. eimlralte, 
coontei- tenor, — Ital. tuntra, opposite to, 
and alto, hieh (above). 

exalt. (t.-L.) Y.txalltr.-'L.txallan, 
to lift out. eiall. -L. tx, out ; altm, high. 

haughty, (F.-L.) Short for hLE. 
kauliin, arrogant, —O.F.AoH/ain, 'haulyi' 
Cot.-O.F, haul, oldest form halt, high.- 

hautboy, a mnsical instrument. (F.~ 
L. and Du.) F, hatHbois. - F. baut, high ; 
boi!, wood, — L. alius, high ; Dn. bosck, 
wood. See Bush (i). It is a wooden in- 
strument with a high tone. Hence Ital. 
Qboi, borrowed from haulbats. 

Altogether. (E.) M. E. al U^lkir, 
quite together. See All. 

Alum. (F. - L.) M.E. alum. - O.F. 
alum; F. a/un. — L. alumen, a\am. 

Alway, Alwaye, (£.) See AIL 

Am. (E.) See Are, 

Attiujii (E.) For f>» main, in strength, 
with strength ; see A- (1) and Uain, sb. 

Amalgam. (F, - Low L. - Gk.) F, 
amaJgamc, a mixture, esp. of quicksilver 
with other metak, Eitheracotruptionoioa 



alchemist^s anagram of malagma^ a molli- 
fying application ; perhaps with Arab, al 
^ =s the) prefixed. —Gk. ;iaXa7/ia, an emol- 
lient.— Gk. /uxAd<ro'(iv (for fjuXatc-yuv), to 
soften. - Gk. futXweSt, soft. ( ^MAR.) 
AniftTiuensis. (L.) See Manual. 
Amaranth., an unfading flower. (L.-» 
Gk.) Properly amarantf as in Milton ; but 
-a/iM is due to confusion with Greek dyOoSt 
a flower. — L. amarantus. » Gk. dfjLap6vros, 
imfading, or as sb. unfading flower. — Gk. 
d', not ; and fiapcdvay, to fade. (^MAR.) 
Amass. (F.-L.-Gk.) See Macerate. 
Amatory. (L.) L. ama/onus, loving. 
— L. amator, a lover. — L. amare, to love; 
with suffix -tor. (^KAM.) 

amenity, pleasantness. (F.—L.) O. F. 
F. anuniti. — L. armenitatcm^ ace. of anut- 
nitas.^L,.am6muSf pleasant. Cf. L. am- 
ar€t to love. 

amiable. (F. - L.) O. F. aimiabU, 
friendly; also loveable, by confusion with 
aimablc (^L. amabilis). — L. amicabilis, 
friendly. — L. amicus ^ a friend. — L. amare, 

amicable. (L.) L. amicabilis^ friendly ; 
as above. 

amity. (F. — L.) O. F. amiste^ amisted^ 
amisiiet.'^\ji^ L. amicitatem, ace. of aW- 
fitas, friendship. — L. amicus^ friendly ; &c. 

amorous. (F.-L.) O.F.amorvs; F. 
amcmreux. — L. amorosus, — L. amor^ love. 

amour. (F. - L.) F. amour. - L. 
amorem, ace. of amor, love. 

enamour. (F.-L.) O.F. enamorer, 
to inflame with love.— F. en amour, in 
love; where ¥.en^L,. in, in. 

enemy. (F.-L.) M.E. enemi.^O.T. 
enemi.^h. in-imictis^ unfriendly.— L. in, 
not; amicus t friendly. — L. amare. 

enmity. (F. - L.) M. E. enmite. - O. F. 
enamistiet. — O. F. en- ( ■= L. in-\ ncg. 
prefix; and amisiiet, amity; see amity 

inimical. (L.) 'L.inimica/is, extended 
from inimicus, hostile. — L. i/i-, not; and 
amicus, friendly ; see amiable above. 

paramour. (F.-L.) M.E. par amour, 
with love ; orig. an adverb, phrase.— F. par 
amour, vrith. love ; where par =1,. per. 
Amaze ; see Miase. 
Amazon, a female warrior. (Gk.) Gk. 
d/ia^o/v, one of a warlike nation of women in 
Seythia. ^ To account for the name, the 
Greeks said that these women cut off the 
right breast to shoot better ; from Gk. d-, 
not ; and nai6s, the breast. Obviously an 


Ambassador, Embassador. (F. •• 
Low L. — O.H.G.) F. ambassadeur.^Y, 
ambassctde, an embassy; prob. borrowed 
from Ital. ambcucia4a.^\^\f L. ambasm 
(Lex Salica) ; more correctly ambactia^ ; a 
mission, service. — L. ambactus, a servant, 
emissary; Csesar, de Bell. Gall. vi. 14.— 
O. H. G. ambaht, ampaht, a servant ; cf. 
Goth, andbahts, a servant, p. The O. H.G. 
prefix am-, Goth, and-, is cognate with L. 
ante, Gk. dvrl, before, in place of; thesb. 
baht means a servant, orig. * devoted.' Cf. 
Skt. bhaktc^ devoted ; bhakti, service. 

embassyt a mission. (F.— Low L.— 
O. H. G.) A. F. modification of Low L. 
ambascia ; as above. Cf. F. embasscuU^ Ital 
imbasciata, weakened form oi ambasciaia. 

Amber. (F. - Span. — Arab.) M. £. 
aumbre. — F. ambre. — Span, ambar, ■- Arab. 
*anbar (pronounced * ambar), ambergris, a 
rich perfume. % The resinous amber was 
so called from a resemblance to ambergris, 
which is really quite a different substance. 

ambergris, i.e. gray amber. Called 
gris amber in Milton, P. R. ii. 344. The 
F. gris, gray, is from O. H. G. gris, gray ; 
cf. G. greis, hoary. 

Ambi-, Amb-y prefix. (L.) L. ambi-, 
about ; df. Gk. dfupi, on both sides, whence 
£. prefix amphi". Related to L. eunbo, 
Gk. df/i^, both. 

Ambient, going about. (L.) See Itin- 

Ambiguous. (L.) See Agent. 

Ambition. (F. - L.) See Itinerant. 

Amble. (F.-L.) M.E.aiw^^.-O.F. 
ambler, to go at an easy pace.- L. ambu- 
tare, to walk. p. Perhaps for amb-bulart, 
to go about; from amb-, about; and ba-, 
to go, appearing in Gk. fialyttv, to go ; see 
Ambi- and Base (3). 

ambulance, a moveable hospital. (F. 
— L.) F. ambulance, — L. ambutanti-, crude 
form of pres. part, of ambulare, 

ambulation, a walking about. (L.) 
From L. ambulatio, a walking about. *L. 
ambulatus, pp. of ambulare. 

circumambulate, to walk round. (L.) 
L. circum, around ; and pp. ambulatus, 

perambulate, to walk about through. 
(L.) L. per, through ; and pp. ambulatus. 

Ambrosia, food of the gods. (Gk.) 
Gk. dfifipoffia ; fem. of d/jt0fi<rios, length- 
ened form of dfifipoTot, immortal. — Gk. 
dfi- for dv- (E. un-), and fipoT6s, a mortal. 
Or rather, from Gk d-, not (£. un-) ; and 






put for hpot6s ^ fMpr6s, mortal; 
■taL Cf. Skt. a-mnta, immortal, 
Yt Aumbry, a cupboard; see 

lance ; see Amble. 
Boade, Ambush ; see Bush (i). 
orate ; see Meliorate. 
. (L. — Gk. •• Heb.) L. am^n. •• 
', verily. — Heb. dmen, verily, so be 
I. dmen, firm, tme.-*Heb. dman, 
•rt, fix. 

able ; see Menace, 
d. Amends ; see Emendation, 
i^ ; see Amatory. 
3e, to fine ; see Merit, 
lyst, a gem. (L. •• Gk.) L. amt- 
-Gk. dfUOvoTos, an amethyst; so 
ecause supposed to prevent dmnk- 
>Gk. dfAi$v<TT0St not dnmken.—Gk. 
and fii$u€tv, to be drunken, from 
>ng drink ; see Mead. 
3le, Amicable ; see Amatory. 
I, a pilgrim's robe ; see Jet (i). 
Amidst ; see Mid. 
I, adv. See Miss (i). 
\ (F.— L.) See Ajnatory. 
>nia, an alkali. (L. * Gk. — Egypt- 
contraction for L. sal atnmoniaatm, 
.mm Gk. dtifMytaxCVf sal ammoniac, 
. •• Gk. dfjiftuytdif Libyan. * Gk. 
he Libyan Zeus-Ammon ; a word 
ian origin ; Herod, ii. 43. ^ It is 
: sal ammoniac was first obtained 
temple of Ammon. 
onite.a fossil shell. (Gk.) Coined 
&x -ite (Gk. 'irrii) from the name 
; because the shell resembles the 
ram*s horn on the head of the 
' Jnpiter Ammon. 
inition. (L.) SeeMnniment. 
sty, lit. a forgetting of offences. 
- Gk.) "• F. amnisHe. * L. amtustia. 
jirrlat forgetfnlness, esp. of wrong. 
ityjjaTos, forgotten. — Gk. d-, not; 
fuu, I remember. (^ MAN.) 
^, Amongst. (£.) See Mingle. 
>UB. (F.— L.) See Amatory. 
;>hou8, formless. (Gk.) From 
lOt ; and fwp^^, shape, form. 
norphosis, transformation. (L. 
L. metamorphosis. '^GV. fitraiiop- 
change of form. — Gk. lurd^ here 
change ; and fiofx^dot, I jform, from 
I (above). 

norphose, to transform ; a verb 
>m the above sb. 

Amount ; see Mount. 

Amphi-, prejix, (Gk.) Gk. dfupi, on 
both sides, around ; see Ainbi-. 

Amphibious ; see Biography. 

Amphibrach, a foot in prosody. (Gk.) 
The foot composed of a short syllable on 
each side of a long one (y-J). Gk. dfi^- 
fipaxyt, •• Gk. dfi^, on both sides ; and 
fipaxyst short ; see Amphi- and Brief. 

Amphitheatre. (Ok.) See Theatre. 

Ample, full. (F.-L.) F. ampU.^L. 
amp/us, spacious, p. Perhaps « amdipu/tts, 
Ml on both sides. (VPAR.) 

Amputate ; see Putative. 

Amulet. (F.-L. -Arab.) F. amuUtU. 
— L. amuUtum, a talisman hung round the 
neck. Of Arab, origin ; cf. Arab, himdlat, 
a sword-belt hung from the shoulder; 
hamdil or himdytl^ a sword-belt, also a 
small Koran hung round the neck as a 
charm ; lit. ' a thing carried.' — Arab, root 
hamala, he carried. 

Amuse ; see Muse (i). 

An, A, indefinite article. (£.) A is 
short for an; and an is an unaccented form 
of A. S. dn, one ; see One. 

An-, A-, neg. prefix. (Gk.) Gk. dv-, 
shorter form d-, cognate with L. in-^ and 
£. un- ; see Un-, In-, A- (9). 

An, if. (Scand.) See And. 

Ana-, Kn.'^ prefix, (Gk.) Gk. dm-, dv-; 
from Gk. dofd^ upon, on, up, back, again ; 
cognate with £.011; see On. 

Anabaptist ; see Baptise. 

Anachronism ; see Ghronide. 

Anttsthetic, rendering insensible to pain. 
(Gk.) Coined from Gk. dv-, not ; and 
olffBtjTutSt, full of perception ; see An- and 

Anagram ; see Grammar. 

Analogy ; see Logio. 

Analysis. (Gk.) Gk. dp&Kwris, a resolv- 
ing into parts, loosening. — Gk. dvoAvciv, ta 
undo, resolve. — Gk. dvd, back; and Xucik, 
to loosen. (V LU.) Der. analyse^ verb, a 
coined word. 

AnapfiBSt, Anapest, a foot in prosody. 
(Gk.) L. anapastus. — Gk. dKairaurros, 
struck back, rebounding ; because it is the 
reverse of a dactyl. — Gk. dvamtiv^ to strike 
back. — Gk. dyd, back ; and va/ccv, to strike. 

Anarchy. (F. — Gk.) See Arch-, prefix. 

Anathema ; see Theme. 

Anatomy ; see Tome. 

Ancestor; see Cede. 

Anchor. (F.-L.-Gk.) From F., but 
modified to L. spelling. M.E. anJker.^F. 



afure. — L. ancora (also anchorcC), -• Gk. 
dytcvpa, an anchor, lit. a bent hook ; c£ Gk. 
d7«{«'. a bend. (VAK, ANK.) 

Anchoret, Anchorite, a recluse. (F. 
— Low L. — Gk.) F. anachcrete (Cot.) — 
Low L. anachcreta. — Gk. dvaxotpvjrlis^ one 
who retuvs from the world. «- Gk. dva- 
Xcifpetv, to retire. •* Gk. dva, back; and 
Xw/xu', to withdraw, from x^P^^> space, 
room. (^GHA.) • 

Anchovy, a fish. (Span. - Basque?) 
Span, anchctfa ; cf. Basque dnchoOf dnchova^ 
an anchovy. Perhaps 'dried fish*; from 
Basque antztta, dry. 

Ancient (i), old. (F.-L.) See Ante-. 

Ancient (2), a banner, standard-bearer. 
(F. ■- L.) A corruption of ensign; see 

And. (E.) A.S. <w«/. + O.Sax. endei 
Icel. eftda, if, moreover (Uie same word, 
differently used); O. H. G. anti\ G. und, 
Prob. related to L. anie^ Gk. 6yrlt over 

an, if. (Scand.) Formerly also and; 
Havelok, 2861, &c. This is the Scand. 
use of the word. An if':* if if, a reduplica- 
tion. But aftd if^ but if if; Matt. xxiv. 48. 

A n da n te, slowly. (Ital.) Ital. andante, 
movine slowly ; from andare, to go. 

Andiron, a fire-dog. (F.) Not connected 
with iron, but corrupted from M.E. and- 
eme, aundenu, aundire. -■ O. F. andier; 
mod. F. landier, put for V andier, where t 
is the def. art. — Low L. anderia, andena, 
andasiunty a fire-dog. CC Span, and Port. 
andas, a frame, a bier. 

Anecdote ; see Dose. 

Anemone. (Gk.) See Animal. 

Anent, regarding. (£.) See Bven. 

Aneroid, dry. (Gk.) See Sfereid. 

Aneurism, a tumour due to dilatation. 
(Gk.) Gk. dytvptHTfjuif a widening. •- Gk. 
dy-, for dv6, up; and tvpvytiy, to widen, 
from €{fpvSf wide. 

Anew. (E.) See Now. 

Angel. (L. •• Gk.) L. angeltu. •• Gk. 
<i77e\of, a messenger. Cf. Gk. Ayyapoi, a 
mounted courier, from O. Persian. Der. 
arch-angel, q. v., ev-angel-ist, q. v. 

Anger. (Scand.) M.E. anger, often 
with the sense of vexation, trouble. * Icel. 
<^*^S^t grief; Dan. anger, Swed. Anger, re- 
gret. ^ L. angor, a strangling, anguish. 

Angina, severe suffering. (L.) See 

Angle (i), a comer. (F. - L.) M. £. 


angle, -• F. angle. — L. angulus, an angle. 
Cf. Gk. &fKvKot, bent. (V AK, ANK.) 

quadrangle, a square figure. (F.—L.) 
F. quadrangle, — L. quadrangulum, neat 
of quadr-angulus, four-angled ; see Quad* 
rate. Der. So also rect-angle, tri-angie, 
Angle(2), a hook, fish-hook. (£.) AS. 
angel, a fish-hook. H-Dan. angel; G. angel, 
(V AK, ANK.) Der. angle, verb, to fish. 
Anguish. (F. - L.) M. E. anguis, 
angoise, — O. F. anguisse ; F. angoisse. — L, 
angustia, narrowness, poverty, perplexity. 
* L. angusttis, narrow. * L. angere, to 
choke. (V' AGH, ANGH.) 

angina, acute pain. (L.) L. angina, 
pain, lit. choking. » L. angere, to choke. 

anxious, distressed. (L.) L. anxius. 

— L. angere, to choke, distress. And see 

Animal. (L.) L. animal, a living crea- 
ture. *L. anima, breath, life. (^ AN.) 

anemone, a flower. (Gk.) Gk. dycfU^ 
lit. wind-flower. •• Gk. Sye/xos, wind. 

animadvert, to censure. (L.) L. ani- 
maduertere, to turn the mind to, hence, to 
criticise. — L. anim-, for animus, the mind 
(allied to anima, breath); ad, to; and 
uertere, to turn (see Verse). 

animate. (L.) L. animatus, pp. of 
animare, to endue with life. — L. emima, 
life. Der. in-animate, re-animate, 

animosity. (F. — L.) F. animosUi, 

— L. animositatem, ace. of animositas, 
vehemence. — Lw animosfis, vehement, full 
of mind or courage. — L. animus, mind^ 
courage, passion. And see Equanimity, 
Magnanimous, Pusillanimous, Unani- 

Anise, a herb. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
anese, anys,'^¥, anis (Cot.)— L. a»^ri»fff; 
also anetAum.'^ Gk, dyi<rov, Sumjcoy, SunjBw, 
anise« dill. 

Anker, a liquid measure. (Bu.) Do. 
anker, the same. <^ Swed. ankare ; G. 

Ankle. (E.) M. E. ancle, anclowe, — 
A. S. ancleow. 4* I>an. and Swed. ankel; 
Icel. okkla, (for cnkla), okli; Du. and G. 
enkel. Lit. ' a small bend ; * cf. Gk. dyx^, 
a bend. See Anchor. 

Annals. (F. — L.) F. annales, pi. sb. 

— L. annales, pi. adj., put for libri annates^ 
yearly books, chronicles; from anna/is, 
yearly. — L. annus, a year. 

anniversary. (L.) Put for 'anniversary 
memorial.' — L. anniuersarius, returning 
yearly.— L. anni' (anno-), from annus^ 11 


year; and uersus, pp. of uertire^ Xo turn 
^see Verse). 

annual, yearly. (F.— L.) IS..^, annuel. 
— F. anniuL — L. annuaiis, yearly. — L. 

biennial, lasting two years. (L.) Formed 
as if from bienni-um, a space of two years ; 
the tme L. word is dunna/is.^'L, bi- two ; 
and anna/is, lasting a year, yearly. -• L. 
annus. So also trp-enniai^ from tri- (for 
ires)f three; quadrennial^ more correctly 
quadri-enniai, from quadri- (for quadrus), 
belonging to four; quinqui-tnnialt from 
quinqui' (for quinqtie), nve; dec-ennialt 
mm, dec-tm, ten ; cent'ennial, from centum, 
a hundred; mill'tnnial, from mi//!?, a 
thousand, &c. 

porennial. (L.) Coined from 'L.per- 
emm-s, everlasting; lit. lasting for years. 
'mX^per, through ; annus, a year. 

superannuate. (L.) Formerly (and 
better) superanncUe. — Low L. superannalus, 
orig. that has lived beyond a year. — L. 
sufer, beyond ; annus, a year. 

Anneal, to temper by heat ( (x) £; (a) 
F. « L.) Two distinct words have been 
confused. 1. M. £. anelen, to inflame, 
kindle, heat, melt, bum. A. S. otutlan, to 
bom, kindle ; from on, prefix, and telan, to 
bum. Cfl A.S. aled, fire. (^AL) 2. 
M. £. anelen, to enamel glass. —PreBx a- 
(perhaps sF. a, L. ad)\ and O.F. neeler, 
nitler, to enamel, orig. to paint in black 
on gold or silver. -^ Low L. nigellare, to 
blacken. — L. nigeUus, blackish ; from niger, 

Annex. (F.f-L.) F. annexer.'^'L. an- 
nexus, pp. of annectere, to knit or bind to. 
— L. an-, for ad, to; and neclere, to bind. 

connect. (L.) L. connectere, to tie to- 
gether. -• L. con" {cum), together ; and 
nectere, to bind (pp. nexus). 3)er. eon- 

Annihilate. (L.) L. annihilatus, pp. 
of annihilare, to reduce to nothing. -• L. 
ai»-, for ad, to ; and nihil, nothing. 

AxmiTersary. (L.) SeeAxmala. 

Annotate; see Noble. 

Announce ; see Nuncio. 

Annoy ; see Odium. 

Anwiitt.! ; Bee Annals. 

Annul; see Unit. 

Annular, like a ring. (L.) "L,, annularis, 
adj.; from annulus, a ring; dimin. of an" 
ma, a year, orig. a circuit. 

Anodyne, a £rug to allay pain. (L. — Gk.) 



XVII cent Low L. astodynus, a drug re- 
lieving pain.-*Gk. i»isXiww, free from pain. 
•• Gk. l»a, not ; and Mitti, pain. p. *kva 
is Utiefull form of the pre6x, as in Zend ; 
a; results from a and o ; ^1^ prob. means 
' a gnawing,' from I8«<y, to eat. (V^ AD.) 

Alioint ; see Unguent. 

Anomaly. (Gk.) Gk. iofof/taXla, devia- 
tion from rule.«-Gk. di^/ioAoY, uneven.— 
Gk. dya, not ; and 6fta\6s, even, related to 
d/i^, one and the same. ^ See Anodyne. 

Anon, immediately. (£.) See One. 

Anonymous ; see Onomatoi)€eia. 

Another. (£.) For an other, one other. 

Answer. (K) See Swear. 

Ant. (K) M.£.ami^, short for am//^. A.S. 
amette, an emmet, ant. Doublet, emmet. 

Antagonist ; see Agony. 

Antarotio ; see Arotio. 

Ante-, prefix, before. (L.) L. ante, be- 
fore. Allied to Anti-, q. v. 

ancient. (F. — L.) * With excrescent /. 
M. £. auncien.'mF, ancien.'^Jjow h. an/i- 
amtf, old, belonging to former time. Formed 
with suffix -anus from ante, before. 

anterior. (L.) L. anterior, former, 
more in front, compar. adj. from ante, 

antic, fanciful, odd; as sb. a trick. 
(F. — L.) Orig. an adj.; and the same as 

antique, old. (F.^-L.) F. antique. '^ 
L. antiquus, also anticus, formed with 
suffix 'icus from ante, before; aa posticus is 
from post, behind. 

Antecedent ; see Cede. 

Antediluvian; seel«ave. 

Antelope. (Gk.) In Spenser, F.Q. i. 
6. 26. Said to be corrupted from late Gk. 
dyOa\ow-, or dvOokoW', the stem of dv$aXwff 
or dySoKoiff, used by Fustathius (abt. aj>. 
1160), to signify 'bright-eyed,* i.e. a gazelle. 
Coined from Gk. dyOtty, to sprout, blossom, 
also to shine ; and £nff (gen. inrdi), the eye. 
See Anther and Optics. ^ The word 
Dorccu, the Gk. and Roman name of the 
gazelle, is from iiptco/uu, I see clearly. 

AntenniB, feelers of insects. (L) L. 
antenna, pi. of antenna, properly the yard 
of a sail. 

Antepenultimate ; see XTltiniate. 

Anterior. (L.) See Ante-. 

Anthem. (L.»Gk.) See Fhonetio. 

Anther, the summit of the stamen of a 
flower. (Gk.) From Gk. di^por, bloom- 
ing. --Gk. d^Btiv, to bloom; 6»$os, a young 
bud or sprout 



anthology, a collection of choice poems. 
(Gk.) Lit. a collection of flowers. — Gk. 
dy$oKoyia, a gathering of flowers. — Gk. 
d»$okoy65, flower-gathering. — Gk. 6y$o; for 
di^Bos, a flower ; and Kiytiv, to colL 

Anthracite, a kind of hard coaL (Gk.) 
Gk. MpoMirrfs, resembling coals. •■ Gk. 
dvBpcuC', stem of Mpa^, coal. 

Anthropophagi, cannibals. (Gk.) lit. 
' men-eaters.* —Gk. Mfwwofpiyos, man-eat- 
ing. «• Gk. &f0ponroty a man ; and <fMytiv, 
to eat. (V BH AG.) p. Gk. d^p-wwos is 
lit. * man-like '; from dv^p-, for dytp- » dyfp-, 
stem of dtrfjp, a man ; and &ff (gen. dnrut ), 
face, appearance ; see Optics. 

Anti-, Ant-, /^/£r, against. (Gk.) Gk. 
arri, against; allied to L. anU, before. 
Cf. Skt. anfi, over against, allied to anta, 
end ; see End. ^ In anti-cipate, the prefix 
is for L. ante, 

Antio. (F.-L.) See Ante-. 

Antichrist; see Christ. 

Anticipate ; see Capaoious. 

Anticlimax; see Climax. 

Antidote ; see Dose. 

Antimony, a metal. (Low L.) Low L. 
antimonium. Origin unknown. 

Antipathy; see Pathos. 

Antiphon ; see Fhonetio. 

Antiphrasis; see Phrase. 

Antipodes. (Gk.) Gk. &irriit6Us, pi., 
men with feet opposite to ours, from nom. 
sing, drrivovs. •• Gk. dvri, opposite to ; and 
jtovs, cognate with Foot. 

Antique. (F.— L.) See Ante-. 

Antiseptic, counteracting putrefaction. 
(Gk.) Gk. i»ri, against; and ctivT'ds, 
rotten, from tHjftiv, to rot. 

Antistrophe; see Strophe. 

Antithecds; see Theme. 

Antitype ; see Type. 

Antler. (F.) M. £. aun/elere, put for ai/if • 
de/ere(jf)^¥. andouiller, the brow-antler 
or lowest branch of a deer's horn. — O. H. G. 
andi, the forehead ; Dan. dial, and, Swed. 
anne (for ande\ Icel. enni (for endi), the 
forehead. Cf. L. antia, hair on the fore- 
head. The meaning of the suflix -outlier 
is unknown, p. Or the M. £. auntelere 
may be right; corresponding to an O. F. 
anioillier, said to have been once in use 
(Littre). In this case, the O.F. word is 
supposed to be equivalent to a Low L. 
aniocularium * ; from ante, before, and 
oculus, the eye. ^ Very uncertain. 

Anus, the lower orifice of the bowels. 
(L.) L. amts. 


Anvil. (E.) M.E, anvelt, an/eld. A.S. 
anjilte, onfilt, •• A. S. an, on, on, upon ; 
and fellan, to fell, smite down ; i. e. that 
on which iron is smitten. Cf. \qx\. fella 
jdm, to work iron into bars. % dome 
derive it from on and fealdan, to fold; 
because the O. H. G. aneualz, an anvil, is 
derived from am, on, and valdan, to fold 
up. But the analogy may not hold; cf. 
L. incus, an anvil, from in, on, and cudere^ 
to strike. (Uncertain.) 

Anxioiui. (L.) See Anguish. 

Any. (£.) A. S. anig, any, from dn^ 
one ; see One. 

Aorta. (Gk.) Gk. dofrH\, the great 
artery 'rising' from the heart. «• Gk. dctjp- 
c<r9ai, to rise up ; dci/>cir, to raise. 

Apace. (E. and F.) Put for a pace, i. e. 
a foot-pace, where a is the indef. art. The 
phrase has changed sense ; it used to mesa 
sUnidy (Chaucer, C. T. X0703); it now 
means y^/. See Pace. 

Apart, Apartment ; see Part. 

Apathy ; see Pathos. 

Ape. (E.) M.E. ape, A.S. a/a.4-nu. 
CLap ; Icel. api ; Swed. apa ; Irish and GaeL 
apa\ G. affe\ Gk. in(ftoi\ Skt. kapi, B. 
The word has lost initial k, preserved la 
Gk. |nd Skt. only. The Heb. koph, an 
ape, IS not Semitic, but borrowed from 

Aperient. (L.) XIV cent. Lit. 'opening.* 
••L. aperient', stem of pres. pt. oiaperire, 
to open. See April. 

Apex. (L.) L. apex, summit. 

A,lSih; prefix, (Gk.) See Apo-. 

Aph»resis ; see Heresy. 

Aphelion ; see HeliaoaL 

Aphorism ; see Horizon. 

Apiary, a place for bees. (L.) L. api- 
arium, neut. of apiarius, belonging to 
bees.«>L. api-, for apis, a bee. 

Apiece. (E. and F.) Put for on piece, 
where on b in. See Piece. 

Apo-, prefix, off. (Gk.) Gk. dir^, off. 
from ; cognate with E. of, offi see Ofl It 
becomes aph- before an aspirate. 

Apocalypse. (L.— Gk.) M.E. apocalips 
( Wyclif ). — L. (^ocalypsis, — Gk.dvomxXv^r, 
a revelation. -> Gk. diroiraAvrrciy, to uncover, 
reveal. —Gk. &rr6, off; and icakwtTuv, to 
cover. {^ KAL). 

Apocope. (L.-Gk.) L. apocopc^^GV, 
ivoKorff, a cutting off (of a letter). «-Gk. 
dv6,off ; and KJtrrfty, to hew, cut. (^SKAP.) 

Apocrypha ; see Crypt. 

Apogee ; see Geography. 




Apologue, Apology; see Logic. 

Apophthegm, Apothegm. (Gk.) Gk. 
dw^^ryfaa, a thing nttexed, a terse saying. 
« Gk. dirtf , off, out ; and ^iyyoitat, I cry 
aloud, utter. 

Ai>oplexy. (LowL.-Gk.) See Plague. 

Apoitaey« Apostate ; see Btatios. 

Apostle. (L.-Gk.) A. S. apostoL^'L, 
apostoIus.mmGV, dir^crroXof, one who is sent 
off.«>Gk. dvi5, off; and ariXXtiv, to send. 

Apostrophe ; see Strophe. 

Aimthecary ; see Theme. 

AiK>theosis. (Gk.) See Theiat. 

Appal, to terrify ; see Fall (a). 

Appanage; see Pantry. 

Apparatus. (L.) See Pare. 

Apparel ; see Par. 

Appeal, Apellant ; see Pulsate. 

Appear ; see Parent. 

Appease ; see Pact. 

Api>end ; see Pendant. 

Appertain; see Tenable. 

Ai^etite; see Petition. 

Applaud; see Plaudit. 

Apple. (£.) M.E. appeL A.S. appei, 
apl. -f Du. appel\ Icel. epli\ Swed. dpU\ 
Dan. 4tbU\ G. apfeli Irish abhal; Gael. 
uihcUli W. <^/; Rnss. iabhko; Lithnan. 
cbolysn Primitiye form ABALA ; root un- 

Apply; see Ply. 

Appoint; see Pungent. 

Apportion ; see Part. 

Appose, Apposite ; see Poae, Position. 

Appraise, Appreciate ; see Preoious. 

Apprehend, Apprentice, Apprize ; 
see Prehensile. 

Approach (F.-L.) See Propinquity. 

Approbation, Approve; see Pro- 

Appropriate. (L.) See Proper. 

Approximate. (L.) See Propinquity. 

Appurtenance. (F.—L.) See Tenable. 

Aj^oot. (F. - Port. - Arab. - Gk. - L.) 
Formerly also apricock, from Port, albri- 
coqiu duectly. Also abricot.^'F, abricot, 
'the abricot, or apricock plmn'; Cot.-* 
Port, albricoque, «• Arab, al barqiiq, where 
al is the def. art. --Mid. Gk. vpcuKdmov 
(Dioscorides) ; pi. wpauc6«ta. The pi. 9p€u- 
g6na was borrowed from L. pracoquOt 
apricots, neut. pL of pracoquus^ another 
form of pracox^ precocious, early ripe 
(Pliny; Martial, 13. 46). -•L./n?, before- 
hand; and coquere, to cook, ripen. See 
PreoooiouB and Oook. % Thus the 
word reached ns in a very indirect manner. 

April. (L.) L. Aprilisx said to be so 
named because the earth then opens to 
produce new fruits. --L. aperire, to open; 
see Aj>erient. 

Apron. (F.-L.) See Map. 
Apse. (L. -> Gk.) Now used of a recess 
at the end of a church; formerly apse^ 
apsis, a tuming-point of a planet*s orbit. «• 
L. apsis f pi. cLfsides^ a bow, tum.^Gk. 
d^/;, a tying, fastening, hoop of a wheel, 
curve, bow, arch.«>Gk. &wtuv^ to tie, bind, 

Apt. fit. (F. - L.) XVI cent - F. apte. - 
L. apiuSf used as pp. of apisci, to reach, 
get, but really pp. of apert, to fit or join 
together. (VAP). 

adapt. (L) XVI cent, ^l^adaptare,^ 
L. ad, to ; and aptare, to fit. 

adept, a proncient. (L.*) L. adeptus, one 
who has obtained proficiency; pp. of 
apisci, to obtain, fremient. of apere^ to fit. 

attitude. (Ital.-L.) Grig, a painter*s 
term, from Italy. •• Ital. atiiiuditte, aptness, 
skill, attitude. "• L. aptitudinem, ace. of 
aptitude, aptitude. --L. apius, apt. 

inept, foolish. (F.-L.) xVlIcent.-. 
O. F. inepte.i»'L,ineptus, improper, foolish. 
-•L. f»-, not ; and aptus, fit. (Also inapt, 
from f»-, not, and apt,) And see Option. 
Aquatic. (L.) L. aquaticus, pertaining 
to water. ">L. aqtta, water. 

aqua-fortis. -• L. aqua fortis, strong 

aquarius. -• L. aquarius, a water- 

aquarium. •• L. aquarium, a water- 

aqueduct- "-L. aquaducttts^ a conduit; 
from aqua, of water, and ductus, a duct ; 
see Duot. 

aqueous. As if for L. aqucus*, adj., a 
form not used. — L. aqua, water. 

ewer. (F. - L.) M.E. ewer, - O.F. 
ewer*, eweire*^ not found, but answering 
to L. aquarium, a vessel for water. •• O.F. 
ewe, water; mod. F. eau.^h. aqua, water. 

subaqueous, under water. (L.) L. sub, 
under ; aqua, water. And see Ait, Zyot, 

Aquiline, like an eagle. (F. - L.) F. 
aquilin ; hence nez aquiiin, * a nose like an 
eagle;' Cot. — L. aqui/inus, adj. from 
aquila, an eagle. 

eagle. (F.-L.) F. aigie.^'L. aquila. 
Arabesque. (F.- Ital. -Arab.) XVIII 
cent. — F. Arabesque, Arabian-like; also full 
of flourishes, like fine Arabian work.— ItaL 



Arahesco, where 'tsco^'E, 'ishk •• Arab. 
'arabt Arabia. 

Arable. (F. — L.) F. arabU, — L. arabilis, 
that can be ploughed. * L. ararc^ to plough. 
(VAR). See Bar (3). 

Arbiter. (L.) In Milton. -L. arbiter, a 
witness, judge, umpire. 

arbitrary. (L.) In Milton.— L. arbi- 
trarius, capricious, like the decision of an 
umpire. "-ll arbitrary, to act as umpire. «• 
L. arbiter. 

arbitrate. (L.) From pp. of L. arbi- 
irare^ to act as umpire. 

Arboreous, belonging to trees. (L.)— L. 
arboreust adj. from arbor, a tree. 

Arbour, a bower. (E.) A corruption of 
Harbour, q.v. The loss of h was due to 
confusion with M.£. herbere, also erbere, 
from L. herbarium, a herb-garden, also an 
orchard. The special sense was due to 
confusion with L. arbor, a tree. 

Arc. (F.-L.) XIV cent.-F. flfr.-L. 
arcum, ace of arcus, a bow, arch, arc. 

arcade. (F.-Ital.— L.) F. arcade.^ 
Ital. areata, an arched place ; fern, of pp. 
of arcare, to arch. -•Ital. arco, a bow.-»L. 
ace. arcum (above). 

aroh. (F. — L.) A modification of F. are, 
a bow; like ditch for dyhc'^L,, ace. arc- 
um (above). 

archer. (F. — L.) M. E. archer. - F. 
archier, a bow-man. —Low L. arcarius, a 
bow-man ; from arcus, a bow* 

Arcana. (L.) See Ark. 

Arch (I), a vault, &c. See Aro. 

Arch (a), roguish, waggbh, sly. (£.) ' So 
arch a leer;* Spectator, no. 193. A cor- 
ruption of M. £. arrh, arh, ar^, arwe, 
feeble, fearful, timid, cowardly; hence 
knavish, roguish. A.S. ear;^, earh, timid, 
slothful. 4* Icel. argr, effeminate, a craven ; 
G. arg, mischievous. See Arrant. % The 
M. £. argh would, in due course, only have 
given the form arow or arrow in mod. £. ; 
the form arch is clearly due to confusion 
with arch in the term arch-traitor. Indeed, 
Dr. Stratmann regards arch as nothing 
more than the prefuc arch- used alone, thus 
making it of Gk. origin ; but this alone 
seems quite inadequate to explain its pecu- 
liar sense. See below. 

Arch-, prefix, chief. (L. — Gk.) The form 
arch' is due to A.S. arce-, as in arce- 
bisceop, an archbishop. This form was 
borrowed from L. archi- *» Gk. dpxi', as in 
dpxt'€iri<ricovoSt an archbishop. — Gk. dpxf^y, 
to be first, to rule ; cf. Gk. dpxi* beginning. 


Der. arch-bishop, arch-deacpn, &cu: but, in 
arch-angel, the prefix is directly from the 
Gk., the ch being pronounced as k. 

anarchy. (F.-Gk.) In Milton. — F. 
anarchic. — Gk. dyapx^a, lack of govern- 
ment. "• Gk. dvapxoi, without a chietT— Gk. 
6v-, neg. prefix; and dpx^* & rulcr» from 
dpx^y, to rule, be first. 

archeology. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. 
dpxcuos, ancient, which is from dpxis the 
beginning ; and the suffix -logy, Gk. -Xoyia, 
due to A.070S, . discourse, from Xiyur, to 

archaic (Gk.) Gk. dpxaitc^tf antique, 
primitive. — Gk. dpx4> ^ beginning. 

archaism. (G£) Gk. dnxaXcfUt, an 
antiquated phrase. — Gk. dpxcu(€i¥, to speak 
antiquatedly. — Gk. dpxoibs, old ; Sec 

archetype. (F.— £1— Gk.) See Type. 

archi-, prefix, chief. (L. - Gk.) L. 
archi; for Gk. dpxt-, prefix: as above. 

archipelago, chief sea, i.e. Aegean sea. 
(Ital. — Gk.) ItaL arcipelago, modified to 
archipelago, — Gk. dpx<-* chief ; and vAoToiy 

architect. (F.-L.-Gk.) See Teoh- 

architrave. (F.-Ital.-L. and Gk.) 
In Milton. — F. architrave. — ItaL archi" 
trave, the part of an entablature resting 
immediately on the column. A barbarous 
compound; from Gk. d^X'~» prefix, chicf^ 
principal, and I^t. trabem, ace of traJbs, a 
beam. See Traye. 

archives, s. pi., public records; but 
properly an archive is a place where re- 
cords are kept — F. archtf, pi. archiva\ 
Cot. — L. archiuum, archium. — Gk. d^ 
X<rosr, a public building, residence of magis- 
trates. — Gk. dpxh* a beginning, a magistracy, 
and even a magistrate. 

heptarchy, a government by seven per- 
sons. (Gk.) XVII cent.- Gk. irr-, forlintS, 
seven ; and -apx^^* ^^^ to dpxjk* beginning, 

hierarchy. (F.-Gk.) Y. hierarchic \ 
Cot. — Gk. Upapxta, power of an l€pdpxijS9 
a steward or president of sacred rites.— 
Gk., Up-, for ttpbs, sacred; and dpx^ty, to 
rule. ^ Milton has hierarch = Gk. Updpxot* 

monarch, a sole ruler. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
F. monarque. — L. monarcha, — Gk. lunrdp- 
XTjf, a sovereign, sole ruler. — Gk. /iOK-, for 
fiiyoi, alone ; and dpxfiVt to rule. 

oligarchy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. oligar- 
chie. — Low L. oligarchia. — Gk. hhx-^apxMi, 
government by a few men. — Gk. iKtrf-, for 


Myot* few* little; and -«^x*^ ^^om iifX^v, 

patriaroh.(F.-L.-Gk.) M.E./a/fi- 
«#rAr, fairiarki.^O.Y. ftUriarckex Cot. 
«L. pmhriarcha, «» Gk. vttrpiapx)7*f the 
father or chief of a race (applied to a 
chief kA a diocese abt a.d. x^o). — Gk. 
«or^-, crude fonn of «tn^^ a nther; and 
fyx^w, to rule. See Father. 

tetrarch. (L. — Gk.) L. tetranha, - 
Gk. TfTp^xT** <>'DC of four chieOs; Luke, 
iiL i.«>Gk. r^^ for rirraptt, Attic form 
ofricaopa, four; and 'f>x*<r, to rule. See 



Axohop; see Afo. 

Arotio. (F.-L.-Gk.> XVtoent.-F. 
arciipu, ^ L. ardiais, «» Gk. dJ^Mrrur^, near 
the coDStellatioa of the Bear, northern. — 
Gk. ^fKTot, a bear. Cognate with L. urtus ; 

antarotia (L.— Gk.) L. anfafrtiau, 
— Gk. dmifwnicM, southern, opposite to 
arctic. »Gk. drr-, for dyri, opposite to; 
and dptcTucit, arctic. See Anti-. 

Aniant. (F.-L.) XIV cent. M.E. ar- 
dtnmt^wm'F, ardani, pres. part of ardn, to 
bnm.i*L. ardere, to bum. Der. ardaur\ 
O.F. ardor, from L. ardorem, ace. oiardar, 
a burning, fervour. 

anon, incendiarism. (F. — L.) O. F. 
arson^ incendiarism. —O.F. ardair, to bum. 
■• L. ardertt to bum. 

Ardwowa (L.) Fut for L. ardtms, steep, 
difficult, high. -^ Irish ard, high. 

Are, pres. pi. of the verb substantive. 
(£.) This is a Northern form ; O. North- 
umbrian orwi, as distinguished from A. S. 
(Wessex) sindon, Cf. led. tr-u, they are. 
Both ar-am (put for as-cn) and s-ind-on 
(pot for as-in-d-cn, in which the -on is an 
A. S. addition) are due to the same Aryan 
form AS- ANTI, they are, from whence also 
are Skt. s-ati/i, Gk. tla-iv, L. sun/, G. s-ind, 
loeL <r-flf (for es^u) ; &c. (VAS, to be.) 
am. O. Northumb. am, A. S. eom ; from 
the Aryan form AS-MA, I am, where AS 
is the root 'to be,* and MA is the first 
pen. pronoun (£. m€). Hence also Skt. 
at-mi, Gk. ^Ufd, L. s-u-m (for as'{uymi), 
Goth, i'tn, led. e-m ; &c. 

art. O. Northumb. ariS, A.S. eart. Here 
ar» answers to ^AS, and the suffix -iS or 
-t denotes the 2nd pers. pronoun ; see Thoo. 
is. A.S. is, weakened form of ^AS. 
The eeneral Aryan form is AS-TA, i. e. ' is 
he*; nence Skt. as-/i, Gk. lir-ri, L. es-t, G. 
tf •/, £. is. See also Be^ Waa. 

(L.) XVII Gent.-L. arta, an 
open space. 

Areiaction, Arena; see Arid. 

Argent. (F. — L.) White; in heraldry.— 
F. argent. mm"L. argentum, silver; from its 
brightness. (^ARG, to shine.) See below. 

ArgillaoeouB, clayev. (L.) L. argiUa" 
ceus, adj. from argilia, day, esp. white day. 
(VARG.) See above. 

Argonaut. (L. - Gk.) L. ar^onauta. — 
Gk. dpyorovTi^t, one who sailed m the ship 
Argo.«>Gk. <lp7^. the name of Jason*s ship 
(lit. swift, from <ip7<^, swift) ; and rwrtfi, 
a sailor; see Nautioal. 

Argosy, a merchant- vessel. (Span. (?)— 
Gk.) Apparently taken from Span, f^f^* 
the noted ship Argo (see above). The 
added -y seems to have been meant for -1, 
due to the L. pL ending in -f ; at any rate. 
Marlowe uses argosy as a plural \ Jew of 
Malta, i. z. The Span, argos, like Low L. 
argis^ is due to the L. form Argo^QV, 
(SpTw; though the final •s is difHcult to 

Argue. (F. - L.) M. E. arguen. - O. F. 
argu€r,^\,, arguen^ to prove by argument, 
lit. to make clear; cf. argutus^ dear. 
(V ARG, to shine.) 

Arid, dry. (L.) XVIII cent. - L. aHdus, 
dry. — L. arert, to be dry. 

are£EU3tion. (L.) XVII cent. Coined 
ftom L. arefac€ret to moke dry.-*L. are-re, 
to be dry ; zjA/acere, to make. 

arena. (L.) L. arena, sand ; the sanded 
space in which gladiators jfought. -• L. arere, 
to be dry. 

Aright. (£.) For on right, in the right 

Arise; seeHlae. 

Aristocraoy. (Gk.) Modified from Gk. 
ipiaroKfMria, government by the nobles or 
* best* men.«>Gk. iptaro', for dptaros, best ; 
and KfKLTttv, to be strong, govern, from 
Kparhs, strong. The form fy-taros is a su- 
perlative from the base dp- seen in dp-rtos, 
ht, dp-€Trf, excellence. (V AR, to fit.) 
Der. aristocrat'tc ; whence aristocrat, put 
for * aristocratic person.' 

autocracy. (Gk.) From Gk. ahroKfA- 
rfia, absolute or despotic government.— 
Gk. a{rro; for airoi^ self; and Kparttv, to 
rule, from Kparvs, strong. Der. autocrat, 
Gk. avTotcpdrcap, 

democracy. (F.-Gk.) Formerly </<r. 
mocraty (Milton). — O. F. democratic ; Cot. 
— Gk. lhjfjLOKpaT€[a, popular government, 
rule by the people. — Gk. ^fjpo-, for lijtM?, a 



country-district, also the people ; and irpa- 
rttv, to rule ; as above. 

theocracy. (Gk.) Lit. •government 
by God ; ' similarly formed from $(6s, God; 
see Theist. 

Arithmetic. (F.-Gk.) In Sh.-F. 
arithnUtigue ; Cot — Gk. dfH$fVfTiKrf, the 
science of numbers ; fern, of ApiBurp-tKds, 
adj. from dpiOftos, number, reckoning. 

logarithm. (Gk.) Coined from Gk. 
Xoy-. stem of \6y09, a word, a proportion, 
ratio ; and dpi$fji6i, a number ; the sense 
being * ratio-number.* 
Ad:, a chest, box ; hence a large floating 
vessel. (L.) A.S. arr. — L. arra, a chest, 
box. — L. arcere, to keep. (V ARK.) 

arcana. (L.) L. arcana^ secrets, things 
kept secret. —L. arcere, to keep. 
Arm (I), part of the body. (E). M.E. 
arm. — A. S. earm. + Du. arm ; Icel. armr ; 
Dan., Swed., and G. arm ; Goth, artns ; I*. 
armtis^ the shoulder; Gk. <V)^s, joint, 
shoulder. (V AR, to fit.) 
Arm (a), to furnish with weapons. (F.— 
L.) See Arms. 

Armada, Armadillo, Armament, 
Armistice, Armour, Army ; see 

Arms, s. pi. weapons, (F.— L.) M.E. 
arm€S,'m0.h. armes^ pi.— L. arma^ neut. 
pi., arms, lit. * fittings.* {^ AR. to fit.) 

alarm, a call to arms. (F.-Ital.-L.) 
M. E. alarme. — F. alarme. — Ital. aWarmts 
to arms! put for alle arme.^'Lo^ ' 
Ulcts armas ; for L. ad ilia arma, to those 
arms J to your arms f 

alarum. (F.-Ital.-L.) Merely a 
Northern E. form of alarm, 

ambry, aumbry, a cupboard. (F.— 
L.) M. E. awmebry, awmery\ Prompt. 
Parv. ; the 3 is excrescent. — O.F. armarie, 
a repository ; properly, for arms ; but also 
a cupboard. — Low L. armaria^ a cupboard ; 
armarium^ a repository for arms. — L,.arma, 

arm (2), verb. M. E. armen. — O. F. 
artner, mm'L, armare^ Xo furnish with arms. 
^L. arma, arms. 

armada, a fleet. (Span.-L.) Span. 
armada, an armed fleet ; fern, of annado, 
pp. oiarmar^ to arm. — L. armar^, to arm. 

armadillo, an animal. (Span. — L.) 
Span, armadillos lit. * the little armed one,' 
because of its hard shell. Dimin. of ar- 
tfiado, pp. of armar^ to arm ; as above. 

armament. (L.) L. armamentum^ an 
equipment. — L. armare, to arm, equip. 


armistice. (F.— L.) F. amiistia.^ 
Low L. armistitium ^. not used ; but the 
right form. — L. armi-, for arma, arms ; and 
•stitum for statum, supine of sistere, to 
make to stand, cause to be still, causal of 
starCy to stand. (Cf. SolBtice.) 

armour. (F. — L.) M. E. armour^ or- 
mure.*»0,¥. armure, armeiire,^Lf. arma- 
tura,'L.armalus, pp. oi armart, 
to arm. 

army. (F.— L.) O.F. armee, fern, of 
pp. oi anrur, to arm.— L. arman, to aim. 

Aroint thee! begone! (Scand.) Cor- 
ruption of prov. E. (Cheshire) rynt thee, 
i.e. get out of the way (Ray). — Icel. ryma, 
to make room, dear the way. — IceL rdmr, 
spacious, allied to E. room. 

Aroma, a sweet smell. (L.— Gk.) Late 
L. aroma. — Gk. ^ipej/ia, a spice, sweet herb. 
Der. aromat-ic, from the Glc. stem dpafftoT', 

Around, prep, and adv. (E. and F.— L.) 
'M.. E. around ; put for on round; seeA- 
(a) and Bound. 

Arouse ; see House. 

Arquebus, a kind of gun. (F.— Do.) 
F. arquebuse^ 'an harquebuse, or hand- 
gun;* Cot — Walloon harkibuse, dialectal 
variation of Du. haakbus, lit. ' a gun with 
a hook.* The * hook ' probably refers to 
the bent shape of it ; the oldest hand-gvos 
were straight. — Du. haak^ a hook; and inu, 
a hand-barrel, a gun. See Hackbut. 

Arrack, an ardent spirit. (Arab.) Arab. 
*araqy sweat, juice, essence, distilled spirit. — 
Arab, root *araqa, to sweat. % Sometimes 
shortened to Hack; cf. Span, raque, arrack, 
ratafia, a liquor. (F. — Arab, and Ma* 
lay.) F. ratafia; cf. tajia, rum-arrack.— 
Malay araq idfla^ the spirit called tafiiL; 
where araq is borrowed from Arab. *araq. 

Arraign; see Bate (i). 

Arrange ; see Bing. 

Arrant, knavish, notoriously bad. (E.) 
Also spelt arrand. Put for arghand. 
Northern pres. part, of M. E. arghen, to be 
cowardly (Destruction of Troy, 1946.)— 
A. S. eargian, to be cowardly. — A. S. ^om 
timid. % Confused with errant^ from O.F. 
errant, wandering, pres. part, of crrer, to 
wander = L. errare ; see Bit. 

Arras, tapestry. (F.) So named from 
Arras, in Artois, north of France. 

Array ; see Bide. 

Arrears ; see Bear (a). 

Arrest ; see State. 

Arrive ; see Biver. 

Arrogate ; see Bogation. 


tvr, (E.) M. E. arcwif arwe, A. S. 
older form earh,^lcit\. or, an ar- 
terhaps akin to orr^ swift. 
JW'TOOt. (£.) So called, it is said, 
e the juice of the MaratUa galanga 
«d as an antidote against poisoned 


I. (E.) M.E. flry, ^yy. A.S. <prf. 
maL (Span. •• Arab.) Span. arr^//<z/, 
^ine, dock-yard, arsenal ; longer 
ataraxanal^ atarazana, where the a- 
"s to Arab, a/, def. article. Cf. Ital. 
a, a wet dock. •• Arab, ddr smdai^ 
ie of construction, place for making 
, dock-yard. <• Arab, ddr^ a house ; 
%£at^ art, trade, construction, 
inio. (L."*Gk.) IjaXtl^ arsenicum. 
6^€v%m6i¥, arsenic ; lit. a male prin- 
the alchemists had the strange fancy 
iietals were of different sexes. -• Gk. 
, stem of dfi<niVt a male. 
m ; see Ardent, 
(i), 2 p. s. pres. of verb. (E.) See 

(2), skill. (F.-L.) M.E. a/f.- 
arf. — L. arUm^ ace. of ars, skill. 
I, to fit.) 

ifloe. (F.-L.) In Milton. -F. arti- 
L. artificium^ a trade, handicraft ; 
skill.— L. a/1^/-, crude form of ars^ 
id 'fic-f for facere, to make. Der. 
tr, a skilled workman. 
lUory. (F. - L.) O. F. arHlUrie, 
lent of war, machines of war, in- 
I crossbows, &c., in early times.— 
xrttUer, to equip. — Low L. ariillare*, 
ke machines; a verb inferred from 
). artillator^ a maker of machines, 
led from arti-^ crude form of arsy art. 
laan, a workman. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. 
I. — Ital. artigianOy a workman. — 
.. artitianus*^ not found, but formed 
^.artiiuSf cunning, artful. — L. ar/i-, 
'orm of arSf art. 

rt. (L.) L. incrt'y stem of intrSy 
ul, inactive. — L. m, not: ars^ skill. 
ly, (L. — Gk.) L. tfr/mtf, properly 
id-pipe; also, an artery. — Gk. dpn;- 
Qd-pipe, artery. 

aicui, adj. (F.) Artesian wells are 
from F. Artisien^ adj. formed from 
, a province in the north of France, 
these wells were early in use. 
choke. (Ital. — Arab.) Ital. arii- 
1 corrupt form ; Florio also gives the 
js archiciocco, archicioffo ; also (with- 
: ar^ which answers to the Arab. def. 



art. a/, the) the forms carciocco, carcioffb. 
Cf. Spaa, alcachofa, an artichoke. — Arab 
al harshaft an artichoke. % Not Arab. 
ardi shaukl (Diez), which is a corrupt 
form borrowed from Italian. 

Artiole, a small item, part of speech. 
(F. ■• L.) F. article, — L. artiatlus, a jomt, 
knuckle, article in grammar ; lit. ' a small 
joint.* Dim in. of artus, a joint, limb. 
(VAR, to fit, join.) 

artioulate. (L.) L. articulaius, dis- 
tinct ; pp. of articulare^ to supply with 
joints, divide by joints. — L. articulus, a 
joint (above). 

Artifice, Artillery, Artisan ; see Art. 

As (i), conj. (E.) M.E. as^ als^ alse, 
also, al so. As \s vl contraction of also. 
^Proved by Sir F. Madden.) See Also. 

As (2), relative pronoun. (Scand.) Now 
vulgar ; but found in M. E. as equivalent 
to * which.' — O. Icel. es, mod. Icel. er, used 
as a relative pronoun. (Proved in Cleasby, 
Icel. Diet.) 

Asafoetida, Assafbatida, a gum. (Pers. 
and L.) Pers dzd^ the name of the gum ; 
the 'L./atida^ fetid, refers to its offensive 
smell. See Petid. 

Asbestos, a mineral. (Gk.) Gk. &- 
afitarosy unquenchable; because it is in- 
combustible. — Gk. d-, ncg. prefix ; and 
-cfiiaros, quenchable, from afiiyi^vfu, I 
quench, extinguish: 

Ascend ; see Scan. 

Ascertain ; see Certain. 

Ascetic. (Gk.) Gk. dcrm/riir^r, given to 
exercise, industrious; applied to hermits, 
who strictly exercised themselves in reli- 
gious devotion. — Gk. da/rTr^r, one who 
practises an art, an athlete. — Gk. dtricttv^ 
to work, exercise; also, to mortify the 
body, as an ascetic. 

Ascititious ; see Science. 

Ascribe ; see Scribe. 

Ash, a tree. (£.) M. £. ascA, A. S. asc. 
^Du. escA; Icel. asJkr; Dan. and Swed. 
ask ; G. escAe. 

Ashamed; see Shame. 

Ashes. (£.) The pi. of asA, which is 
little used. M. £. ascAe, axe, sing. ; the 
pi. is commonly a jr^^n, axen, but in North- 
ern E. it is ascAeSt askes, A. S. asce^ pi. 
aiscan, axon, ascan.^Du. ascA ; Icel. and 
Swed. asAa; Dan. asAe; Goth, az^, pi. 
azeon ; G. ascAe. 

Ashlar, Ashler, a facing made of 
squared stones, (F.-L.) It consists of 
thin slabs of stone for facing a building; 



so called because it took the place of the 
wooden shingles or tiles used for the same 
purpose. — O.F. aiseler (Livre des Rois), 
extended from O. F. aistlU^ aisieUf a little 
board, dimin. of ais, a plank. — L. assis, 
sometimes axis, a board, plank ; whence 
the dimin. assula, a thin piece of wood, a 
shingle for roofing. 

Ashore. (E.) Put for on shore. 

Aside. (E.) V\xt ioi on side. 

Ask. (E.) M. E. asken, axien, A.S. 
dscian^ dhsian^ dcsian ; the last answers to eischen ; Swed. aska ; Dan. 
aske\ G. heischen. Cf. Russ. iskctte, to 
seek; Skt. ichchhd. a wish, desire, esh^ to 
search. (V IS, ISK, to search.) 

Askance, obliquely. (Ital.-L.) Spelt 
a-scance by Sir T. Wyat ; ascanche by Pals- 
grave, who gives de trauers.en lorgtmnt, as 
the F. equivalent Etym. doubtful; but 
prob. due to Ital. scansare, * to go a-slope 
or a-sconce, or a-skew, to go sidelin ;' Florio. 
—Ital. S' ( «»Lat, ex, out of the way) ; and 
cansare, * to go a-slope, give place ;' Florio. 
This is derived, according to Diez, from L. 
campsare, to turn round a place, bend 
round it ; allied to W. cam, crooked, and 
Gk. KifivrtiVf to bend. 

Askew, awry. (Scand.) For on skew; 
a translation of Icel. d skd, on the skew; 
cf. Icel. skeifr, skew, oblique ; see Skew. 

A^slant. (Scand.) For on slant 

Asleep. (E.) For w ji^^/; Actsxiii.36. 

Aslope. (E.) For on slope. 

Asp, Aspic, a serpent. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. aspe^ aspic.^\j. aspidem^ ace. oiaspis. •• 
Gk. iLffvii (gen. cUririSos), an asp. 

Asparag^us. a vegetable. (L. - Gk.— 
Pers. 7) L. asparaj^s, — Gk. i.cvapayoi. 
Supposed to be of Pers. origin ; cf. Zend 
fparegha, a prong; Lithuan. spurgas, a 
shoot (Fick). 

ABpeot ; see Species. 

Aspen, Asp, a tree. (E.) M.E. asp, 
Chaucer, C. T. 2923 ; aspen is an adj. (like 
golden), and is used for aspen-tree ; cf. Ch. 
C.T. 7249. A. S. iisp, aps.^Jyn, esp\ 
Icel. osp, Dan. and Swed. asp ; G. aspe, dspe\ 
Lithuan. apuszis ; Russ. osina. 

Asperity. (F.-L.) F. aspiriiS, - L. 
asperUatem, ace. of asperitas, roughness. — 
L. asper, rough. 

exasperate, to provoke. (L.) From 
the pp. of ex-asperare, to roughen, provoke. 

— L. ^x, very; asper ^ rough. 

A8X>erse ; see Sparse. 

Asphalt. (Gk.) Gk. <£(r^rof , &ff<pa\Tw, 


asphalt, bitumen. Prob. a foreign wotd; 
perhaps Phoenician. 

Asphodel. (Gk.> Gk. ifffpoUXof, a 
plant of the lily kind. 

daffodU. (F.-L.-Gk.) The ^ is a 
later addition; perhaps from F. Jleur 
d'affrodille^ translated 'daffodil -flower." 
M."E. affodilUx Prompt. Parv. — O. F./tff- 
phodile, also affrodille, ' th*affodill, or a^hro- 
dill flower ;' Cot. — JL. euphodelus. — Gk» 
d^^^ScXof ^above). 

Asphyxia, suffocation. (Gk.) Gk. d< 
(Ttpv^ia, a stopping of the pulse.— Gk. d- 
ffipvicTos, without pulsation. — Gk d-, not; 
and atpvitiv, to pulsate ; cf^ a^vyn&s, pal* 

Aspire ; see Spirit. 

Ass. (E.) M. E. euse, A. S. assa. Cf. 
W. asyn^ Swed. Asna^ Icel. asni, L. Minus, 
Gk. Sivos, Also Irish eual, Du. eMel, Dan. 
and G. esel, Goth, asilns^ L. asellus, Prob. 
of Semitic origin ; cL Heb. athdn, a she- 

easel. (Du.) Du. ezel, an ass ; also a 
support, a painter's easel. Prob. borrowed 
directly from L. asellus. 

Assail ; see Salient. 

AsBassin,a secret murderer. (F.— Arab.) 
F. assassin. From Arab, hashishin, drink- 
ers of ' hashish,' the name of a sect in the 
13th century; the 'Old Man of the Moun- 
tain ' roused his followers' spirits by help 
of this drink, and sent them to stab his 
enemies, esp. the leading crusadeis.- Arab. 
hashish^ an intoxicating preparation from 
the Cannabis indica^ a kind of hemp. 

Assault ; see Salient. 

Assay ; see Essay. 

Assemble ; see Similar. 

Assent ; see Sense. 

Assert; see Series. 

Assess; see Sedentary. 

Assets ; see Sate. 

Asseverate; see Severe. 

Assiduous ; see Sedentary. 

Assign ; see Sign. 

Assimilate ; see Similar. 

Assist; see State. 

Assize ; see Sedentary. 

Associate ; see Sequence. 

Assonant ; see Soimd (3). 

Assort ; see Sort. 

Assuage ; see Suasion. 

Assume; see Exempt. 

Assure ; see Cure. 

Aster, a flower. ^Gk.) Gk. don}^, a 
star. See Star. 


asterisk. (Gk.) Gk. darfp/<rirof, a little 
star* also an asterisk *, used for distinguish- 
ing fine passages in MSS. ■• Gk. dartpi; for 
Grade form of danifp, a star. 

asteroid, a minor planet (Gk,) Pro- 
perly an adj.» signifying ' star-like.' -"Gk. 
aoTtpo-^i9fit, star-like. -• Gk. dartpo-, crude 
form of irr^p, a star: and ciS-of, form, 

astrology. (F. - L. • Gk.) F. astrotogie. 
^'Lt.astroiogiaXi) astronomy; (a) astrology, 
or science of the stars. ■• Gk. dcrpoKoyia, as- 
tronomy. —Gk. darpo-, for Sarpov, a star; 
and -XoT^a, allied to K6nios, a discourse, 
from X^iv, to speak. 

astranomy. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. astro- 
nomit.^'L, astfvncmt'a. m.Gk, Aarpovotila, 
~ Gk. doTpo-v, a star ; and -vofua, allied to 
rSfiMs, law, from vift€iv, to distribute. 

disaster. (F.-L.) O. F. desastre, *a 
disaster, misfortune;' Cot. Lit * ill-fortune.' 
^0,¥,deS', forL. dis-^ with a sinister or bad 
sense; and O. F. cut re, a star, planet, also 
destiny, fortune, from L. astrum, a star. 

AsthTna^ difficulty in breathing. (Gk.) 
Gk. dff$tta, panting. •• Gk. &&{fiv, to breathe 
oat— Gk. dtof, to breathe. C£ Skt. W, 
to blow. (VWA.) 

Astir. (£.) For en stir; Barbour's 
Bmce, xix. 577. 

Astonish, Astound. (£. ; modified by 
F.) The addition of -ish, as in extingu-ish, 
is due to analogy with other verbs in -ish. 
M. £. astoHun, astunuft^ astanen ; whence 
later astony, afterwards lengthened to 
astonish ; sdso astound, by the addition of 
excrescent d after », as in sounds from F. 
son. From A.S. dstunian, to stun com- 
pletely, compounded of d-, prefix, and 
stunian, to stun ; the exact equivalent of the 
cognate G. erstaunen, to amaze ; see A- (4) 
and Stun. p. Doubtless much confused 
with, and influenced by, O. F. estonner 
(mod. F. itonner\ to amaze ; this is from 
Low L. extonare, to thunder out, from ex- 
out ; and tonare, to thunder ; see Thimdev. 

Astray. For on stray; Barbour's Bruce, 
ziii. 1954 See Stray. 

Astriction ; sec Stringent. 

Astride. (E.) Vntioi on{the) stridi. 

Astringent. (L.) See Stringent. 

Astrology; Astronomy; see Aster. 

Astute. (L.) L. astutuSf crafty, cun- 
ning. —L. astus, craft. 

Asunder. (£.) For on sunder. A.S. 
en-sundron, apart. See Sounder. 

Asylum. (L. - Gk.) L. asy/um. • Gk. 



davXop, an asylum ; neut. of SurvKotf adj. 
unharmed, safe from violence. —Gk. d- 
not ; and o-vAi;, a right of seizure ; ffvk&ea, 
1 despoil an enemy. 

Asymptote, a line which, indefinitely 
produced, does not meet the curve which it 
continually approaches. (Gk.) Gk. dtr^fji^ 
wTOJTOi, not falling together, not coincident. 
— Gk. d-, not ; <ri//i, lor avv, together ; and 
nrorrCSf falling, from vlrrruv (pt. t vi- 
-nrcaKa) to fall. (V PAT.) 

At. (E.) M. E. at, A.S. at. + Icel. at; 
Goth, at; Dan. ad; Swcd. dt; h,ad. 

Atheism ; see Theism. 

Athirst. (E.) M.E. ofthurst, athurst, 
very thirsty; orig. pp. of a verb. A.S. 
ofYyrsted, very thirsty; pp. oiof^rstaUyio 
be very thirsty. * A. S. of, very (prefix) ; 
and hyrstan, to thirst ; see Thirst. 

Athlete. (L. - Gk.) L. atAleta. - Gk. 
dBXtfrifs, a combatant, contender in games. 
-• Gk. d$k€tv, to contend for a prize. — Gk. 
dO\of (for SUBXos), a contest; d0\oy (for 
d($\ov\ a prize. See Wed. 

Athwart, across. For on thwart, on 
the transverse, across ; see Thwart. 

Atlas. (Gk.) Named after Atlas, the 
demi-god who was said to bear the world 
on his shoulders ; his figure used often to 
appear on the title-page of atlases. — Gk. 
"AtAot (gen. ^AtAovtos), prob. 'the sus- 
tainer * or bearer, from ^ TAL, to bear. 

atlantio, an ocean, named after Mt. 
Atlas, in the N.W. of Africa ; from crude 
form ^AtXovti-. 

Atmosphere. (Gk.) Lit. 'a sphere of 
air round the earth.' Coined from drfui-, 
for djfjuis, vapour, air; and Sphere. 

Atom ; see Tome. 

Atone ; see One. 

Atrocity. (F.-L.) T.atrocit/, Cot. ^ 
Li. atrocitatem, ace of atrocitas, cruelty. -• 
L. at rod', crude form oiatrox, cruel. 

Atrophy. (Gk.) Gk. drpotpia, want of 
nourishment or food, hunger, wasting away 
of the body, atrophy. —Gk. d-, not; and 
rpi^ttv (pt. t. ri'Tpo^) to nourish., AttarCk ; see Tack. 

Attain ; see Tangent. 

Attaint ; see Tangent. 

Attar of Roses. (Arab.) Also, less 
correctly, otto 0/ roses, i.e. perfume. — Arab. 
*itr, peif ume. •• Arab, root *atara, to smell 

Attemper ; see Temper. 

Attempt ; see Tenable. 

Attend; see Tend. 



Attenuate ; see Tenuity. 
Attest ; see Testament. 
Attic, a small upper room. (Gk.) It 
orig. meant the whole of a parapet wall, 
terminating the upper fii9ade of an edifice. 
Named from the Attic order of architecture ; 
see Phillips, ed. 1 706. — Gk. *Attmc<5s, Attic, 
Athenian. Cf. F. attiqtu, an attic ; Attique^ 

Attire. (F.-Teut) M.E. atir, atyr, 
sb. ; atiren, atyren, verb. — O. F. atirier, 
to adorn (Roquefort). — O.F. a ( = L. £ui, 
prefix) ; and O. F. tirtf a row, file (Burguy) ; 
so that atirier is properly *to arrange.* 
Cf. O. Prov. tUra^ a row (Bartsch). p. 
From a Low G. form, answering to O. H. G. 
ziati, G. zUr^ an ornament ; cf O. Du. //Vr, 
'gesture, or countenance,' i.e. demeanour 

tire, to deck. (F.-Teut) Both as sb. 
and verb. M.E. /i>, (yr, sb.; which is 
nothing but M. £. atir with the initial a 
dropp^. Thus tire is merely short for attire, 
IJke/eal (of bells) for appeal. 
Attitude. (Ital.-L.) Sec Apt. 
Attorney; see Turn. 
Attract ; see Trace. 
Attribute ; see Tribe. 
Attrition ; see Trite. 
Attune ; see Tone. 
Aubxirn. (F.- Ital.-L.) See Alb. 
Auction. (L.) L. atutioneniy ace. of 
auctio, a sale by auction, lit. * an increase,' 
because the sale is to the highest bidder. •• 
L. auctus, pp. of au^re, to increase. See 

augment. (F.-L.) F. au^menter.^ 
L. augmentare, to enlarge. —L. augmentum, 
an increase. — L. augere, to increase. 

august. (L.) L. augustuSf venerable ; 
whence E. august, venerable, and August f 
the month named after Augustus Caesar. 
— L. augere, to increase, magnify. 

author. (L.) M. £. autor, auiour\ 
also auctor, auctour, (It does not seem 
to be used in O. F.) — h.auctor, an originator, 
lit. * one who makes to grow.'— L. auctus, 
pp. oiaugere, to increase. 

auxiliary. (L.) L. auxiliariusy helping, 
assisting. — L. auxilium, help. — L. augere, 
to increase. 

Audacious. (F. - L.) F. audacieux, 
bold, audacious. — L. audaciosus*^ not 
found; extended from L. audctci-, crude 
form oiaudcLx^ bold. — L. audere, to dare. 
Audience. (F.-L.) F. audience^ 'an 
audience or hearing;' Cot.-L. audientia, 


a hearing. — L. audienti-, crude form of 
pres. pt. of audire, to hear ; c£ L. attris, 
the ear. (-/AW.) 

audible. (L.) L. audibilis, tliat can be 
heard. — L. audire, 

audit. (L.) Perhaps froin L. auditus, 
a hearing ; but in WeUter's Diet, it is said 
to have arisen from the use of the 3rd pers. 
sing. pres. audit, he hears.— L. audire, to 
hear ; whence also audi-tor, 

auricula, a plant (L.) L. auricttla, 
the lobe of the ear; used to mean the 
* bear's ear/ a kind of primrose ; see below. 

auricular, told in the ear, secret. (L.) 
Low L. auricularis, in the phr. auricuitris 
cmfessio, auricular confession. — \„auricula^ 
the lobe of the ear; double dimin. izoiii 
auris, the ear. See Ear. 

auscultation, a listening. (L.) 1^ aus- 
cultation a listening.— L. auscuUatus^ pp. of 
auscultare^ to listen ; contr. form for ausicul- 
it-are *, a frequentative form from ausiaUa ^ 
old form of auricula, the lobe of the ear ; 
double dimin. of auris, the ear. 

obedient. (F.-L.) O.F. obedient.^ 
L. obedient', stem of pres. pt of obedire 
(O. L. oboedire), to obey. — L. ob-^ near ; 
and audire^ to hear. Der. dis-obedient, 

obeisance. (F.-L.) M.E. obeisance, 
—O.F. obeisance^ later Y , obi'issance^ obe- 
dience. — L. obediential obedience ; hence, 
respect.— L. obedienti-, stem of pres. pt of 
obedire (above). 

obey. (F. - L.) M. E. obeyen, - O. F. 
obeir. — L. obedire, Der. disoley, 

oyer, a term in law. (F.-L.) Oyer 
and terminer means, literally, * to hear and 
determine.* — Norm. F. oyer (F. ouir)^ to 
hear.— L. audire ^ to hear. 

oyes, oyes, hear ye I (F.-L.) Public 
criers begin by saying oyes, now corrupted 
into yes ! — Norm. F. oyez, 2 p. pL im- 
perative of cyer, to hear (above). 

scout (i ), a spy. (F. — L.) M. E. scoute, 
— O.F. escoute, a spy. — O.F. escouter, to 
listen. — L. auscultare ; see auBCultation 

Auger, a tool for boring holes. (£.) 
See Nave (i). 

Aught. (E.) For a whit ; see "Whit. 
Augment. (F.-L.) See Auction. 
Augur. (L.) M.E. augun-mL. augur, 
a sooth-sayer; said to mean a diviner by 
the flight and cries of birds. Hence a sup- 

Eosed etymology (not certain) from auis, a 
ird, and -gur, telling, allied io garrire, to 


inaugurate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
in-augurare^ to practise augury, to con- 
secrate, begin formally. 
August ; see Auction. 
Aunt. (F. - L.) M. E. aunie, - O. F. 
ante (mod. F. t-anii),^'L, amita^ a father*s 
sister. Cf. Icel. amma, a grandmother, 
O. H. G. ammdy mother, G. amme^ nurse. 
Aureate. (L.) Low L. aureaius, gilt, 
golden ; for L. auratus, gilded, pp. of 
aurare, to gild. — L. aurum, gold; O. L. 
ausum. (^US.) Der. aur-elia, a gold- 
coloured chrysalis ; aur^e-ol-a^ aur^-oUy the 
halo of golden glory in paintings ; auri- 
ferous^ gold-producing, fxomferre, to bear. 

loriot, the golden oriole. (F.— L.) F. 
loriot, corruptly written for roriot, where 
orioi is another form of orioli see oriole 

or(3,) gold. (F. — L.) In heraldry. F. 
tfr.^L. aurum, gold. 

oriel, a recess (with a window) in a 
room. (F. ■• L.) M. E. oriolf oryall^ a 
small room, portico, esp. a room for a lady, 
boudoir.— O. F. crioL ^Ijoyr L. oriolum^ a 
small room, recess, portico ; prob. for 
aureclunif that which is ornamented with 
gold. — L. aurum, gold. % See Pliny, b. 
xxxiii. c. 3, for the custom of gilding apart- 

oriflamme. the old standard of France. 
(F. — L.) F. ofifiambe, the sacred standard 
of France. — Low L. aurijlamma, lit. 
* golden flame,' because the banner was cut 
into flame-like strips at the outer edge, and 
carried on a gilt pole. — L. auri-, for auro-^ 
crude form of aurum, gold ; ^xAflamtna, a 

oriole, the golden thrush. (F. — L.) 
O. F. criol.^'L. aureolus, golden. 

ormolu, a kind of brass. (F.— L.) F. 
or mcu/u, lit. * pounded gold.' — F. or, from 
L. aurum, gold ; and mtmlu, pp. oimoudre, 
to grind, O. F. moldre, which from L. 
moUrt, to grind. 

orpiment, yellow sulphuret of arsenic. 
(F.— L.) lit 'gold paint.* F. orpiment, 
— L. auripigmentum^ gold paint. —L. auri-, 
for aurum \ and pigmetitum, a pigment, 
paint. fTGm pingere, to paint. 

orpine, orpin, a kind of stone-crop. 
(F.— L.) Named from its colour. M. E. 
orpin. — F. orpin^ • orpin, or live-long ; 
also orpiment;' Cot. A docked form of 
orpiment above. 
Auricular, Auscultation; seeAudi- 




Aurora, the dawn. (L.) L. aurora, the 
dawn ; put for an older ausosa*,^Gk, 7*i^s, 
i^olic avoji; Skt. ushdsd, dawn. (^US.) 

Auspice. (F.-L.) See Aviary. 

Austere. (F. - L. - Gk.) M . E. austere. 

— O. F. austere. — L. austerus, harsh, severe. 

— Gk. av(TTyjp6s, making the tongue dry, 
harsh. — Gk. avos, parched; avtty, to parch, 
dry. See Sere. 

Austral. (F.-L.; or L.) We find F. 
australe, * southerly ' ; Cot. — L. Ausiraiis, 
southerly. — L. Auster, the South wind. 

Authentic. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. au- 
tentique, auientik. — O. F. autentique, later 
authentique (Cot.) — 'L.authenticus, original, 
written with the author's own hand. — Gk. 
ah0(vriic6s, vouched for, warranted. — Gk. 
avBiirnjs, one who does things with his own 
hand. (Of uncertain origin.) 

Author. (L.) See Auction. 

Auto-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. airro-, crude 
form of atrr6s, self. Der. auto-biography, 
a biography written by oneself (see Bio- 
graphy); autograph, something in one's 
own handwriting, from Gk. ypiupuv, to 
write (see Qraphio). 

automaton, a self-moving machine. 
(Gk.) Gk. airrdfiaTov, neut. ot ain-6fMTOs, 
self-moving. — Gk. avro-, for ovr^, self; 
and a stem /juir-, appearing in ftar-tvof, I 
seek after, strive to do. Cf. Skt. mata, 
desired, pp. of man, to think. (^ MAN.) 
autonomy, self-government. (Gk.) Gk. 
aifToyofila, independence. — Gk. avrdvofios, 
free, living by one's own laws. — Gk. avrC-, 
self; and vffiofuu, 1 sway, from yifi€iv, to 
distribute (see Nomad). 

autopsy, personal inspection. (Gk.) 
Gk. avroif/ia, a seeing with one's own eyes. 

— Gk. airo', self; 6ipis, sight (see Optic). 
And see Axiatocracy. 

Autumn. (L.) L. autumnus, auctum- 
nus, autumn. (Perhaps allied to augere, 
to increase.) 

Auxiliary. (L.) See Auction. 

Avail ; see Valid. 

Avalanche ; see Valley. 

Avarice. (F. — L.) M. E. auarice (with 
u for v). — F. avarice. — L. auaritia, greedi- 
ness.— L. auarus, greedy; cf. L. auidus, 
greedy. — h.auere, to wish, desire. (V AW.) 
avidity. (F. — L ) ¥. avidity, greediness, 
eagerness. — L. auiditatem, ace. of auiditas, 
eagerness. — L. auidus, greedy, desinous. 

Avast, stop, hold fast. (Du.) Du. hou 
vast, houd vast, hold fast. '— Du. hou, short 



form of hotid^ iinper. of houden, to hold 
(see Hold) ; and vast, fast (see Fast). 

Avatar. (Skt.) Skt avatdra, descent; 
hence, the descent of a Hindu deity in 
incarnate form. — Skt. ova, down ; and tii, 
to pass over, pass. 

Avaunt» begone 1 (F.— L.) Short for 
F. en avantf forward I See Adyance. 

Ave, hail. (L.) Short for Aue Maria, 
hail, Mary (Lnke, i. 38). «• L. atu, hail I 
imper. sing, oiauere, perhaps to be pleased, 
be propitious. Cf Stct. av, to be pleased. 

Avenge; see Vindicate. 

Avenue ; see Venture. 

Aver; see Very, 

Average ; see Habit. 

Avert ; see Verse. 

Aviary. (L.) L. auiarium, a place for 
birds ; neut. of adj. auiarius, belonging to 
birds. * L. atii-, for auis, a bird. 

auspice, favour, patronage. (F. «• L.) 
F. auspice, a token of things by the flight 
of birds, an omen, good fortune. *L. au- 
spicium, a watching of birds for the pur- 
pose of augury. Short for auispicium*.^ 
L. aui', for auis, a bird ; and spicere, specere, 
to spy, look into (see Special). 

bustard, a bird. (F. — L.) Formerly 
also bistard (Sherwood). «> O. F. bistarde, 
* a bustard ; * Cot. Mod. F. ouiarde, — L. 
cuis tardat a slow bird (Pliny, N. H. x. 22). 
Cf. Port, abctarda, also betarda, a bustard. 
% Both O. F. bistarde and F. ouiarde are 
from auis tarda ; in the former case, initial 
a is dropped ; in the latter, ouiarde stands 
for an older oustardc, where ous'^'L, auis. 
See Diez. 

ostrich, a bird. (F. - L. andGV) M. E. 
cstrice, oystrychc. — O. F. ostruce ; mod. F. 
autruche, Cf. Span, avestruz. Port, abes- 
truz, an ostrich. ■> L. auis struthio, lit. 
ostrich-bird. Here struthio is from Gk. 
<rrpov$iojy,sji ostrich; extended from arpovO- 
69. a bird. And see £gg. 

Avidity ; see Avarice. 

Avocation. (L.) See Vocal. 

Avoid. (F.-L.) See Void. 

Avoirdupois. (F.— L.) Sh. has az;^tr- 
dupois with the mere sense of 'weight.* 
F. a^voir du pois, to have some weight, to 
weigh. — L. habere, to have (^,avoir^\ de 
illo, of that, of the (F. du^ ; and pensum, 
that which is weighed out, neut. oipensus, 
pp. of pendere, to weigh. ^ The F.. pois 
is now usually misspelt foids, as if from L. 
pofiduSf weight. See Poise. 

Avouch; see VocaU 


Avov^, to confess, to declare opoily. 
(F.-L.) See Vow, where it is ezplained 
that there is also (probably) a coDnectiiii 
with VooaL 

Await ; see Wait. 

Av^ake, Awaken ; see Wake. 

Award; see 'Ward. 

Aware; see Wary. 

Away. (K) For on way, thoogh 
now often used as if it meant off (out ot) 
the way. A. S. onweg, away. See Way. 

Awe. (Scand.) M. £. a^t o^^» <n>v; 
also e^, eghe, eye\ all orig. dissyllabic 
The latter set are from A.S. ege, awe; the 
former, not from A.S. oga^ awe (which 
was also used), but rather from IceL agi, 
awe, fear; 'DzxL.ave,^h»^,ege,oga\ Goul 
agis, fear, anguish; Irish tagheU^ feaz; 
terror; Gk. &xot, anguish, affliction; L. 
angor, choking, anguish ; Skt. agha, tin. 
The orig. sense is ' choking.* (^ AGH.) 
See Anguish. Der. aw-fuL 

ail. (£.) A.S. eglan, to pain.— ASL 
eg-e^ fear, orig. pain (above). 

Aw^k^rar(£ clumsy. (Scand. amd £.) 
Orig. an adv., signifying ' transversely/ or 
'in a backhanded manner.' lA,^, awkward, 
awkwart; 'awkwart he couth him ta'a 
he gave him a backhanded stroke, Wallace^ 
iii. 175. p. The suffix -ward is £., as in 
for-ward, on-ward, &c. The prefix is 
M. £. auk, awk, contrary, perverse^ wrong; 
this is a contraction of Icel. iffug-, like 
hawk from A.S. hafoc,m,\cei, bfugr, often 
contracted to ofgu, adj., turning the wrong 
way, back foremost, contrary, y. Here of" 
is for of, off, from, away ; and -ug' is a 
suffix. Cf. O. H. G. ap'Uh, M. H. G. ^ 
ich, turned away, perverse; from a/—G. 
ab, off, away, and the suffix -uh. Also 
Skt. apdk, apafich, turned away ; from ap-, 
for apa, of(, away, and aUch, to bend, of 
which an older form must have been ank, 
nasalised for ok. 8. Thus the sense oiawk 
is ' bent away * ; from Icel. af, cognate with 
£. of, off', and a suffix, from the ^ ML, 
to bend. See Of. 

Aw^L (£.) M. £. awel, aul, al, el. AS. 
awel, also c^/, an awl. <^ Icel. alr\ G. ahUi 
Skt. drdi Ut. 'piercer.* Cf. Skt. arpaya, 
to pierce, causal of ri, to go. 

Awn. (Scand.) M.£.a,$wf^ (13th cent), 
awene, awne, — Icel. bgn, chaff, a husk ; 
Dan. avne, chaff; Swed. agn, only in pL 
agnar, husks. + Goth, akana ; (5. H. G. 
agana ; Gk. ^x'^a, chaff. Cf. Gk. dyvpaw, 
chaff, husk of corn, L. acus, chaff; named 


Tom its prickliness; the lit sense being 

prickle.' (VAK.) 

Awning. (Pere.?) In Sir T. Herbert's 
FravelSy ed. 1665, p. 8 ; the proper sense 
leems to be 'a sail or tarpauling spread 
above a ship*s deck, to keep off the sun*s 
beat.* Prob. from Pers. dzvan, dwang, 
anything suspended, dwangdn, pendulous, 
tianging; awnang, a clothes-line; Rich. 
Diet. p. 206; whence perhaps also O. F. 
ntvent. Low L. auzHmna, * a pent-house of 
doth before a shop- window ;' Cot. 

Awry. (K) For on wiy, on the twist ; 
Barbour, Bruce, iv. 705. Sc« 'Wry. 

Axe, Ax. (£.) M. £. or, ex. A. S. Aur, 
rr; O. Northumb. acasa, arar^.<^Icel. ox, 
'ixi; Swed. yxa ; Dan. oxc ; Goth, afcitnsi; 
D. H. G. acchuSf G. CLxt ; L. asciay for cusia ; 
Gk. d^fn^ ; Russ. ose, CL Gk. ^t^, sharp. 
[y AK-S ?) 

Axiom. (Gk.) XVII cent. -Gk.<yi«/ia 
[gen. d^i&ftaros), worth, quality ; in science, 
ID assumption. • Gk. d^M, I deem worthy. 
■-Gk. Si^ioSt worthy, worth, lit. * weighing 
IS much as.'-*Gk. dy§iy, to drive ; also, to 
Nreigh as much as. (^ AG.) 

Axi8> axle. (L.) L. axis, an axis, axle- 
3ce.+Gk. 6^e»; G. acAse; A. S. eax, an 
ixle ; Skt. aksha, an axle, wheel, cart. 
/^ AG, to drive.) See Axle. 
Axle. (£.) M.£. axel, exel\ it also 
aeans * shoulder.' A. S. eaxl, the shoulder. 
^ IceL oxl, shoulder-joint ; bxull, axis ; 
>wed. and Dan. axel, shoulder, axle; G. 
ichstl, shoulder, <uhse, axis. p. The G. 
uhul, O. H. G. ahsala, is the dunin. of G. 
ukstt O. H. G. ahsa. The shoulder-joint 



is the axis on which the arm turns. Axle, 
an £. word, is dimin. of the form appearing 
in L. axis ; see Axis. Der. axle-tree, 
where tru is a block of wood. 

Ay I interj. (£.) M. ^. ey! A natural 
interjection. % The phr. ay me is French ; 
O. F. aymi, alas for me 1 Cf. Ital. ahinU, 
Span, ay di mi, Gk. oS/ioi. See Ah. 

Ay, Aye, yea, yes. (£.) Spelt / in old 
edd. of Shak. It appears to be a corruption 
of yea ; see Tea. 

A^e, adv., ever. (Scand.) M. £. ay, — 
Icel. ei, ever. 4* A. S. d, ever, also dwa ; 
Goth, aiw, ever, an adv. formed from aiws, 
an age, which is allied to L. auum, Gk. 
aliiw, an age. Cf. Gk. aXu, dc/, ever. 

Axlmutn. (Arab.) AzimtUhal circles 
are great circles on the sphere that pass 
through the zenith. Properly, azimuth is 
a pi. form, answering to Arab, as-samdt, 
ways, or points (or quarters) of the horizon ; 
from al samt, sing., the way, or point (or 
quarter) of the horizon. — Arab, al, the ; 
and samt, a way, quarter, direction ; whence 
also £. unith, 

Aaote, nitrogen. (Gk.) See Zoology. 

Asure, blue. (F. - Arab.) M. £. asur, 
azure, •• O. F. azur, azure ; a corrupted 
form, standing for lazur, which was mis- 
taken for tazur, as if the initial / indicated 
the def. article. * Low L. lazur, an azure- 
coloured stone, also called lapis lazuli,^ 
Arab. Idjward, lapis lazuli, a blue colour. 
So called from the mines of Lajwurd, where 
the lapis lazuli was found (Marco Polo, 
ed. Yule). 


to bleat. (£.) In Shak. ; an imita- 
ivc word. 

Babble. (E.) M. £. babelen, to prate, 
nnmble, chatter. The suffix -le is fre- 
{oentative; the word means *to keep on 
aying ba^ Ihi,* syllables imitative ofa cbild*s 
ittempts to speak. <^ Du. babbelcn ; Dan. 
'^U ; Icel. babbla ; G. bappeln ; and cf. F. 

Babe. (O M. E. bab, earliest form ba- 
laif.<«W., Gael., Irish, and Com. baban, 
mitation of maban, dimin. of W. mdb, a 
on, Gael, and Irish mac, a son, from Early 
(¥. wtaqvi, a son (Rhys). + Goth, magus, a 
l»y. (V^I'^GH.) 

Baboon. (F. or Low L.) F. babouin ; 
we also find M. £. babion, babian, babe- 
wine, * Low L. babewynuSy a baboon (a.d. 
1 2Q5). Origin uncertain. 

Bacchanal. (L.^Gk.) 'L. Bacchanalis, 
a worshipper of Bacchus, god of wine.— 

Gk. BoiKxoft "IcMfX^^ RO^ o^ wine. — Gk. 
\b.x^op, to shout, from the shouting of wor- 
shippers at the festival of lacchus. Lit. 
* to cry fax 1* 

Bachelor. (F.-L.) M. E. bacheler.^ 
O. F. bacheler, — Low L. baccalaHus, a 
holder of a small farm or estate, called in 
Low L. baccalaria. Remoter origin un- 
known, and much disputed. Perhaps from 



Low L. baca, put for L. itarca^ a cow. Or 
from Celtic, viz. W.^ii, little; though there 
is no evidence for this. 

Back. (E.) M.E. bak, A. S. ^«r.+ 
Icel. bak, Der. a-back, q. v.; back-bite^ 
M. E. bakbiten (P. PL B. ii. 80) ; back-ward^ 
M.E. ^arzcar<f/ (Layam. ii. 578), &c. 

Backgammon. (Scand.?) In Butler's 
Hudibras, c. iii. pt. a. Perhaps it meant 
' tray-game ; ' from Dan. bakke^ a tray, and 
gammerit game ; see Game, and see Blot. 

Bacon. (F.-Teut.) M.E.^a^w.-O.F. 
bacon ; Low L. baco. — O. Du. baken, bacon; 
from bak^ a pig. Cf. O. H. G. pacho, 
M. H. G. bachcy a flitch of bacon. 

Bad. (C.) M. E. bad. Of Celtic origin ; 
Corn, bad, foolish, stupid, insane ; cf. Bret. 
bad, stupidity. Also Gael, baodh, vain, 
giddy, booths foolish, stupid. 

Badge. (Low L.-iL.) M.E.Az^; Prompt. 
Parv. — LowL. bagia, bagea, 'signura, m- 
signe quoddam ;* Ducange. — Low L. baga^ a 
golden ring ; also a fetter (hence, probably, 
anything bound round the arm) ; also spelt 
baca, a ring, link of a chain, -i L. bacca, baca, 
a berry ; also, a link of a chain. (Doubtful.) 

Badger. (F.-L.) Spelt bageard in Sir 
T. More ; a nickname for the brock, M.E. 
badger, bager, a dealer in com, or, in a bad 
sense, a stealer of com, because the animal 
was supposed to steal com; so also F. 
blaireau, a badger, lit. * com-stealcr,* from 
bU, com. Badger stands for bladger, an- 
swering to a Low L. type ablataticarius*, 
due to Low L. ablatum, com. Cf. O. F. 
bladier, * a merchant, or ingrosser of com,* 
Cot., Low L. bladarius ; from Low L. bla- 
duntf short for abladum, ablcUum, com. 
p. Low L. ablatum signifies ' carried com,' 
hence ' stored com ; from. L. ablntunif 
neut. of ablaius, carried away. — L. ab, 
away; and laius, put for ilatus^ home, 
carried ; from ^ TAL, to lift. % Since F. 
bU is from L. ablatum^ the E. badger (for 
bladger) and F. blaireau are closely related. 

Baidinage, jesting talk. (F. — Prov. — L.) 
F. badinage, — F. badiner, to jest. — F. 
badin, adj., jesting. — Prov. bader (= F. 
bayer), lit. to gape; hence, to be silly.— 
Late L. badare^ to gape ; prob. of imitative 
origin, from ba^ expressive of opening the 
mouth. Cf. Babble. 

Baffle, to foil, disgrace. (Scand,) A 
Scotch word, as explained in Hairs Chron. 
Hen. VI II, an. 5. To IniffuU is * a great re- 
proach among the Scottes;* it means to 
disgi^ce, vilify. Lowland Sc. bauchle 


(XV cent. bcuhU\ to vilify. — Lowland Se. 
bauch, baught baach (with guttural ch or 
gh), insufficient, dull (said of tools), sorry, 
poor, tired, jaded, without animaticm (Ja- 
mieson). — Icel. bagr, awkward, clumsy, 
bdgr, uneasy, bdgr^ strife ; whence Icel. btfgfa, 
to hinder, push back, treat harshly, oppress, 
b(^^;a, to hinder. 

Bag. (E.) Put for baig. M. E. baggei 
O. Northumbrian balig, balg, Luke, xviL 
35.4-Goth. balgs, a wine-skin ; G. balg, a 
skin ; Icel. beigr, a skin, a bag. So also 
Gael, balg, bolg, also bag, a leathern bag. 
Lit. 'that which swells out* (Teut. -/ 
BALG.) See Bulge. 

bagatelle, a trifle, a game. (F. — ItaL — 
Teut.) ¥,bagateiie,ViXn^t.^ Ital. bagattelUi, 
a trifle, dimin. of Parmesan bagaia, a little 
property ; from Lombard baga, a wine-skin, 
of Teut. origin ; see Bog, baggage (i). 

baggage ( i ), luggage. (F. - C.) M. E. 
baggage, bagage.^O, F. bagage, a collectioo 
of bundles. — O.F. bagtte, a bundle. Of 
Celtic origin ; Bret, beadh, a bundle, W. 
batch, a burdeft; Gael, bag, balg, a wdlet; 
see Bag. 

baggpage (3), a worthless woman. (F.«> 
C.) Comipted from O. F. bagasse, 'a bag- 
gage, quean,* Cot. Cf. Ital. bagascia, a 
worthless woman, p. Perhaps orig. a 
camp-follower, baggage- woman; from O.F. 
bague, a bundle ; see Baggage (i). y. Or 
from W. baches, a dear little girl; from 
bach, little. 

bellows. (E.) M.E. belt, bely, hehm, 
a bag, but used in the special sense of 
* bellows.' Bellows is the pi. of M. £. ^r- 
low, a bag, also another form of belly ; and 
belly is another form of bag, Cf. G. blast" 
balg, a * blow-bag,' a pair of bellows. 

belly. (E.) l\.Ys,bely. A.S.^/^,old. 
est form bcelig, lit. a bag.4-I^u. bcUg, the 
belly ; Swed. balg, belly, bellows ; Dan. 
balg, husk, belly ; Gael, bolg, bag, belly. 

bilge. (Scand.) Properly the protube- 
rant part (belly) of a ship or cask ; hence 
the verb to bilge, lit. to fill one*s belly, to 
begin to leak, as a ship.— Dan. bcelge, to 
swill, Swed. dial, bdlga, to fill one*s belly. 
Also written bulge, 

bilge-water. (Scand. and E.) Water 
which enters a ship when lying on her 
bilge, or by her leaking there. 

billow, a wave. (Scand.) Icel. bylgja, 
a billow; Swed. bdlja\ Dan. bdlge,^}A, 
H. G. bulge, a billow, a bag. Lit. 'a swell* 
or surge; cf. Icel.^i^'a, to inflate, puff out. 


budge (i), a kind of finr. (F.-C.) 
Bud^t b lamhskin with the wool dressed 
outwards; orig. simply 'skin.'-*F. hougt^ 
a wallet, great pouch. «Lat hulgcL, a linle 
bag; a word of Gaulish origin.— GraL bdg, 
balg^ a btg, orig. a skin ; see Bag. 

budget^ a leathern bag. (F.—C.) Y.hou- 
gttte, dimin. of F. houge\ see bndfi^ above. 

Bail ( I ), security; as verb, to secure. (F. 
— L.) O. F. AoA^/rr, a law term, to secure, 
to keep in custody. — L. baittlare, to carry 
a child about, to take charge of a diild. — ll 
bdHlMS, a porter, carrier. Cf. also O. F. 
Asi/, an administrator, from L. dduUtu; 
hence our phr. ' to be Aaii,* 

hamiL (F.-L.) M. E. Aw/i/.O. F. 
iaii/i/. Cot ; cf. Low L. daii/iuus.^O. F. 
bailUr, to keep in custody. 

bailiwick. (F.-L.; aif</£.) FromO.F. 
haiUU, goremmcnt, firom bctilUr, yb. ; and 
M. £. wick^ A. S. w/r, a village, dwelling, 
station, hence jurisdiction (of a bailiff). 

Bail (a), a bucket See Bale (3). 

Bails, at cricket (F.-L.?) O. F. bail- 
^, s. pLy in the sense of palisade or barri- 
cade; lit pales or sticks. Perhaps from 
Ia hacuius, a stick. (Very doubtful.) 

Baixxi, a child. (E.) See Bear (1). 

Bait, to feed. (Scand.) See Bite. 

Baiae. (F.-L.) See Bay (i). 

Bake. (£.) M. E. bakm, A. S. bacon, 
pt X, boc, pp. ^^if.4-Du. bakken\ Icel. 
and Swed. lKtka\ Dan. bag€\ G. b€tcken\ 
Gk. ipirfw, to roast (y BHAG.) 

batoh. (£.) A batch is as much as is 
baked at once ; hence, a quantity. M. £. 
baccJut a baking ; from baken^ to bake. 

Balance. (F.-L.) Vi,lL, balance.^Y , 
balance^ 'a ballance, pair of weights or 
ballances ;* Cot. Cf. Ital. bilancia. — L. 
bilancem, ace. of bilanx, having two scales. 
p> L. bi', for bis, double, twice ; and lattx, 
a dish, platter, scale of a balance. 

Balcony. (Ital.-Teut) See Balk (i). 

Bald. (C.) M. £. balled-, the orig. 
sense was ' shining, white,' as in * bald-faced 
stag,' a stag with a white streak on its 
face.— Gael, and Irish bal^ ball, a spot, 
mark, speckle (properly a white spot or 
streak); Bret bal, a white streak on an 
animal's face ; W. ^1, whiteness in a horse*s 
forehead. Cf. Gk. ^oXi6^, white, ^oXok/nSs, 
Uld-headed. (VBHA.) 

Balderdash, poor stuff. (Scand.) It 
formerly meant poor or weak drink.— Dan. 
balder^ noise, clatter ; and da^ke, to slap, 
tap. Hence it appears (like slap-dash) to 



have meant a confused noise ; lecondarily 
a hodge-podge (Halliwdl) ; and generally, 
any mixture. See Bellow and Dash. 
Baldria (F. - O. H. G.) See Bali. 
Bale (i), a package; see Ball (a). 
Bale (a), evU. (£.> M. £. bale, A. S. 
btcUu, evil. -f> Icel. bol, misfortune; Goth. 
bcUws *, in balwa-wesei, wickedness; O. H. G. 
balo, destruction. Ber. baU-ful, 
Bale (3), to empty water out of a ship. 
(Du.?) XVI cent It means to empty 
a ship by means of bails, i.e. buckets. 
Perhaps Dutch ; cf. O. Dn. baillie, a tub 
(Hexham), Du. balie^ a tub, balien, to bale 
out. Cf. Swed. balja, Dan. bailie, G. balje, 
a tub. We find also F. bailie, a tub, which 
Littrd derives from Bret, bal, a pail, though 
referred by Diez to a dimin. form from 
Du. bak, O. Du. back, a trough* (Doubt- 

Balk (i), a beam, ridge of land. (E.) 
M. E. balke, A. S. balca, a heap ; which 
explains balked^ laid in heaps, i Hen. IV, 
i. I. 61.4*0. Sax. balko, a beam ; Du. bcdk, 
a beam, bar; Icel. bdlki, bdlkr, a balk, 
partition; Swed. balk, a beam, partition; 
Dan. bjcelke, a beam ; G. balken, Orig. a 
ridge made by the plough. (^^BH/Jl.) 
See Bore (1), Bar. 

balcony. (Ital.-Teut.) Ital. balcone, 
palcone, orig. a stage. — O. H. G. falcho, a 
scaffold ; cognate with O. Sax. balko, a 
beam (above). 

balk (a), baulk, to hinder. (E.) M. K 
balken. To put a bcdk or bar in a man's way. 

bulk (3), the stall of a shop. (Scand.) 
In Sh. — Icel. bdlkr, a beam ; also, a partition 
(pronounced with d like ow in c(nv)\ see 
Balk, above. Der. bulk-head, a partition. 
Ball (0, a dance. (F.-Low L.) F.Aj/.— 
Low L. ballare, to dance. -f Ok. fiaXJd^tw, 
to dance. 

ballad. (F. - Prov. - Low L.) M. E. 
balade.^O,V, balade; F. ballade. m^Frov. 
ballada, a song for dancing to. — Low L. 
ballare, to dance. 

ballet. (F. — Low L.) F. ballet, dimin. 
of bal, a dance. 

Ball (a), a spherical body. (F. — O.H.G.) 
M. E. balle. - F. balle. - M. H. G. balk, 
O. H. G. palld, a ball, sphere. + Icel. bollr, 

bale (1), a package. (F. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. bale. — F. bale, a ball, also a pack, 
as of merchandise ; Cot. The same as F. 
balle, a ball ; hence, a round package. 

balloon, a large ball. (F.-O. H. G.) 
Formerly baloon, a baU used in a game 




like football. -O.F. balon, *a little ball, 
or pack; a football or baloon:* Cot 
Mod. F. ballon \ Span. balon\ Ital. pal- 
lone ; augmentative form of F. balU, &c, 
a ball. 

ballot. (F.-O.H.G.) F. balloter, to 
choose lots. — F. ballotte^ a little ball used 
for voting ; dimin. of F. balU^ a ball. And 
see Bole, Bowl, Bolt, BolBter, Boil (2), 
Boiled (under Bulge). 

Ballad; see Ball (i). 

Ballast. (Du.) See Lade (i). 

Ballet. (F. - Low L.) See BaU (i). 

Balloon, Ballot ; see Ball (3). 

Balm. (F.-iL.-Gk.) A modified spell- 
ing; M. E. baunu, — O. F. bausnu,^ L. 
balsamum.^GV, fid\ffaftov, fragrant resin 
of the fiaKffafios, or balsam-tree. Der. em- 

balsam. (L. — Gk.) L. balsamum ; as 

Baluster, a rail of a stair-case, small 
column. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) YMlustre\ 
bahistres^ * ballisters, little, round, and short 
pillars, ranked on the outsides of cloisters, 
terraces,' Sec. ; Cot. -i Ital. balaustro, a ba- 
luster; so called from a fancied resem- 
blance to the flower of the wild pome- 
granate, -i Ital. balausto, balausira, the 
flower of the pomegranate. —L. balaustium. 
— Gk. jSoAauoTioy, the flower of the wild 
pomegranate. Cf. Gk. ^&Kavoi, an acorn. 
Der. oalustr-ade^ F. balustrade, from Ital. 
balusirata^ furnished with balusters. 

banisters ; corruption of balusters or 

Bamboo. (Malay.) XVII cent Malay 
bambdt the same. 

Bamboozle, to cajole. (Unknown.) 

Ban, a proclamation. (E.) Chiefly in 
the pi. battns (of marriage). M. E. ban. 
A. S. gebantif a proclamation (the prefix 
ge- making no difference). Cf. A. S. dban- 
tian, to summon, order out-f'^u. ban, 
excommunication ; bannen, to exile ; Icel. 
and Swed. bann, Dan. band, O. H. G. ban, 
a ban ; IceL and Swed. banna, to chide, 
Dan. bande, to curse. Cf. 'L.fama, a ru- 
mour. (VBHA.) 

abandon. (F. — Low L. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. abandoune, verb. — F. abandontter. -■ 
F. d bandon, at liberty (Brachet). -■ L. ad, 
at ; Low.. L. band-um, also bannum, an 
order, decree, from O. H. G. ban, pan, a 
summons, ban (above). Der. abctndon- 
bandit. (Ital.-O. H. G.) In Sh.- 

Ital. bandiio, outlawed, pp. of bandire, to 
proscribe, -i Low L. bannire, to proclaim. 
-■ O. H. G. bannan, to summon ; iixmi 
O. H. G. ban, cognate with £. ban. . 

banish. (F.-O.H.G.) M.E. bams- 
shen.'mO. F. banis-, stem, of pres. part of 
banir, bannir, to proscribe. —Low L. boK' 
nire ; as above, 
banns. (E.) Merely the pl. of ban. 
contraband. (luL— Tent.) Ital. rM- 
trabbando, prohibited goods. — Ital. contra 
(=L. contra), against; bando, a ban, from 
Low L. bannum, a word of Teut origin. 

Banana, the plantain-tree. (Span.) Span. 
banana, fruit of the banano ; prob. ot W« 
Indian origin. 

Band (i), Bond. (E.) See Bind. 

Band (2), a company of men ; see Bind* 

Bandit, a robber ; see Ban. 

Bandog, Bandy, Bandy-legged ; see 

Bane, harm. (E.) M. E. bane. A.S. 
batia, a murderer, bane. -f" Icel. bant; Dan. 
and Swed. bane, death ; Goth, banja, a 
wound ; Gk. ^^vor, murder, ^rcvr, % 
murderer. (^ BH AN.) Der. bane-ftd. 

Bang (i), to beat. (Scand.) In Sh. Dan* 
banke, to beat, O. Swed bAnga, IceL bcMg, 
a hammering. Cf. Skt. bkan;', to break. 

bungle, to mend clumsily. (Scand.) 
Swed. dial, bangla, to work ineffectually; 
from Swed. dial, bunka, bonka, or banka^ 
to strike ; see Bang (x). 

Bang (a), a narcotic drug. (Fers.) Pers. 
bang. Cf. Skt bhangd, hemp; the drug 
being made from the wild hemp. 

Banish. (F.-O. H. G.) See Ban. 

Banisters, corruption of Balusters. 

Bank (i), a mound of earth. (£.) M. £. 
banke, boncke (Layamon, 25185). A.S. 
banc (unauthorised). -f> O. Du. banck, a 
bench; Icel. baMki (for banki), a bank; 
O. H . G.panch, a banJk, a bench. Doublet, 

bank (a), for money. (F.— Teut.) F. 
banque, a money-changers table or bench. 
— O. Du. banck, M. H. G. banc, a bendi, 

bankrupt. (F.- Ital. -Teut and L.) 
Modified from F. banqueroute, bankruptcy, 
by a knowledge of the relation of the word 
to L. ruptus, broken. — Ital. banca rotta, a 
broken bench, because the money-changer's 
bench is said to have broken on his failure. 
— M. H. G. banc, a bench; and L. rupta, 
fern, of ruptus, pp. of rumpere, to break, 
banquet. (F.-Teut.) F. banquet^ a 


feast ; lit. a small bench or table ; dimin. 
of F. banc. ^ M. H. G. banc, a bench, table. 
bench. (£.) M. £. bencAc, ^A.S, bene, 
^ Do. banJk, a bench, table, bank for 
money; Swed. and Dan. bdnJk; G. banJk, 

Banner, Banneret : see Bind. 

Bannook; a cake. (C.) Gael bonnacA, a 

Banns, pL of Ban, q. y. 

Banquet. (F. - Tent.) See Bank. 

Bantam. (Java.) A fowl from Bantam, 

Mnter, raillery. (Unknown.) 

Bantling, an mfant (£.) Prob. for 
band-ling, one wrapped in swaddlmg bands ; 
with double dimin. suffix -l-ing. See Bind. 

Banyan, a tree. (Skt) An English, 
not a native name for the tree. So called 
because used as a market-place for mer- 
chants or ' bannyans,* as we termed them ; 
see Sir T. Herbert, Travels, ed. 1665, pp. 
51, 133. — Skt. banij, a merchant. 

Baobab, a tree. (African.) The native 
name in Senegal. 

Baptise, Baptise. (F.-L.-.Gk.) For- 
meriy baptise ; M. £. baptisen. — O. F. bap- 
tiser.'^jl baptizare. ^Gk. fiawriCtiv; from 
0a«Tfcr, to dip. Der. baptist, Gk. 0aw- 
nor/ft, a dipper ; baptism, Gk. fidmafia, a 



anabaptist. (Gk.) One who baptizes 
igain. Coined from Gk. d^d, again ; and 

Bar, a rail (F.-C.) M.E. barrt.^ 
0. F. barre, -• Bret, barren, a bar ; bar, 
branch of a tree ; W. bar, Gael, and Irish 
barra, a bar. (VBHAR.) 

barracks. (F. - Ital. - C.) F. baroque, 
■•Ital. baracca, a tent for soldiers. Of 
Celtic origin; Bret, bar, a branch of a 
tree; Gad. barr, a spike, barrack, top- 
branches of trees, barrachad, a hut or 
tx>oth. Cf Low L. barrce, palisades. 

barrel. (F. - C.) M. E. barel. - O. F. 
hareil\ F. bariL^Y, barre, a bar; from 
the staves of it. p. That the word is of 
Celtic origin is shewn by W. baril, Gael. 
haraill, Ir. bairile, Manx barrel, a barrel ; 
iom W. bar, &c., a bar. And see below. 

b^urricade. (F. - Span. - C.) F. barri- 
utde, — Span, barricada, a barricade, lit. 
3ne made with barrels full of earth.— 
Span, barrica, a barrel. —Span, barra, a 
iar ; see barrel. 

barrier. (F.-C.) M.E barrere.^Y, 
\arriin,^Y» barrer, to bar up.— F. barre, 
I bar. 

barrister. (Low L. — C.) A barliarous 
word ; formed with suffix -ister ( « Low L. 
'istarius) from the sb. bar, Spelman gives 
the Low L. form as barrasterius, 

debar. (L. and C) Coined from L. de, 
frx>m : smd bar, 

embargo. (Span. — C.) Span, embargo, 
an arrest, a stoppage of ships ; lit. a put- 
ting a bar in the way. Formed with pre- 
fix em- ( *■ Lat. in) from Span, barra, a oar. 
embarrass. (F.— C.) F. embarrasser, 
to perplex; lit, to hinder, put a bar in 
one*s wav.— F. em- (^L. in), smd a stem 
barras-, due to barre, a bar. jp. The stem 
barms' can be accounted for by the Prov. 
barras, a bar, Span, barras, a prison, both 
used as singular, though really the pi. 
forms of Prov. and Span, barra, a bar. 
The word is Southern F. 

Barb (i), hook on an arrow. (F. — L.) 
F. barbe.'mh. barba, a beard. Hence O. Y, 
flesche barbelie, 'a bearded or barbed 
arrow;' Cot 

barbel, a fish. (F.-L.) M.E. bar- 
bylle,^0,Y. barbel^ F.'L, bar- 
bellus, dimin. of barbus, a barbel. — L. 
barba, a beard. % Named from four 
beard-like appendages near the mouth. 

barber. (F. - L.) M. E. barbour.^ 
O. F. barbier, a barber. — F. barbe, a beard ; 
as above. See Beard. 

burbot, a fish. (F.-L.) F. barbote, a 
burbot; named from its small beards on 
the nose and chin. — F. barbe, a beard. 

Barb (a), a horse. (F.-Barbary.) F. 
barbe y a Barbary horse; named from the 

Barbarous. (L.-Gk.) L. barbarus,^ 
Gk. fidpfiapof^ foreign, lit. stammering; a 
name given by Greeks to express the 
strange sound of foreign languages. Cf. L. 
balbus, stammering. 

Barbed, as applied to horses; see 

Barbel, Barber; see Barb (i). 

Barberry, Berberry, a shrub. (F.- 
Arab.) F. berberis ; Cot. — Arab, barbdris, 
the barberry-lree. % The spelling should 
be berbery or barbary ; no connection with 

Barbican. (F.- Arab. ?) M. E. barbican. 
— F. barbacanct a barbican or outwork of a 
castle; also, a loop-hole; also, an outlet 
for water. Perhaps from Arab, barbakh, 
an aqueduct, a sewer (Devic). 

Bard. (C.) W. bardd, Irish and Gael. 
bardf a poet. 



(E.) M. E. bar, A. S. hicr. + 
Icel. b€rr\ G. bar\ lith. b<uaSfbosus,h^T^ 

Bargain. (F.-Low L.) M. E. bargayn, 
sb. — O. F. bargaigner, bargincr^ to chaffer. 
—Low L. barcaniarti to change about. 
Supposed to be from Low L. barca^ a bark 
or ship for merchandise ; see Bark (i). 

Barge; see Bark (i). 

Bark(i), Barque. (F.-Low L.-Gk. 
—Egypt.) Bark is an £. spelling of F. 
barque t a little ship. — Low L. barca, a sort 
of ship ; shorter form oibarica*, dimin. of 
baris, a sort of boat (Propertius). — Gk. 
fiapiSj a row-boat. Of Egyptian origin; 
Coptic barit a boat. 

barge. (F, — Low L. - Gk. - Egypt.) 
M. E. barge.^Y, barge, ^Ijoyr L. barica*^ 
dimin. of baris ; as above. 

debark. (F.-Low L.) F. debarquer^ 
formerly desbarquer, to land from a ship. — 
O. F. deS' (L. dis-)t away; and F. barque. 
So also embark (F. em-barquer); whence 

Bark (a), the rind of a tree. (Scand.) 
M. E. ^r^r. — Swed. bark\ Dan. bark; 
Icel. b'drkr. 

Bark (3), to yelp as a dog. (E.) M. E. 
berkefi. — A. S. beorcan, borcian^ to bark. 
Perhaps allied to break, to make a cracking 
noise ; cf. "LJrag-or, a crash. 

Barley. (E.) M.E. bar/i,^A,S, barlic, 
— A. S. bere, barley (Low Sc. bear)\ and 
'liCf put for ledc, a leek, plant. Cf. Goth. 
barizeins, made of barley; L. far^ com. 
See Fariiia, Leek, Garlic. 

bam. (E.) M. E. benie, A. S. bem, 
contr. form of ber-em (Luke, iii. 17).— 
A.S. bere, barley; and em, a place for 
storing, comer. 

barton, a court-yard, manor. (E.) O. 
Northumb. bere-ttin (Matt. iii. la). — A. S. 
bere, barley; and ttin^ an enclosure; see 

Barm (i), yeast. (E.) M.E. berme, 
A. S. beorma. + Du. berm ; Swed. bdrma ; 
G. bdrme. Allied to Ferment and Brew. 

Barm (2), the lap. (E.) See Bear (x). 

Bam. (E.) See Barley. 

Barnacle (i), a kind of goose. (Low 
L.— C. ?) Dimin. from F. bemaqtu (Cot.), 
Low L. bemaca, * Bernaca, aues aucis 
palustribus similes ; ' Ducange. Used by 
Giraldus Cambrensis, and presumably of 
Celtic origin. (See Max Miiller, Lectures, 
and Series.) 

Barnacle (3), a sort of shell-fish. (C. ? 


or L.— Gk.) Prob. a dimin. from Iridk 
bafneacht^L limpet; Gael, bairmach^ W. 
brenig, Bret, brennik, briftnik, a limpet; 
Com. brennie, limpets, derived by R. Wil- 
liams from bron, the breast, which the 
limpet resembles in form. p. Otherwise, 
it is a dimin. of X^ pema, a shell-fish; 
pemacula being changed into bemacuia 
(Max MUller, lectures, ii. 584). L. pema 
also means a ham, thigh-bone.— Gk. v^po, 
a ham. 

Barnacles, spectacles, orig. irons pnt on 
the noses of horses to keep them quiet 
(C. ?) The sense of * spectacles * is late, 
and due to a jesting allusion. M. £. bcr» 
nak, dimin. bemakill, ^Bemak for hozs, 
bet nakill, Chamus * (i,e. L. camus) ; Prompt 
Parv. I suspect bemak (for brenetk) to be 
the same word as brank or branks; see 
Branks. The sense is just the same. We 
find bemac in O.F. (in an Eng. MS.); 
Wright's Vocab. i. 100, 1. 3. 

Bw>meter, for measuring the wei^of 
the air. (Gk.) Gk. ^ofo-, for ^apoi^ w«ghtt 
and fxirpoy, a measure ; see Metre. 

Baron, a tiUe. (F.-O. H. G.) M.E* 
banm.'mY, baron; older form ber (Piot. 
bar), the suffix -on only marking the aoc 
case (Diez).-0. H. G. bar, a man, prob. a 
porter (cf. G. frucht-bar, fruit -bearing). 
Perhaps from O. H. G. berattt to bear; see 
Bear (i). % Uncertain. 

Barouche, a carriage. (G.— ItaL«-L.) 
G. barutscht, — Ital. baroccio, biroccio, a 
diariot, orig. a two -wheeled car.«BLi. H' 
rotus, two-wheeled.— L. bi-^ double; and 
rota, a wheeU 

Barracks. (F.-Ital.-C.) See Bar. 

BarreL (F.-C.) See Bar. 

Barren. (F.) M. E. barcin. - O. F. &f- 
raigne ; F. brehaigne, sterile. Of unknown 

Barricade, Barrier, Barrister; see 

Barrow (x), a burial-mound. (E.) See 

Barrow (a), a wheel-barrow. (E.) See 
Bear (i). 

Barter, to traffic. (F.) M. E. barhyn. 
— O. F. bareter, barater, * to cheat, beguile, 
also to> barter ;' Cot. O. F. barat, • dieat- 
ing, also a barter ;* Cot. p. Of donbtfiil 
origin ; Diez suggests Gk. vp^rrcir, vpiuO' 
ativ, to transact business ; but rather Celtic 
(Littr^). Cf. Bret, barad, treachery, Irish 
brath, W. brad, treachery, Gael. breUh, ad- 
vantage by unfair means; Iri^ bradack^ 


Gael, bradag, thievish, rogtiish ; W. bradu, 
to plot. 
Barton. (£.) See Barley. 
Barytes, in chemistry. (Gk.) Named 
from its weight. — Gk. hapvrqs, weight.— 
Gk. fiapvs, heavy. See Qrave (a). 

barytone. (Ital.-Gk.) Better bari- 
ton€\ a musical term for a deep Toice.— 
ItaL bariiono, a baritone. — Gk. fiapi/^, 
heavy, deep ; and rbvos, a tone ; see Tone. 
Basalt. (F. - L.) F. basa//e. - L. ba- 
sa//ts, a hard kind of marble in ^Ethiopia. 
An African word (Pliny). 
Base (i), low. (F.-L.) M. E. bass, 
base,^F. bos, m., basse, fem. — Low L. bds- 
sus, low ; the same word as L. Bassus, 
proper name, which seems to have meant 
* stoat, fat,' rather than merely * low.* 

abase. (F. — L.) ¥.abaisser,abbaisser\ 
Cot — Low L. abassare, to lower. — L. ad^ 
to ; and Low L. bassare, to lower, from 
bassus, low. Der. abase-ment, 

basement, lowest floor of a building. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) Appears in F. as saubassc' 
aunt, the basement of a building ; formed 
from sous, under, smd •bassement, borrowed 
from ItaL bassamento, lit an abasement.— 
Ital. bassare, to lower. — Ital. basso^ low. — 
Low L. bassus, 

bass (i)» lowest part in music (F. — L.) 
F. basse^ fem. of bos, low. Cf. Ital. basso, 

bass-relief. (Ital. - L.) Ital. basso- 
Ttlitvo* See under Levity. 

bassoon, a bass instrument. (F.— Ital. 
— L.) F. basson. — Ital. bassone, a bassoon. 
—Ital. basso, bass (above). 

debase. (L., and F. — L.) Formed 
from base by prefixing L. de, down. 
Base (a), a foundation. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. £. bas,^F. base.^L. bast's. mmGk, fidats, 
a going, a pedestal, base. — Gk. base fia*, 
to go, as in $aiv€tv, to go. (y GA.) 

basis. (L.— Gk.) L. basis, as above. 
Basement. (F. - Ital. - L.) See 
Bate (i). 

Basenet, Basnet; see Basin. 
BashftiL (F. and £.) Put for abash-fuh 
see Abash. Prob. by confusion with abase 
and base,, 

Basil, a plant (F.-L. - Gk.) Short for 
basilic.^Y, basilic, *herb basill;' Cot — 
L. basilicum, neut of basilicus, royal.— 
Gk. fiwnKiKbs, royaL — Gk. fiafftXtift, a king. 

basiHea, a large hall. (L.— Gk.) L. 
basilica, fem. of basilicus, royal. 
. basilisk, a fabled serpent. (Gk.) Gk. 
fiafftXtffK6fp lit royal ; also a lizard or ser- 



pent, named from a spot on the head like 
a crown. — Gk. fiaaiXtvs, a king. 

Basin. (F.-C.) M. £. bacin, basin. ^ 
O. F. bacin ; F. bassin. — Gael, bac, a hol- 
low ; W. bacA, a hook ; Bret baJ^, bag, a 
shallow boat. 

basenet, basnet, a light helmet. (F. — 
C.) In Spenser.— O.F. Id^tif^/, dimin. of 
bacin ; from its shape. 

Basis. (L.-Gk.) See Base (a). 

Bask. (Scand.) M. £. baske, to bathe 
oneself, Palsgrave ; and cf. bathe hire, to 
bask herself, Ch. C. T. Nonnes Prestes 
Tale, 446. — Icel. ba'^Sa sik, to bathe one- 
self; cf. Icel. bafSast (for ba^ask), to bathe 
oneself. Cf. also Swed. dial, at basa sig i 
solen, to bask in the sun, badfisk, fishes 
basking in the sun. See Bath. % Formed 
like Busk. 

Basket. (C.) M. E. basket. ^^W. basged; 
Com. basced; Irish basceid; Gael, bascaid, a 
basket Perhaps from \V. basg, a plaiting. 

Bass (i), in music. See Base (i). 

Bass (a), Barse, Brasse, a fish. (E.) 
M. E. barse, bace (with loss of r). A. S. 
bars, a percli.4*I^u. boars ; G. bars, barsch, 
a perch. 

Dream, a fish. (F.-Teut) M.E.^r^<rw. 
— O. F. bresme (F. brimc). — M. H. G. 
brahsem (G. brassen) ; O. H. G. prahsema ; 
extended form of G. bars. 

Bassoon. (F.- Ital.- L.) !SeeBase(i). 

Bast. (E.) M. E. bcut ; bast-tre, a lime- 
tree. A. S. ba:st, a lime-tree ; whence bast 
is made. -f> Icel., Swed., Dan., G. bast. 
Perhaps allied to Bind. 

baste (3), to sew slightly. (F. - M. 
H. G.) M. E. basten. - O. F. bastir, F. 
bdtir, to sew slightly; a tailor's term. — 
M. H. G. basten, to bind ; orig. to tie with 
bast. — G. bast, bast 

Bastard, an illegitimate child. (F.) 
M.E. bastard, applied to Will. L-O. F. 
bastard, the same as Jils de bast, lit. ' the 
.son of a pack-saddle,' not of a bed, [The 
expression a bcut ibore, illegitimate, occurs 
in Rob. of Glouc. p. 516.] — O. F. bast, a 
pack-saddle (F. bAt^ ; with suffix -ard, from 
O. H. G. hart, hard, first used as a suffix 
in proper names and then generally. 

Biaste (i), to beat. (Scand.) Icel. beysta, 
to beat ; Swed. bosta, to thump. Cf, 
O. Swed. bcua, to strike. 

Baste (2), to pour fiit over meat. (Un- 
known.) In Sh. ' To baste, linire ; ' Levins, 
ed. 1570. 

Baste (3), to sew slightly. See Bast^ 



Bastile, a fortress. (F.) O. F. basiilU, a 
building. -O. F. bastir (F. bdiir), to build. 
Origin uncertain ; perhaps allied to Baton, 
bastion. (F.-ItaL) F. ^/i^.-Ital. 
bastione, part of a fortification. — Ital. bos- 
iirCt to build ; allied to O. F. bcutir. And 
see Battlement. 

Bastinado (Span.) See Baton. 

Bastion. (F.-ItaL) See Bastile. 

Bat <i), a cudgel. (C.) M.E. batte.^ 
Irish and Gael, bata^ bat, a staff, cudgel; 
cf. Bret, bataraz, a dub. Der. bat-let, with 
double dim in. sufHx -l-et. 

Bat (a), a winged mammal. (Scand.) 
Corrupted from M. £. bakke. — Dan. bakke, 
now only in com p. aften-bakke, evening- 
bat. And bakke is for blakke\ Icel. U'Sr- 
blaka^ a 'leather-flapper/ a bat. -■ Icel. btaka^ 
to flutter, flap the wings. 

Batch. (£.) See Bake. 

Bate (I), to diminish. (F.-L.) Short 
for abate, by loss of a ; see Batter (i). 

Bate (2). strife. (F.-L.) M.E. bate\ 
a dipt form of Debate, in the sense of 
strife. % So vAso fence for de-fence, 

Bath. (E.) M.E. ba^, A.S. *rrtJ.+ 
Icel. bdS ; O. H, G. pcul^ bad\ O. Swed. 
bcul. The orig. sense was a place of 
warmth ; cf. O. H. G. bdhen (G. bdhen\ 
L. fmere^ to warm, foment Allied to 
Foment and Bake. 

bathe. (E.) A.S. bafStan, to bathe. - 
A. S. ba}St a bath. And see Bask. 

Bathos. (Gk.) Lit. depth, sinking. — Gk. 
iSa^s, depth ; cf.^a^uj, deep. (VGABH.) 

Baton, Batoon, a cudgel. (F.) F. bdton, 
O.F. basion.'m'Lovr L. bastonem, ace. of 
bcutOf a cudgel. Origin doubtful ; connected 
by Diez with Gk. fiaffrdiftv, to support. 

bastinado. (Span.) From Span, bos- 
/onada,& beating. —Span, boston, a stick » 
Low L. bastonem (above). 

batten (2), a woo(^ rod. (F.) To 
batten down is to fasten with battens. Batten 
is merely another, spelling of Baton. 

Battalion. (F.- Ital.) See Batter. 

Batten (i), to grow fat, fatten. (Scand.) 
See Better. 

Batten (2) ; see under Baton. 

Batter (i), to beat. (F.-L.) M.E. 
batren, — F. bait re. — L. batere, popular form 
oibattiere, to beat. 

abate. (F. - L.) M. E abaten. - O. F. 
abatre.^Jjoyr L. abbattere, to beat from or 
down. — L. abt from ; and batere, for batuere, 
to beat. % Hence bate, to beat down ; by 
loss of a. . 


battalion. (F.- Ital.- L.) T.batat 
— Ital. battaglione, a battalion. — Ital. 
taglia, a battle ; see battle below. 

batter (2), a compound of eggs, i 
and milk. (F. - L.) M. E. batour. - ( 
baturCf a beating. — F. battre, to beat (ab 
So called because beaten up. 

battery. (F.-L.) F. bateri€, bati 
* beating, battery ; * Cot. — F. battre, to 

batUe. (F.-L.) U.'E. bataille, bai 
-O. F. bataitle, (i) a fight, (2) a batta 
Low L. bcUalia, a fight. — L. batere 
batuere, to beat. 

battledoor. (Prov.-L.) M.E. 5 
doure. Prompt. Parv. — Prov. batedor^ S 
batidor, a washing-beetle, which was 
at first the sense of the E. word. | 
corruption to battledoor was due to 
fusion with battle, a small bat.] — I 
batre^ Spsm. batir, the same as F. battr 
beat; with suffix -dor, which in Prov. 
Span. — L. suffix -torem, ace. form J 
nom. 'tor, expressing the agent. 

bombat. (F.-L.) Orig. a verb. 
combcUtre, O. F. combatre, to fight wit 
F. com- («L. com-), with; and F. ba 
O. F. batre, to fight. Der. combat-ant 
pres. pt). 

debate. (F. - L.) M. E. dcbatet 
O. F. debatre, to debate, argue. — L. 
down ; batere, to beat (above). 

rebate, to blunt a sword's edge. (1 
L.) O.F. rebatre, to beat back agaii 
F. re- (L. re-\ back ; O. F. batre, F. ba 
to beat ; see Batter (1) above. 
Battlement. (F.) M. E. baUlm 
baiilment. No doubt equivalent to 
O. F. bastillement*, from O. F. bastillet 
fortify, derivative of O. F. bastir, to bi 
See Bastile. 

embattle (i), to furnish with ba 
ments. (F.) M.E. embattelen.^O.Y. 
( =s L. im-, for in-, prefix) ; and O. F. 
tiller, to fortify ; as above. 
Bauble (i), a fool's mace. (C. ?; 1 
Y.. suffix.) Different from to«^/^ (2). H. 
babytl, bable, babel (Gower, C. A. i. 2 
Named from its swinging motion ; cf. Vi 
bablcn, to swing about, as if for mod 
bobble*, to keep bobbing, frequent of 
see Bob. 

Bauble (2\ a plaything. (F. — I 
Corr. from F. babiole, a child's toy. — ! 
bcdfbola, a toy. — Ital. babbeo, a simple) 
cf. Low L. babulus, a simpleton. From 
uttering of indistinct sounds ; cf. Gk. /3i 
(ftv, to chatter; see Babble, Barbaroi 


f The corruption of F. babiole was due to 
confusion with Bauble (i). 

Bawd, a lewd person. (F. — G.) See 

BawL (Scand.) Icel. baula, to low as 
a cow; Swed. bdla, to roar; see Bull, 

Bay (i). reddish brown. (F.-L.) M. E. 
bay,^0, F. ^i. — L. badius, bay-coloured. 
baiae, coarse woollen stuff. (F. ^ L.) 
An error for bayes, pi. of F. baye, 'the 
cloth called bayes ; ' Cot. — O. F. bai, bay- 
coloored ; as above. From the orig. colour. 
Cf. Span. bayOt bay, bayeta, baize ; &c. 

bayard. (F.—L.) A bay horse; from 
the colour. The suffix -ard is Teutonic. 

Bay (a), a kind of laurel ; properly, a 
bcny-trec. (F.— L.) M. E. bay, a berry. 
— F. baU, a berry. — L. bacca, a berry. 

Bay (3), inlet of the sea. (F.-L.) F. 
baii, an inlet— Low L. baia, a bay; cf. L. 

bay-window, a window with a recess. 
The word bay, an inlet, came to mean any 
recess, esp. in a building. 

Bay (4), to bark as a dof^. (F. - L.) For 
abay. M. E. abayen. — O. F. abbayer ; Cot. 
-• L. ad, vX', and baubari, to yelp. Cf. 
bubo, an owl. 

bay (5), in phr. of bay. (F. — L.) For 
abqy.^F. abois, abbots; Stre aux abois, to 
be at bay, lit 'to be at the baying of the 
dc^.' FL of F. cd)oi, the bark of a dog ; 
verbal sb. from F. tUfoyer, O. F. abbayer, to 
yelp, bay. 

BiBiy- window; from Bay (3) and Win- 

Bayonet. (F.) XVII cent F. baton- 
Hittti formerly bayonette. Named from 
Bcymme (France), where first made. 

Basaar. (Pers.) Pers. bdzdr, a market. 

Bdellium. (Heb.) A precious substance. 
-• Heb. beddlach, bdellium. 

Be-, prefix. (£.) A. S. be-, preBx ; often 
causative^ as in be-numb, to make numb. 
Note also be-head, to deprive of the head ; 
Ar-M/, to set upon, set round; be-mire, to 
cover with mire ; &c. 

Be, to exist. (£.) M. E. been, A. S. 
btSm, to be.-f>W. bod, to be ; Russ. buite ; 
l^f0y (pt t/«0; Gk. ^iJctv; Skt bhu, 


Beaoh. (Scand.?) XVI cent Perhaps 
from Swed. backe, a hill, slope, O.Swe^l. 
h&cki, the bank of a river ; Dan. bakke ; 
IceL bakkif a ridge, bank of a river. Allied 



Beaoon. (E.) lli»'E.,beken, A.S,beJceft, 

beck (i), a nod, sign. (E.) From the 
verb to beck, short for to beckofi ; see below, 
beckon. (E.) M. E. becnen, A. S. 
bknan, bedcnian, to make a sign. — A. S, 
bicn, bedcen, a beacon, token, sign. 
Bead. (E.) See Bid (i). 
Beadle. (F. - O. H. G.) See Bid (a.) 
Beagle, a dog. (Unknown.) M. E. begle^ 
Squire of Low Degree, 1. 771. 
Beak. (F.-C.) See Peak. 
Beaker. (O. Low G. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
biker, byker. — O. Sax. bikeri ; Icel. bikarr, 
a cup.^Du. beker\ G. becher; Ital. bicchiere, 
p. From Low L. bicarium, a wine-cup. — 
Gk. fiiKOi, an earthen wine-vessel ; a word 
of Eastern origin. 

pitcher. (F. - O. H. G. - L. - Gk.) 
The same word, F. pichier, ' a pitcher ; 
a Languedoc word ; * Cot -• O. H. G. pe- 
chdri (G. b€cher).^ljoyi L. bicanum; as 

Beam (i), a piece of timber. (E.) M. E. 
beem. A. S. bedm, a tree.+Du. ^om ; G. 
baum ; Goth, bagms. 

beam (2), a ray. (E.) The same word ; 
specially used to signify a straight ray. 
A. S. bymende bedm, * the pillar of fire.' 

boom (2), a beam, pole. (Du.) Du. 
boom, a tree, a beam ; see Beam (i). 

bumpkin, a thick-headed fellow. (Du.) 
— O. Du. boomken, a little tree (Hexham) ; 
dimin. of boom, a tree, a beam, bar. The 
E. bumkin also meant a luff-block, a thick 
piece of wood (Cotgrave, s. v. Chicambaulf) ; 
hence readily applied to a block-head, 
thick-skulled fellow. 

Bean. (E.) M. E. bene. A. S. bedn.-^ 
Icel. baun\ O. H. G. p6na \ \i.ffaen. 
Bear (i), to carry. (E.) M. E. beren. 
A. S. ^^nx/i.+Goth. bairan ; 'L./erre ; Gk. 
4>^p€iv; SktMri. (^BHAR.) "Dec. up- 

bairn, a child. (E.) M. E. bam. A.S. 
bearn.^\cc\., Swed., Dan., and Goth, barn ; 
Skt. bhama. Lit. ' that which is bom.' 

barm, the lap. (E.) M. E. barm. A. S. 
bearm, lap, bosom. « A. S. beran, to bear. 

barrow (2), a wheel -barrow. (E.) 
M. E. barowe. — A. S. beran, to bear, carry, 
berth, a secure position. (E.) It ap- 
pears to be the same word as birth. Cf. 
M. E. birfi, berS, burS, a birth, race, nation, 
rank, place, station. 

bier, a frame on which a corpse is borne. 
(E.) M.K.beere,bare. A.S. ^r.- AS. 




beran, to cairy.+Icel. darar; 'L./erefrum; 
Gk. <p4p€Tpov, And see Brother. 

birth. (E.) M.E. difiS, birthe, A.S. 
b€or6 ; also gebyrd, birth. — A. S. bcran, to 
bear. Cf. Icel. buf^r, G.geburt, 

burden (i), burthen, a load carried. 
(E.) A. S. byriSen, a load.^A. S. bor-en, 
pp. of beran, to bear. + Icel. byr'^r, byrfSt ; 
Swed. bon/a; Dan. byrde; Goth, baur/Aci ; 
G. biirde ; Gk. <p6proi, 

forbear. (E.) K.S. forberan; for the 
prefixy^r-, see For- (2). 

overbearing. (E.) Lit. bearing over. 
Bear (2), an animal. (E.) M. E. bere, 
A. S. bera. + Icel. bera, bjom ; O. H, G. 
jxrv ; Skt. bhalla. 
Beexd. (E.) M. E. berd, A. S. beard, 
+.Pu. board \ Icel. bar^, a brim, verge, 
beak t>f a ship ; Russ. borodd \ W. barf\ 
L. barba, 

barbed, accoutred ; said of horses. (F. 
-iScand.) Also barded^ the better form. 
— F. bard^, * barbed as a horse ; * Cot. — F. 
barde, horse-armour. — Icel. bar^, a brim 
(lit. beard) ; also a beak or armed prow of 
a war-ship; whence it was applied to horses. 
Thus barbed is a sort of F. translation of 
barded. See Barb (i). 
Beast. (F. - L.) M. E. beste, - O.F. 
bezU (F. bSt€.)'^h. bestia, a beast. 

beatial. (F. - L.) F. besita/, - L. beslt- 
alts, beast-like, -i L. bestia. 
Beat. (E.) M. E. beien. A. S. bedtan. 
+ Icel. battta ; O. H. G. p6tan, M. H. G. 
bSzen. (Teut. y BUT, to beat.) 

abut, to project towards. (F. — G.) In 
Shak. «- O. F. aboter, abouier, to thrust 
against. — F. a (= L. ad), to ; M. H. G. 
Mzen^ to beat; see butt (i) below. 

beetle, a heavy mallet (E.) M. E. 
beteL A. S. byiel, a mallet, beater.* A. S. 
bedtan, to beat. 

boss, a knob. (F.-O.H.G.) M.E. 
bosse, knob of a buckler. »F. basse, a hump, 
bump, -i O. H. G. pdzan, to beat ; a bump 
being the effect of a blow. 

botch (1), to patch. (O.LowG.) M.E. 
bocchen, ^ Du. ootsen, to strike ; O. Du. 
butsen, to strike, repair. From the notion 
of repairing roughly by hammering. Du. 
boi'Sen S& from the same root as A. S. 

botch (a), a swelling. (F. - O. H. G.) 
M.E. bocche,^0*Y, boce, a boss, botch, 
boil ; F. bosse. See boss above. 

bottle (a), a bundle of hay. (F. -^ 
O. H. G.) M. £. boUl^^ O. F. botH, bokUc, 


a small bundle ; dimin. of botte, a bundle 
of hay. -i O. H. G. phzo^ b6zo, a bundle 
of flax ; idlied to O. H. G. pdzan, to 
beat ; from the beating of flax. 

butt (i). an end, thrust; to thrust. (F. 
* O. H. G.) [The senses of the sb. may 
be referred to the verb ; just as F. bout, an 
end, butt-end, depends on bouter, to strike.] 
M. E. butten, to push, strike.— O. F. boUr^ 
to push, butt, strike. -• M. H. G. bSzen^ 
O. H. G. pdzan, to beat. Per. butt-enJ, 
from O. F. bat, F. bout, an end (see button 
below) ; butt (to shoot at), from F. butte, 
the same, allied to F. but, a mark, buier^ 
to hit. Der. a-but (above). 

buttock. (F. ; with E. suffix,) M. E 
botok, bottok.^ O.F. bot (F. boiU), an end 
(cf. E. butt'Cnd)', with dimin. suffix 'Ock\ see 

button. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. boton, 
also, a bud. — O. F. boton (F. bouton), a 
bud, a button; properly, a round knob 
pushed out. — O. F. boter, to push, posh 
out; see butt (i). 

debut. (F. - L. and O. H. G.) A first 
appearance in a play. — F. d^but, a first 
stroke, first cast or throw at dice. The 
orig. sense seems to have been 'a bad 
aim,* or *a miss;* it is allied to O.F. 
desbutcr, *to repell, to put from the mark 
aimed at,'Cot.«-L.^/>-, apart; and F,but, 
a mark ; see butt (i) above. 

rabbet, to cut the edges of boards so 
that they overlap and can be joined. (F. 
— L. and G.) F. raboter, to plain, level, 
or lay even ; cf. robot, a joiner's plane, ^ 
plasterer's beater. — F. re-, again; O. F. 
abater, later abouter, to thrust .against (£. 
abut.) — L. re-, again ; ad, to; and M. H. G. 
bdun, to beat. See abut, and butt (i) 

rebut. (F. - L. and M. H. G.> O. F. 
rebouter, to repulse. — L. re-, again ; M. H. G. 
bdzen, to beat ; see Beat (above). 
Beati^. (F. - L.) F. b^aiifier, - Li 
beatificare\ to make happy. — L. beati-, for 
beotus, pp. of beare, to bless, make happy ; 
and -Jfic; for facere, to maJce. Allied to 
L. bene, well. 

l>eatitude. (F.-L.) Y,bSatiiude,^X^ 
beatitudinem, ace. from nom. beatituda^ 
blessedness. — L. beati-, for beatus, blessed; 
with suffix 'tudo. 

Beau, Beauty. (F.-L.) See Belle. 
Beaver, (x), an animal. (E) M.E 
bever^ A.S. be/er.+'Dvi. bever; Icel. fy'drr; 
Dsai,baver'f Svred. ba/ver ; G. ^'^i^r; 


Mr^; Itm/^er, Cf. Skt. babkru^ a large 

Bearer (2), Bever, lower part of a 
helmet. (F.) So spelt, by confiision with 
bcaver-kat.^Y, 6aviire, a child's bib ; also, 
the bever (beaver) of a helmet. ■•F. daver, 
to slaTer.«*F. dav^, foam, slaver. Perhaps 
Celtic ; cf. Bret; 6adouz, slaver. 

Beoalzn, to make calm. See Be- and 

Because. (E. and F. - L.) See Oause. 

Bechance. {E.andF.mmL.) See Chance, 
imder Cadence. 

Beck (I), a nod. Beckon; see Beacon. 

Beck (3), a stream. (Scand.) M. £. if^k. 
«■ IceL hekkr\ Swed. back*, Dan. b<gk\ a 
atream.4-I^' ^^^ \ G* btuh. 

Become. (£.) See Come. 

Bed. (E.) M. E. bed, A. S. bed, bedd, 
«^Icel. AfVr; Goth. badi\ G. bett. 

bedriddeii. (£.) M. £. bedreden, used 
in the pi. (P. PI. B. viii. 85) ; bedrede^ sing. 
(Ch. C. T. 7351.) Corrupted from A.S. 
btdrida, lit. 'a bed-rider;* one who can 
only ride on a bed, not on a horse. — A. S. 
bed, a bed; and rid-a*, one who rides, 
from rielan, to ride. 

bedstead. (£.) M.E. bedsfede.^ A.S. 
bed, a bed ; and stede, a place, station ; see 

Bedabble, Bedaub, Bedazsle, Be- 
dew, Bedim, Bedizen. See Dabble, 
Daob, &C. 

Bedlam. (Palestine.) M.E. bedlem, cor- 
niptioa of Bethlehem, in Palestine. Now 
applied to the hospital of St. Mary of 
&thlehem, for lunatics. 

Bedouin. (F. - Arab.) F. bidouin^ a 
wandering Arab. -• Arab, badawly, wild, 
wandering in the desert. — Arab, bindw, de- 
parting to the desert, leading a wandering 

Bedridden, Bedstead ; see Bed. 

Bee. (E.) M.E. ^^. A. S. M ^+1061. 
hi\ O. H. G. pla\ Skt. bha (rare). Cf. 
Irbh becLch, a bee. 

Beech. (£.) See Book. 

Beef: (F. - L.) M. E. beef. - O. F. boef\ 
F. bctuf. ^ L. bouem, ace. of bos, an ox. 
4- Gael, bb, Skt. go, A. S. ai, a cow ; see 

beef-eater, a yeoman of the guard. (E.) 
lit. ' an eater of beef.' % The usual deri- 
Tition (from Mr. Steevens imaginary beau- 
fttitr, now misspelt buffetier)^ is all sheer 
jnTentioo, and false, 
bugle (1)1 a wild ox; a horn. (F.-L.) 



Bugle, a horn, is short for bugle-horn \ a 
bugle is a wild ox. — O. F. bugle, a wild ox. 
— L. ace. buculum, a young ox; double 
dimin. oibos, an ox. 

Beer. (E.) M. E. bere, A. S. beSr.-^T^VL. 
and G. bier\ Icel. bjdrr. Probably con- 
nected with Brew. 

Beestings ; see Biestings. 

Beet. (L.) M.E. bete. A.S. bete.^l,. 
beta, beet (Pliny.) 

Beetle (i), an insect; see Bite. 

Beetle (2), a mallet ; see Beat. 

Beetle (3), to jut out, hang over ; see 

Befall, Befool, Before ; see Fall, &c. 

Beg. (E.) See Bid (I).- — 

Beget, Beg^; see Get, Gin (i). 

Begone, Beguile ; see Go, VTile. 

Beg^uine, one of a class of religious de- 
votees. (F.) Chiefly used in the fem. ; F. 
biguine. Low L. beghina, one of a religious 
order, first established at Li^ge, about a.d. 
1207. It prob. originated as a term of 
reproach, since the word may be explained 
as 'stammerer,* i.e. dolt, from the verb 
b^gui, to stammer, in the dialect of Namur. 

Behalf, interest. (E.) See Half. 

Behave, Behaviour. (£.) See Have. 

Behead. (£.) See Head. 

Behemoth. (Heb.) Heb. behemdth, 
properly the pi. of behemdh, a beast ; used 
to signify * a great beast.* 

Behest, Behind, Behold. (E.) See 
Best, Hind, Hold (i). 

Behoof, advantage. (E.) M. E. to bi- 
houe, for the advantage of. A.S. behSf, 
advantage. + O. Fries. behSf, Du. behoef, 
advantage; G. behuf\ Swcd. bchof\ Dan. 
behov, need. p. The prefix be is A. S. be, 
E. by. The simple sb. appears in Icel. 
hSf, moderation, measure ; cl Goth, gahob- 
atns, temperance, self-restraint. From 
VKAP, to contain, whence the ideas of 
moderation, fitness, advantage. 

behove, to befit. (E.) A.S. behSfian, 
verb formed from the sb. behSf above. + 
Du. behoeven, from sb. behoef; Swed. be- 
hofva ; Dan. behove. 

Belabour, Belay ; see Labour, Lie (i). 

Belch. (E.) M. E. belken. A. S. bealcan, 
to belch. Allied to Bellow. 

Beldam. (F.-L.) See BeUe. 

Beleaguer. (Du.) See Lie (1). 

Belemnite, a fossil. (Gk.) Gk. 3fAc/x- 
v[-n\t, a stone shaped like the head of a 
dart. — Gk. fi4\ffivov, a dart. -• Gk. fidkXtiv, 
to cast. (V GAR.) 



Belfry. (F.-G.) Orig. • a watch-tower.' 
Corrupted (partly bv influence of Ml) from 
M. E. berfray^ betfrey, a watch-tower. — 
O. F. berfroit, berfreit, beUfreit.^^A, H. G. 
berc/ritf a watch-tower. — M. H. G. berc, 
protection, from bergen, to protect; and 
M. H. G. frit, frid, a place of security, a 
tower, the same as G.friecU, peace ; hence 
the lit. sense is *a guard-tower,' watch- 
tower. Allied to Borough, and Free. 
Belie, Believe. (£.) See Lie (2), Lief. 
BeU. (£.) See Bellow. 
Belle, a fair lady. (F. - L.) F. belle, 
fem. of F. beau, O. F. bcl, fair. — L. bellus, 
fair, fine ; perhaps contr. frombenulus, dimin. 
of benus, another form oi bonus, good. 

beau, a dressy man. (F.) F. beau, fine ; 
as above. 

beauty. (F.-L.) M. E. beaute. - F. 
beauti, O. F. beltet. — Low L. bellitatem, ace 
of bellitas, fairness. • L. bellus, fair. 

beldam. (F.«L.) Ironically for bel- 
dame, i. e. fine lady. » F. belle dame. — L. 
bella, fem. of bellus \ and domina, lady, 
fem. of dominus, lord. 

belladonna. (Ital. — L.) Ital. bella 
donna, fair lady. -■ L. bella domina ; as above. 
A name given to the nightshade, from the 
use of it by ladies to give expression to the 
eyes, the pupils of which it expands. 

embellisli. (F. — L.) Vl.iL. embelissen. 

— O. F. embcliss-, stem of pres. pt. of em- 
bellir, io beautify.— O. F. cm- («L. in)\ 
and bel, fair (above). 

Belligerent. (L.) See DuaL 

Bellow, to make a loud noise. (E.) Ex- 
tended from M. E. bellen, the more usual old 
form. A. S. bellan, to make a loud noise. 
< V BH AL.) Cf. Icel. belja, to bellow. 

beU. (E.) M. E. belU. A. S. bella, that 
which makes a loud noise, a bell. — A. S. 
hellan ; as above. And see Bull (1). 

Bellows, Belly. (E.) See Bag. 

Belong, Beloved, Below ; see Long, 

Love T.oxir 

Belt, a giidle. (E.) M.E. belt. A.S. 
^//. + Icel. belli \ Irish and Gael, bait, a 
belt, border; L. balteus ; O. H. G. balz. 

baldric, a girdle. (F.-O.H.G.) O.F. 
baldric''^ (not recorded), the older form of 
O. F. baldret, baldrei ; Low L. baldringus. 

— O. H. G. balderich, a girdle ; extended 
from O. H. G. bah, a belt. 

Bemoan. (E.) See Moan. 
Bench. (E.) See Bank. 
Bend. (E.) See Bind. 
Beneath. (E.) See Nether. 


Benediction. (F.-Ll) F. bhtidicHon. 

— L. benedictionem, ace. of bentdictio, a 
blessing. — L. benedictus, pp. of betudicere, 
to speak well, bless. — L. bene, well; and 
dicere, to speak (see Diction.) 

benison. (F.— L.) M.E. beneysun,^ 
O. F. beneison. — L. ace benedictionem, 

BenefarCtor. (L.) L. benefactor, a doer 
of good. — L. bene, well ; 91A factor, a doer, 
from facere, to do. 

benefice. (F. — L.) M. E. benefice.^ 
F. bMfice (Cot.) — Low L. benefictum, a 
grant of an estate ; L. benefieium, a well* 
doing, a kindness. — L. bene, well ; and 
facere, to do. 

benefit. (F. - L.) Modified (badly) 
from M. E. bienfet.^0. F. bUnfet (F. bien- 
faiC).^ L. benef actum, a kindness confinred ; 
neut. of pp. oi benef acere, to do well, be kind. 

Benevolence. (F. — L.) Y.bhUvolemt 
(Cot.) - L. beneuolentia, kindness. — L. 
beneuolus, beniuolus, kind, lit well-wishing. 

— L. beni; for benus = bonus, good; and 
uolo, I wish (see Voluntary). 

Benighted. (E.) See Night. 

Benign. (F. - L.) O. F. benigne (F. 
bMin).^!,. benigttus, kind; short for be- 
nigenut*. — L. beni-, for benus = bonus, good ; 
and 'genus, bom (as in indigtnus), from 
genere*, old form oigignere, to beget. 

Benison, blessing ; see Benediction. 

Bent-grass. (E.) M.E. bent. A.S. 
beonet, bent-grass (uncertain.) + O. H. G. 
pinuz, G. binse, bent-grass. 

Benumb, Bequeath; see Nimble, 

Bequest, Bereave; see Quoth, Beave. 

Bergamot, a kind of pear. (F.— Ital.) 
F. bergamotte ; Cot. — Ital. bergamotto, a 
pear; also, the essence called bergamot— 
Ital. Bergamo, a town in Lombardy. 

Berry. (E.) M.E. bei-ie. A.S. berige, 
berga (stem beS'\ + Du. bes, betie ; IceL 
ber\ Swed. and Dan. bdr\ G. beerex Goth. 
ban. Lit 'edible fniit;' cf. Skt bhas, to 
eat. Der. goose-berry, &c. 

Berth. (E.) . See Bear. 

Beryl. (L. - Gk. - Skt.) M. E. beril. - 
L. beryllus. — Gk. fi^pvWos ; cf. Amb. 
billaur, crystal, beiyl. — Skt. vaidtirya, orig. 
lapis lazuli, brought from Vidiira. 

brilliant, shining. (F. — L. — Glc— Skt.) 
F. brillant, pres. part, oibriller, to glitter; 
cf. Ital. brillare, to sparkle. The orig. 
sense was to sparkle as a beryl. — L. 
beryllus, a beryl; whence also Low L. 
berillus, an eye-glass, G. brille, spectacles. 


Beseech, BBseem, Beset, Beshrew, 
Beside, Besiege ; see Seek, Seem, Sit, 
Shrew, 8cc 

Beeozn, a broom. (£.) M.E. desum, 
besme, A. S. ^jma.4*Du. Uzem ; G. besen. 

Beeot, Bespeak; see Sot, Speak. 

Best; see Better. 

Bestead ; see Stead. 

Bestial. (F.-L.) See Beast. 

Bestow, Bestrew, Bestride ; see 
Stow, &c. 

Bet, to wager. (F. - Scand.) Short for 
abet, in the sense to maintain, or * back,' as 
iU»et is explained in Phillips, ed. 1706. See 
Bite. Der. bet, sb. 

Betake. (E. a»</ Scand.) S e Take. 

Betel, a species of pepper. (Port. — 
Malabar.) Port, betel^ betcle, >• Malabar 
beetla-codi (Webster). 

Bethink, Betide, Betimes, Betoken ; 
see Think, &c. 

Betray. (£. and F. - L.) See Traitor. 

Betroth. (£.) See True. 

Better, Best. (E.) 1. From the base 
BAT, good, was formed Goth, batiza, better, 
A. S. betera, M. E. better. The A. S. bet, 
M. £. bet, is adverbial and comparative. 
2. From the same base was formed Goth. 
batista, best, A. S. betst (for bet-est^ M. E. 
best. Similarly Dn. beter, best ; Icel. betri, 
beztr\ Dan. bedre, bedst\ Swed. bdttre, bast, 
G. besser, best, Cf. Skt. bhadra, excellent ; 
Skt. bhand^ to be fortunate, make fortunate. 

batten (i), to grow fat, fatten. (Scand.) 
Properly intransitive. — Icel. batna, to grow 
better, recover ; cf. bata, trans, to improve. 
From the base BAT, good. Cf. Goth, ga- 
batnan, to profit, avail. 

boot (a), advantage, profit. (E.) M.E. 
bote, boote, A.S. bdt, profit. From the 
same base.-f-Icel. bdt, bati, advantage, cme; 
Dan. bod, Swed. bot, remedy; G. busse, 
atonement. Der. bootless, profitless. 

Between, Betwixt; see Two. 

Bevel, sloping; to slope, slant. (F.) 
In Sh. Sonn. lai.— O. F. bivei*, buvel*, 
only fonnd in mod. F. biveau, and in F. 
buveau, ' a kind of squire [carpenter's rule], 
having moveable and compasse branches, 
or the one branch compasse and the other 
straight; somecall it a^^^//;* Cot Span. 
bawel. Origin unknown. 

Beverage, Bevy ; see Bib. 

Be^rail, Beware, Bewilder, Be- 
witch ; see Weil, Wary, Wild, Witch. 

Bewray, to disclose. (E.) Properly to 
accuse. M. £. beTvrm'en, biwreyen, to dis- 



close. A. S. be-, prefix (see Be-); and 
wrigan, to accuse. Cf. Icel. ragja (for 
vragia\ to slander, Swed. roja, to discover; 
O. Fries, biwrogia, to accuse / Goth, wrdh- 
jan, to accuse; G. riigen, to censure, p. 
These are causal verbs, from the sb. seen in 
Goth, wrohs, accusation, Icel. n^^, a slander. 
Bey, a governor. (Turk.) Turk, b^g (pron. 
nearly as bay), a lord, prince. 
Beyond. (E.) See Yon. 
Bezel, the part of a ring in which the 
stone is set. (F.) Also spelt basil \ it also 
means a sloping edge. — O. F. bisel^ mod. F. 
biseau, a bezel, basil, slant, sloped edge. 
Cf. Span, bisel, the slanting edge of a look- 
ing-glass ; Low L. bisalus^ * lapis cui duo- 
sunt anguli;' Ducange. (Perhaps from L- 
bt's, double ; and a/a, a wing ?) 
Bezoar, a stone. (F. — Port. — Pers.) 
O. F. bezoar, F. bJzoard. — Port, bezoar- 
(Brachet). — Pers. pdd-zahr, bezoar ; lit. 
' poison-expeller,* from its supposed viitue. 
— Pers. pdd, expelling ; and zahr, poison. 
Bi-, prefix. (L.) In bi-as, the prefix is 
F., but of L. origin. «L. bi-, put for dui-, 
twice. — L. duo, two. So also Gk. 5t-, Skt. 
dvi. See Two. 

Bias. (F. — L.) F. biais, a slant, slope ; 
hence, inclination to one side. — Low L. 
ace. bifacem, from bifax^ one who squints- 
or looks sideways (Isidore). -■ L. bi-, double ; 
tmd. fades, a face. 

Bib. (L.) A cloth for imbibing moisture, 
from M. E. bibben, to drink. — L. bibere, 
to drink. Hence wine-bibber (Luke, vii. 
34) ; L. bibens uinum. 

beverage. (F. - L.) O. F. hovraige^ 
drink. — O. F. bevre, boivre, to drink. — L. 
bibere (above). 

bevy. (F.— L.) F. ^«;/(f. a flock, com- 
pany. Prob. from O. F. bevre^ to drink 
(above). Cf. O. Ital. beva, a bevy, 

imbibe, to drink in. (F. — L. ; or L.> 
F. imbiber (i6th cent.) — L. im-bibere, to 
drink in. 

imbrue, embrew, to moisten, drench. 
(F. -■ L.) O. F. embruer\ sembruer, "to 
imbrue or bedable himself with ; * Cot. — 
F. em- (L. in, in); and a causal verb 
•bevrer, to give to drink, turned into -brever 
in the i6lh cent., and then into -bruer\ see 
F. abretwer in Brachet. — O. F. bevre (F. 
boire), to drink. — L. bibere. 

imbue, to cause to drink in, tinj^e 
deeply. (L.) L. im-buere, to cause to 
drink in; where 'buere is a causal form, 
allied to bibere, to drink. 



Bible. (F.-.L.-Gk.) U.E. ^le.^T. 
bibU.^'L. Sid/ta. ^Gk. fit^Kia, collection of 
writings, pi. of fitfiKiov, little book, dimin. 
of fiifikos, a book.-iGk. fivfiXoi, f^gyptian 
papyrus ; hence, a book. 

bibliography. (Gk.) Gk. ^i/3X/o-, for 
fiifixiw ; and ypiptiv, to write. 

bibliomania. (Gk.) Gk. fiifi^do-, for 
0t0\iov ; and Mania. 

Bice. (F.) Properly 'grayish;* hence, 
grayish blue. — F. ^e, fern, of dis, dusky. 
Cf. Ital. di^, gray. Origin unknown. 

Bicker, to skirmish. (C.) See Peak. 

Bid (i), to pray. (E.) Nearly obsolete; 
preserved in bidding-prayer, and in to Hd 
beads (pray prayers). M. E. bidden, A. S. 
biddan. -f> Du. bidden ; G. bitten ; Goth. 

bead. (E.) Orig. ' a prayer ; ' hence a 
perforated ball, for counting prayers. M. £. 
bede, a prayer, a bead. A.S. bed, gebed, 
a prayer. — A. S. biddan, to pray.+G. gebet ; 
Du. bede, gebed. 

beg. (E.) Frequentative of *w/. M.E. 
^egg^^' A.S. bedecian^ to beg; frequent. 
of biddan, to pray. Cf. Goth, bidagwa, a 
beggar ; G. bettler, a beggar, from bitten, 

Sid (a), to command. (E.) M. E. beden. 
— A.S. beddan, to command. -f- G. bieten\ 
Goth, ana-biudan ; Skt. bodhaya, to inform, 
causal of budh,^ to awake, understand. 

beadle. (F. - Teut.) M. E. bedel. - 
O. F. bedel, F. bedeau, a beadle ; lit. * pro- 
claimer,* or 'messenger.* — G. bieten, Du. 
bieden ; cognate with A. S. beddan^ to bid. 
Cf. A. S. bydel, a beadle, from beddan. 

bode, to foreshew. (E.) M.E. boden, 
bodian.^K.S. bodian, to announce. — A. S. 
boda, a messenger; bod, a message. Cf. 
Icel. bo^, to announce ; bd^, a bid, offer. 

Bide, to await, wait. (E.) M. E. biden. 
A. S. bidan.'^TiM. beiden ; Icel. bllSa ; Swed. 
bida ; Dan. bie ; Goth, beidan ; O. H. G. 

abide. (E.) A. S. dbldan. The prefix 
^f = G. er- ; see A- (4). 

abode. (E.) M. £. abood, delay, abid- 
ing.- A.S. <f-, prefix; and bad, pt. t. of 
bldan, to bide. 

Biennial. (L.) See Annals. 

Bier. (£.) See Bear (i). 

Biestdngs, Beestings, the first milk 
given by a cow after calving. (E.) A. S. 
testing, byst, bedst^ thick milk.4-Du. biest\ 
G. biest'tnilch, Cf. Goth, beist, leaven. 

Biftiroated. (L.) See Fork. 


Big. (Scand.?) M.E. big; ftlso Hgg, 
rich (Hampole). Not A.S. Perhaps for 
bilg, the / being dropped, as in bag, CL 
Icel. belgja, to inflate, puff out; Nonr. 
belga, to fill one's maw, cram oneself; 
Swed. dial, bdlgig, bulgig, big. Prob. 
related to bag and bulk. B. Or is it related 
to Irish baghach, Gael, bagack, corpulent^ 
bulky, Skt. bahu, large? 

Bigamy, a double marriage. (F. — L^ 
and Gk.) F. bigamie.^ljaLXt. L. bigamiai 
a clumsy compound fiom L. bi', dooble 
(see Bi-)» and Gk. -yafjda, from 'fA/aot, 
marriage. It should rather have been 
digamy (Gk. biyaftia.) 

cryptogamia, a class of flowers in 
which fructification is concealed. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. Kpvvro-, for KptnrrSs, hid* 
den (see Crypt); and ya/i-^ty, to many, 
from ydfios, 

monogamy, marriage with one wife 
only. (L. — Gk.) L. monogamia. — Gk. 
/iovoTa/i/a. — Gk. fiovSyafj^m, marrying but 
once. — Gk. fjtovo-, for /lords, sole (see 
Mono-), and -yafjda, from ya/xot, 

polygamy, marriage with many wives. 
(Gk.) Gk. troXirya/iia. — Gk. vok6yaftMp 
marrying many (see Poly-). 

Bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (£.) See 
Bow (i). 

Big^t, an obstinate devotee to a creed. 
(F. - Teut?) F. bigot, 'an old Norman 
word signifying for God's sake, an hypo- 
crite, superstitious fellow ; ' Cot. Applied 
by the French to the Normans as a term 
of reproach (Wace). The supposition that 
it stands for O. H. G. bi got (by God) is, 
after all, not improbable. It is an older word 
than beguine, with which it seems to have 
been somewhat confused at a later period. 

Bijou, a trinket. (F.) F. bijou. Origin 

Bilberry, a whortle-berry. (Scand.) Dan. 
bollebar, a bilberry ; prob. a ball-berry, 
from IceL bollr, a ball, and Dan. bar, a 
berry ; see Ball. % North Eng. blea-berry 
s blue-berry ; see Blue. In both cases, 
•berry takes the E. form ; see Berry. 

Bilbo, a sword ; Bilboes, fetters. (Span.) 
Both named from Bilboa or Bilbao in 
Spain, famous for iron and steel. 

Bile (i), secretion from the liver. (F.« 
L.) F. bile. — L. bills. Der. bili-ous. 

Bile (2), a boil. (E.) See Bulge. 

Bilge. (Scand.) See Bag. 

Bill (1), a chopper, sword, beak. (E.) 
M.E. bil, sword, axe; bile, bird's bealL 


A. S. Hir, swoTd> axc+Dn. biil, IceL blldr, 
Dtn. hiilf Swed. bikif G. oilie, an axe. 
Orig. ' a cnttine instrument ; ' cf. Skt. hil, 
Mil, to break, Shu/, to cleave. 

Bill (2), a writing, account ; see Bull (a). 

Billet (i), a note ; see Boll (3). 

Billet (2), a log of wood. (F.-C.) F. 
kiiUiie, billoi, a billet of wood. Dimin. of 
aiU, a log, stump.— Bret, pill, a stump of 
a tree ; Insh bilU oir, trunk of a tree ; W. 
/fV7, stem, stock, shaft. 

billiards. (F. - C.) Y, billard, 'a 
billard, or the stick wherewith we touch 
the ball at billyards ; ' Cot. Formed with 
suffix -ard (G. 'harC) from bille^ a log, 
stick, as above. 

BUUoiL ; see MiUion. 

BUlow. (£.) See Bag. 

Bin. (£.) M.E. binne. A.S. binn, a 
manger ; Ln. ii. 7.4- Du. ben^ G. bennt^ a 
sort of basket. Perhaps allied to Bent- 



Binaiy, twofold. (L.) L. binarius, con- 
ststine of two thmgs.-iL. binusy two-fold. 
oL. ?/•, double ; see Bi-. 

combine. (L.) L. combinare, to unite, 
join two things together. «- L. ^tf/»- (^^^)i 
t^rether; and Innus^ twofold. 
Bind. (£.) M. £. bindtn, A. S. hindan, 
-f> Dq. and G. bindtn ; Icel. and Swed. 
binda ; Dan. bindt ; Goth, bindan ; Skt. 
^oimS*, to bind. (VBHADH, BHANDH.) 

band (i), bcmd, a fastening. (£.) M. £. 
bond, band, — A. S. bend (for &ndt), — A. S. 
band, pt. t. of binden,^\>ai., Icel., Swed.,\ Goth.^affdb'; Ski. bandAa, Per. 
band-age, btutd-box. 

band (2), a company of men. (F.— G.) 

F. bande; Cot— G. bande, a gang, set— 

G. band, pt t of binden, to bind. 
bandog, a large dog. (£.) Orig. band- 
dog, a dog that is tied up. See Prompt. 
Parv. p. 43. 

bandy, to beat to and fro, contend. 
(F. - G.) Orig. to band (Turbervile). - F. 
bander, ' to bind ; also, to bandie, at tennis; * 
Cot Se bander, to league against — G. 
bande, a band of men; see band (2) 

bandy4egged, bow-legged, (F. and 
Scand.) Bandy b for F. bandi, pp. of 
bander^ to bind, also to bend a bow (Cot) ; 
see bandy above, and bend. 

banner. (F.-G.) M.£. ^n^^.-O.F. 
haniere ; Low L. banderia, — M. H. G. band, 
A band, strip of cloth. Der. banner-et. 

bendy to bow^ curve. (£.) M. £. bendm. 

A. S. bendan^ orig. to string a bow, fasten 
a band or string to it.— A.S. bend^ a band, 
bond ; see band (i) above. 

bodice, stays. (£.) A corruption of 
bodies, which was the old spelling. (Cf. 
F. corset, from eorps.) 

body, the frame-work of an animal. (£.) 
M. E. bodi ; A. S. bodig, +0. H. G. potach ; 
Skt. bandha, (i) a bondage, fetter, (2) the 
body, considered as confining the soul. The 
orig. sense is 'little bond,* the suffix 'ig 
(G. 'Och) being a diminutive. 

bond, a tie. (£.) M. E. bond, the same 
as M. £. band\ see band (i) above. 

bundle. (£.) M. E. bundel. Dimin. 
of A. S. bund, a bundle. — A. S. bundeti, 
pp. of binden, to bind. 4* 1^* bondcl\ G. 

Bing, a heap of com ; obs. (Scand.) la 
Surrey. — Icel. bingr, Swed. binge, a heap. 
% Prob. distinct from bin, though perhaps 
confused with it. 

BinnadLe, a box for a ship*s compass; see 

Binocular. (L.) See Oonlar. 

Binomial. (L.> See Noblo. 

Biography. (Gk.) A written account 
of a' life; from /3io-, for ^lof, life; and 
yp&^tv, to write. The sb. fiios is allied to 

amphibious. (Gk.) Gk. Afu^tfiiot, 
living a double life, both on land and water. 
— Gk. dfupl, on both sides ; filoi, life. 

biology. (Gk.) Science of life ; from 
Gk. file-, for fiiot, life ; and -^07(0, from 
X6yoSt a discourse. 

Biped. (L.) See Pedal. 

Birch, a tree. (£.) M.E. bircAe, A.S. 
beorc.^Dn. berken-boom (birch-tree) ; Swed. 
and Icel. bjork ; Dan. birk (whence North 
E. birk) ; G. birke ; Skt. bhiirja. 

Bird. (E.) M. E. bnd (the r being 
shifted) ; A. S. bridd, a bird, esp. the young 
of birds. Perhaps allied to Brood. 

Birth. (£.) See Bear (i). 

Biscuit. (F.-L.) See Cook. 

Bisect. (1^) See Secant. 

Bishop. (L. — Gk.) See Scope. 

Bismuth, a metal. (G.) G. bismuth; 
also spelt wismut, wissmut, wissmuth, 
Orimn uncertain. 

Buion, a quadruped. (L. — Gk.— Teut) 
L. bison (Pliny). — Late Gk. &iaojv. Not a 
true Gk. word, but borrowed from Teu- 
tonic ; O. H. G. wisunt, G. wisent, a bison; 
A. S. wesent, a wild ox ; Icel. vlsundr. 

Bissextile. (L.) See Sexagenary. 



BiBSon, purblind. (E.) In Sh. M. £. 
Insen, A. S. Ifisetij bisau^ or bishu^ blind 
(Matt. ix. 39). Perhaps from A. S. bt-, by, 
near; and sedn^ to see; cf. A.S. ge-shu, 
ge-syfUt conspicuous; also Du. bijziend, 
short-sighted, G. beisichtig, short-sighted. 
Bistre, a dark brown. (F. - G.) F. bistre, 
a dark brown. Perhaps from prov. G. 
biester, dark, gloomy, also bistre (Fliigel). 
Cf. Dan. and Swed. bister ^ grim, fierce. 
Bit (X) and (a) ; see Bite. 
Bitch. (E.) M. E. biche, bUche. A. S. 
bicee, + Icel. bikkja. 

Bite. (E.) M. E. biten. A. S. bttan. 
-^ Dvi. bij'ten ; Icel.bita; Swed, bita; Dan. 
bide; G. beissen; 'L.Jindere (pt. X.fldi\, to 
cleave ; Skt. bhid, to cleave. (V BHID.) 

abet, to incite. (F. - Scand.) M. E. abet, 
sb.. instigation. -iO. F. abet, sb., instigation, 
deceit ; abeter, to deceive. -■ F. a- (L. ad-^ ; 
and beter, to bait (a bear), orig. to insti- 
gate, provoke, from Icel. beita, to make to 
bite ; see bait below. Der. bet^ q. v. 

bait, to feed. ^Scand.) Lit. ' to make to 
bite ; * a bait is * an enticement to bite.' 
M. E. ^iV^n, beiten. ^Icel. beita, to make 
to bite, causal of bita, to bite ; Swed. beta, 
to pasture ; Swed. bete, Dan. bed, a bait 

beetle (1), an insect. (E.) M. E. bityt. 
A. S. bite/, b^tel, bitela, lit. ' a biting one.' 
-•A.*S. bit-an, to bite; with suffixes -el 
and -a (of the agent). 

beetle (3), to project over. (E.) We 
talk of a beetling rock, an image suggested 
by the older term beetle-brewed, M. E. bitel' 
browed, i.e. having projecting brows, lit. 
with brows projecting like an upper jaw. 
The M. E. bitel also means ' sharp.' A. S. 
bitel, sharp. -i A.S. bltan, to bite. 

bet, to wager. (F. — Scand.) Short for 
abet, in the sense to maintain or * back ; ' 
see abet above. Der. bet, sb. 

bit (i), a mouthful, small piece. (E.) 
M. E. bite (a syll.) A. S. bita, a morsel. 
* A. S. biten, pp. of bltan. 

bit (a), a curb for a horse. (£.) M. E. 
bitt, A.S. bitt*, only in dimin. bitol, a 
curb. + ^u. gebit ; Icel. bitill (dimin.) ; 
Swed. belt ; Dan. bid-, G. gebiss, 

bitter. (E.) M. E. biter. A. S. biter, 
bitor, lit. * biting.' — A. S. biten, pp. of bitan. 
+ Du. bitter', Icel,' bit r; Swed., Dan., G, 

bitts, naval term. (Scand.) The bitts 
are two strong posts on deck to which 
cables are fastened. — Swed. beting, a bitt, 
wheacc If^/w^alt, a bitt;bolt^ bitt-pin ; 


Dan. biding, Orig. nsed on land for tether 
ing horses. Swed. betingbult, a peg for 
tethering, from beta, to pasture, bait. So 
also Dan. bedingsbolt, from bede, to pasture ; 
see bait above. 

Bitter, Bitts ; see Bite. 

Bittern, a bird. (F.-Low L.) The^ 
is added. M.E. bitoure.^F, butar, 'a 
bittor;' Cot.— Low L. butorius, a bittern ; 
cf. L. butic, a bittern. Origin uncertain ; 
but prob. from the imitative base BU, to 
make a booming noise ; whence L. bubare, 
butire, to cry like a bittern, L. bubo, an owl. 

Bitumen. (L.) L. bitumen, mineral 

Bivalve. (F.-L.) See Valve. 

Bivouac. (F.-G.) See Wake. 

Bizarre, odd. (F. — Span.) F. bizarre, 
strange, capricious ; orig. * valiant.' — Span. 
bizarro, valiant,^allant. Perhaps of Basque 

Blab, to tell tales. (Scand.) M.E. blabbe, 
a tell-tale ; blaberen, to babble. — Dan. 
blabbre, to babble ; cf. Swed. dial. blaffrA, 
G. plapfem, to babble, prate. Of imita* 
tive ongin ; cf. Gael, plab, a soft noise ; 
plabair, a babbler ; blaifarcm, a stammerer, 
blabhdack, babbling, garrulous. 

Black. (E.) M.E. blak. A.S. bloc, 
bloc. 4- Icel. blakkr, dark. Cf. Da. blaken, 
to bum, scorch. Perhaps orig. ' scorched,* 
and thus connected with the idea of in- 
tense light ; cf. L. Jlag-rare, to bum ; see 
Blink, Bleak, Blank. 

blackgfuard, a term of reproach. (E. 
andY.) From black and guard. A name 
given to scullions, turnspits, and kitchen 
menials, from the dirty work done by them. 
See Trench, Select Glossary. 

blotch, a dark spot. (E.) Put for 
blatch, to blacken, smut (Rich.). Cf. Wilts. 
blatch, black, sooty. M. E. blakien, to 
blacken (Matzner). % In the sense of 
'pustule,' it seems to be confused with 
botch ', but see A. S. blac, A. S. Leechdoms, 
ii. 8, 1. 1. 

Bladder. (E.) See Blow (i). 

Blade, a leaf, flat of a sword. (E.) M. E. 
blade, A. S. blad, a leaf. 4* Icel. bla^, Swed., 
Dan., Du. blcui, a leaf, blade; G. bUUt. 
Prob. allied to Blow (2). 

Blain. (E) See Blow (i). 

Blame. (F. - L. — Gk.) See Blaspheme. 

Blanch (i), to whiten. (F.-O.H.G.) 
See Blink. 

Blanch (a), to blench. (E.) See Blink, 

Bland. (L.) L. blandus, mild« 


JUdidiy to flatter. (F.-X.) M. £. 

'jiH, i« O. F. blandis; stem of pres. 

itiblandir^ to flatter. i*L. bUutdiri, to 


ok. Blanket. (F.-O.H.G.) See 

re. (E.) See Blow (i). 
ipheme, to speak injuriously. (L.i* 
L». blasphemare. ^ Gk. fiKaaif>fjfitty, 
ak ill of. i* Gk. fi\6ff<p^fi0Sf adj., speak- 
LI. •• Gk. fiXaa- for /3Xa^-, from fikoipts, 
Itt fik&nrtiy, to hurt; and inifAtf, 
U from *pirii»i, I say ; see Fame. 
one, vb. <F.-L.-Gk.) M.K^ib- 
•O. F. blasmer^ to blame. *L. ^/of- 
ire, to sp)eak Ul, also to blame. i*Gk. 
itiiMLiv (above), 
it. (£.) See Blow (i). 
bant. (£.) See Bleat. 
le (i), and (a). See Blow (i). 
ion (i), and (a). See Blow, (i) 
iberry ; see Bilberry, 
loh. Bleak (I), and (a). SeeBlink. 
ir one^s c^e, to deceive. (Scand.) 
. To bUar is to blur, to dim.^Swed. 
hlirra\ blirra fojr augu^ to quiver 
\ a dimness) before the eyes, said of a 
caused by the heat of summer; cf. 
dial, blira^ Swed. plira, to blink with 
)res.«^6avarian pUrr^ a mist before 

ir-eyed, dim- sighted. (Scand.) M.E. 
fed, — Tizji. pliiroiei, blear-eyed, blink- 
from p/ire, blire, to blink. (Dan. oU, 
net, eyed.) Cf. Swed. plira^ O. Swed. 
to blink ; Swed. dial, blura, to blink, 
illy close the eyes, like a near-sighted 
1. Perhaps allied to Blink. 
IT, to stam ; a stain. (Scand.) Pro- 
•'todim;' metaphorically, 'to deceive.* 
Ind: *A blirre^ deceptio; to blirre, 
s ;* Levins ( 1 5 70). See above. 
l,t. (£.) 'bH.lL, bUten. A. S. bl<ktan, 
at as a sheep. •^'Da* blaten, Cf. Gk. 
iofiai, 1 bleat, /3Xt;x4t a bleating. 
I to Blow (i). 

itant, noisy, roary. (£.) Spenser 
blatant beast ;' F. Q. vi. i a (heading), 
rely means bleating ; the suffix -^nt is 
ciful imitation of the F. -ant of the 
part. Cf. M. K bletende, bleating, 
if, Tobit, ii. ao. 

b. Blob, a small bubble or blister. 
Cf. M. £. blober^ a bubble on water ; 
r, a bubble. By comparing blabber, 
'r, with bladder, with much the same 
ng, we see the probability that they 



ore formed from the same root, and signify 
'that which is blown up/ from the root of 
Blow (x). 

blubber, a bubble; fat; swollen; to 
weep. (£.) The various senses are all ex- 
plained by the verb to blow. Thus blubber^ 
a bubble, is an extension of blob^ 'that 
which is blown out ;* the blubber of the 
whale consists of bladder-like cells filled 
with oil ; blubber-lipped, also blobber-lipped, 
blaberfyfped, means * with swollen or blown 
out lips. Lastly, blubber, to weep, M. £. 
bloberen, blubren, meant ori^. to bubble; 
Gawain and Grene Knight; a 174. (See 
Curtius, on the stems fkoi, ^Aa.) See also 

Bleed. (£.) See Blow (a). 

Blemish. (F.- Scand.) See Blow (3). 

Blench. (£.) See Blink. 

Blend, to mix together, confuse. (£.) 
M. £. blenden. A. S. blaitdan, to blend ; 
cf. also blendan, to make blind.-f-lcel. and 
Swed. blanda, DaxiMande, O. H. G.pkmtan, 
to mix. 

blind. (£.) M.E. blind; A.S. blind. 
The orig. sense is 'confused»'«^Icel. blindr; 
Swed., Dan., G. blind, .. 

blindfold, verb. (£.) M.E. blind- 
/olden, verb (Tyndale) ; corruption of blind- 
/elden (Palsgrave), where the d is excres- 
cent. The true word is blind/ellen, to * fell* 
or strike blind, Ancren Riwle, p. 106. » 
A. S. blind, blmd ; and /ellan, to strike 
(see Fall). 

blunder, to flounder about, err. (Scand.) 
M. £. blondren, to pore over a thing. 
Formed (as a frequentative) from Icel. 
blunda, to doze, slumber; Swed. blunda, 
to shut the eyes; Dan. blunde, to nap. 
C£ Icel. blundr, Dan. and Swed. blund, 
a doze, a nap. From the sense of * con- 

blunt, dull. (Scand.) M.E. blunt, 
blont, dull, dulled. Allied to Icel. blunda, 
Dan. blunde, to sleep, doze (above). 

Bless. (E.) See Blow (a). 

BUght. (£.) See BUnk. 

Blind, Blindfold. (£.) See Blend. 

Blink, to wink, to glance. (£.) M.E. 
blenken, commonly ' to shine.' Not found 
in A. S., which has only the form blicatt, 
but it probably existed, as there are rather 
numerous related forms.-f-Du. blinken, to 
shine ; Dan. blinke ; Swed. blinka. Allied 
to A. S. blican, O. H. G. blichen, to shine ; 
Gk. ^\c7(tK, to bum, shine ; Skt. bhrdu to 
shine. (yBUARO.y 



Uaneh (i), towfaiten. (F.-O. H.G.) 
From M. £. blancki, white. * F. Mane, 
white ; see blank below. 

hiaiich (3), the same as blench (below). 

blflnk, white. (F.-O.H.G.) In Milton, 
P.L.X.656.-F. bIa9u,^, blanch^ 
white. From bUncken*. to shine (mod. G. 
biinken) ; allied to O. H. G. blhJUn, to 

blanket. (F.-O.H.G.) Orig. of a 
white coloor. M. £. blanket. » O. F. blanket 
(F. blanchef), dimin. from blanc, white ; see 

bleach. (£.) Orig. ' to become pale ;* 
M. E. blecken, Ancren Riwie, p. 334, L i. 
A. S. bUtean. » A. S. bUtc^ bide, shinhig, pale. 
See bleak below. -|. IceL bUikja ; Do. 
bleeken ; G. bleieken, 

bleak (i), orig. pale. (£.) M. E. bleik. 
A. S. bl^, bldc^ shining; allied to blican^ to 
shine.-f led. bleikri Da. bleek ; G. bleick. 

bleak (a), a fish ; from its pale colour. 

blench, to shrink frxnn. (£.) Some- 
times blanch. M. EL blenehen, to turn aside. 
A. S. blencan^ to deceive, orig. ' to make to 
blink/ to impose on ; thus to blench is the 
causal verb, ' to make to blink ;' bat it was 
cooiosed with blink, to wink, hence, to 

blight, to blast (£.) From the same 
root as A. S. blican, to shine ; cf. blkettan, 
to shine, glitter. We find M. £. blichening, 
l^ight, allied to led. blikna, to become 
pale, from the same root CC also Swed. 
blicka^ to lighten, blixt, lightning. Do. 
bliksem, lightning. And c£. A. S. dblicgan^ 
to amaze, from the same rooL 
BUflS. (£.) See BUtha. 
Blister. (£.) See Blow (i). 
Blithe. (£.) yi.Y^blithe. A.S. bm,blf^» 
sweet, happjr.-^O. Sax. bll^i, bright, glad ; 
O.H.G. biai, glad; Goth, bleiths, merdfol, 

bliss. (E.) M.E. bits, A.S. blis, 
bliss ; contr. from A. S. bl/ds, bllfSs, happi- 
ness, lit blitheness.* A. S. bll5 (abore).-^ 
O. Sax. blizza^ blidsea, happiness. 
Bloat, to swell. (Samd.) We now gene- 
rally osed bloated Xo mean 'pnfTed oat ' or 
' swollen,' as if allied to bUno. The sense is 
rather * dBeminate,' and it is connected with 
loel. blautr, soft, effeminate^ imbecile, 
blctna, to become soft, lose courage. Cf. 
Swed. blot, Dan. blod^ soft, pnlpjt mellow. 
Allied also to LaX.Jlmdusi Gk. fXvcir, to 
swd), overBow» 
bJoBter^ M prepared bening^ (Scand.) 


A bloater is a cored fish, cnitd by smoke ; 
bat formerly a 'soaked' fidi. * Swed. 
blotfisk, soaked fish; from blola^ to soak, 
steep ; from blot, sofr (above). 

Blob, a babble. (E.) See Bleb. 

Block, a large piece of wood. (C.) M.E 
blck.^\\. ploc, a block; GaeL and Irish 
ploc. a block, roond mass, stomps fdng. 
Cf. Irish blogh, a fragment O. Irish biog, a 
fragment. Hence also Do. blok, THjk.Me, 
Swed. l^k, O. H. G. block-, cC Rnss. 
plakka. Doublet, plug. Der. block^e. 
bludgeon, a cadgeL (C.) Irish bhcam, 
dtmin. of ploc, a block ; Gad. phean, a 
maUet blndgeoo, dab, dimin. of ploe, a 
block ; W. plocyn, the same. 

plug. (Ua.-C.) O. Do. phtgge. Da. 
plug, a p^ bang. Of Cdtic origin.* 
Iri£//wr, ploc, a block, plug, bong. Gad. 
ploc, a block, dab, plug, bang^ Vl.ploc, a 
block, plug. 

Blond. (F.) A late word.-F. ^^^m^^ 
m. blonde, fem. • light yellow ;' Cot Re- 
ferred by Dicz to IceL blcmdinn, mixed; 
cf. A. S. blonden-feax, having hair of min- 
gled colour, gray-haired. See Blend. 

Blood, Bk)om, Bloflsom. See Blow 

Blot (0, a spot. (Scand.) M.E. bbt, 
blotte.<^lcgL blettr, a stain (stem btat-)', 
Dan. plet, a spot, stain ; plette, to spot 

Blot (2), at backgammon. (Scand.) A 
blot is an ' exposed' piece. ~ Dan. blot, bare, 
naked ; whence gixfe sig blot, to lay onesdf 
open, expose oneself ; Swed. blott, naked ; 
blotta, to lay oneself open. -^ Da. Hoot. 
naked, blootsiellcn, to expose; G. bloss^ 
naked. Allied to IceL blautr, soft; see 

Blotch, a dark spot (E.) See Black. 

Blouse, a loose oater gannent. (F.) F. 
blouse, a smock frock ; O. F. bliams, bliaux, 
properly pL of bliaut, blialt (mod. F. 
blattde\ formerly a rich Testment of silk, 
embroidered with gold. Low L. blialdus. 
Probably Pers. ; cf. Pers. batydd, a plain 
garment, balydr, an elegant garment 

Blow (i), to puff. (E) M.E. blowen, 
A. S. bldwan.o^G. bldhcn ; L. flare. {/J 

bladder. (E.) M. E. bladdre. A.S. 
bladr, a blister, lit ' a blowing oat'4*IceL 
blafira, a bladder, watery sweUing ; Swed. 
bldddra, bobble, blister, bladder; O. H. G. 
pldiard. Cf. A. S. blJtd, a blast, blowing; 
L.yfo/itf, breath. (From BHLAD, extended 

. BLOW. 

blain, a pustule. (£.) M. E. blein. 
A.S. bUgen, a boil.^'I^Q' lfiiin\ Dan. 
kUp%, (From a base BHLAG.) 

blare, to make a load noise. (£.) M.E. 
ilaren, bloren ; also blasen (Ch.), an older 
foim. Sm blase (a) below. 

blast, a blowing. (E.) M.E. blast. 
A.S. blJut^ a blowing; cf. Icel. bldstr^ a 
breath. From blase (2) below. 

blase (x), a flame. (£.) M.E. blase. 
A. S. bUue^ a flame ; in comp. bdl-blase^ a 
bright lieht. Cf. IceL blys, Dan. blus^ a 
torch. (From the root of blow^ 

blase (2), to proclaim, noise abroad. 
(E.) Mark, i. 45. M. E. blasen. A. S. 
bUaoH, to blow (Lye). 4* Icel. bldsa^ to 
blow, blow a trumpet, sound an alarm; 
Swed. b/dsa, to sound; Dan. blase, Du. 
biaxen^ to blow a trumpet ; G. blasen. 
(Hence blast, blare, blason.) 

blason (i), a proclamation. (E.) 
Hamlety i 5. ai ; Shak. Son. 106. A cor- 
ruption from blau (2), M.E. blasept, to 
proclaim; due to confusion with blazon (2) 
below, which was misused in place of 
bkue, sb. 

blaaon (2), to pourtray armorial bear- 
ing (F.»G.) M.E. blason f blasoun, a 
shield ; whence blazon, verb, to describe a 
shield. i« F. blason, a coat of arms, orig. a 
shield (Brachet). A siill older sense is 
'fame,' preserved in Span, blason, honour, 
glory, heraldry, blazonr}*, hacer blason, to 
blazon, blasonar, to blason, brag, boast.* 
G. blasen, to blow the trumpet, as done by 
heralds, to proclaim a victor's fame; see 
blase (a) above. (See Scheler.) 

blister, a little bladder on the skin. (E.) 
M.E. blister. Not found in A.S. ; but 
cf. O. Du. bluyster, a blister (Kilian, Hex- 
ham) ; also Icel. bldstr, a blowing, blast 
of a trumpet, swelling, mortification (in a 
medical sense). Also Swed. bldisa, a blad- 
der, blister. Allied to blast, from root of 
blow, just as bladder S& from the same root. 

blurt, to utter rashly. (E.) The Scotch 
is blirt, to make a noise in weeping. Ex- 
tended from M. E, bloren, bleren, to make 
a loud noise ; the same as blare above. 

bluster, to blow noisily, swagger. 
(Scand.) A frequentative form ; from Icel. 
bldstr, Swed. Sldst, blast, wind, tempes- 
tuous weather ; see blast above. 
Blow (a), to bloom, flourish as a flower. 
(£.) M. £. bhwen, A. S. bl&wan, -f 
Do. blciijtmi G. bluAen; L,Jiorere; see 



bleed, to lose blood. (E.) M. E. b/eden. 
A.S, blc-dan; formed by vowel-change {S 
to os^J) from A.S. bltfd; see blood 

bless, to consecrate, &c. (E.) The orig. 
sense must have been 'to consecrate by 
blood,* i.e. either by sacrifice or by the 
sprinkling of blood, as the word can be 
fairly traced back to blood. M. E. blessen, 
A. S. bUtsian, also bUdsian, bloedsian 
(Matt. XXV. 34, xxvi. 26), which can only 
be from bl6d, blood, by the usual vowel- 
change from J to Of or /. (Sweet ; Anglia, 
iii. 156.) See below. 

blood. (E.) M.E. blod, blood, A.S. 
bl6d, the symbol of 'blooming' or 
* flourishing* life.— A.S. bl6wan, to bloom. 
+ Du. bloed, Icel. bl6^, Swed. blod^ Goth. 
bloth\ G. blut. Hence bleed, bless ', as 

bloom, a flower. (Scand.) M. E. blome ; 
not in A. S. — Icel. bl6m, blSmi, a flower ; 
Swed. blomma ; Dan. blomr/te.'^Dxi, bloem ; 
Goth, bloma; i^.Jlos', see Flower. 

blossom. (E.) M. E. blosme, also 
blostme. A.S. bldstma, a blossom; from 
A. S. bl6-%van^ with suffixes -st and -ma-, 
cf. blast from bid-wan^ to pufl". J^ Du. 
bloesem ; M. H. G. bluost, bltist. 

Blow (3), a stroke, hit. (E.) M. E. blowe. 
Not in A. S. ; but we find O. Du. strong 
verb blouwen (pt. t. blau), to strike, dress 
flax by beating. Allied to G. blduen, to 
beat. Also to Goth, bliggwan {blingwan), 
to strike; l^.fligere, to heat ^ovin, flagel- 
lum, a scourge. (^BHLAGII, to beat.) 
See Afflict, Flagellate. 

blemish, to stain. (F. -Scand.) M. E. 
blemisshen. — O. F. bletnis-, stem of pres. 
part, of bletnir, blesmir, to wound, stain.— 
O. F. bleme, blesrne, wan, pale. — Icel. 
bldman, the livid colour of a wound.— 
Icel. bldr, livid, blue. The orig. sense of 
O. F. bletnir was * to beat black and blue.' 
blue, a colour. (Scand.) Orig. • livid,* 
the colour due to beating. M. E. bio, livid. 
(The A. S. bl<kkezuen, blue-hued, is perhaps 
borrowed.) — Icel. bldr, livid ; Swed. bid ; 
Dan. blaa. From the root of bl4yw above. 
Der. blaeberry or bleaberry, blemish. 

Blubber. (E.) See Bleb. 

Bludgeon. (C.) See Block. 

Blue. (Scand.) See Blow (3). 

BlufP; downright, rude. (Du. ?) A bluff 
is a steep headland. It appears to be 
Dutch. O. Du. blaf, flat, broad ; blaffacrt^ 
one having a broad ftat lace, ^i&o, %. 


BobUn, a wooden pn on vbidi thmd 
ii woutkI ; roond tape. (F.) Foncerly 
iiiJiR. — F. ieUiie, 'a <lail for a ipianioc 
wbeele, > Ekasc ; ' Cot. Orig. micntUD ; 
perhaps Celtic Cf. Iiiili and Gael, iaian, 
a laud, {tiag/c ihoit pieca of thiead; 
Gael, bahag, tassd, clnstO'. 

Bode. (K) Sec Bid (i). 

Bodice. (E.) See Bind. 

Bodkin, oiig. a small dagger. (C.) M. E. 
baydetin, Ch. — W. bidegyti, bide^tm, a dag- 
ger, pontan] ; dimia. ot jii/e^. a daj!{;er: 
cf. W. fid. a tapering point. Ct CaeL 
Hedaz, Irish iiJeos, a da;;gtr. 

Bodr- (E.) See Bind. 

Bog. (C.) Irish basaik, ■ bog, from ie^, 
soft ; cC Irish bvgaini. I shake ; a S^ beis^ 
a soft qnagmire. So also Gael. Aiifiin. a 
qnagmire; ie^. soft, mtnst; ji^, to soften, 
also to agitate. 

Boggle, to start aside, nreme for fear. 
{C.»> Prob. coined from pror. E te^i, 
bo^It, a spectre. Cf. W. hsfg, a goblin ; 
ba-^-l. a threat, hygjia, to threaten; 
bv;Ti-fi, to scare. Sec Bns (t). 

Boil(n, Tcrb. (F.-L.) SeeBiiIl<t). 

Boa (1), a tDTooDr. (E.) See Biit(«. 

Boisterous. (C.t I^sthoted fioni M. E. 
jmAnif. Ch. — W. ^^jfiu, ferocjons; from 
baj-il. ferocitr. 

Bold. (E.) M. E. bold, ialdi A. S. ieald, 
balJ. + tecL bullr; Do. tvuii O. H. G. 
^ fa.'J. bald; cT. Goth. AuVAnib. adv., boldl;. 
j bowd, (F.-G.) M. E. baiule, Ch.- 
' O. F. baud, gajr, irantoa.-O. H. G. iaU, 
I boM. free. 

Bole. (Sc=md.) See BnlO. 
' BoUed. swollen. (Scand.) See Btilsa. 

Bolster, Bolt (i>. See Bnlse. 
I Bolt (i^BouIt, to sift m:aL (F.-L.- 
Gtl Spelt IvuHe in Pal^^ve. — O. F. 
butler ; mod. F. blulcr ; oldest farm buliter, 
a comiplion of burttcr. to sift thmagh 
coan* doth.— O. F. /winr (F. hurt), coarse 
wootle:) clolh. - Low Lat burra, coane 
red cloth. — Lat. htmu^ reddish. — Gk. 
nfpix. rrddish.-Gt. n^ fire. See Flro. 
bare«n. (,F. — L') F. hurtiat, a desk. 
writing-table ; so called bccaose covered 
with browa baire. — P. imr;au, O.F. terW, 
CT>a:» wpo^len staff, nirae|.coloiired. — 
O, F. built (F. barA, coarse red clotli.- 
L. fK"Bj: uabore. 

Bomb, Bombard. (T.~L.— Ok.) See 

boaster (Oudemans) ; blaf nw iit twr- 
km^l, -the flat of a forehead ' (Hexham) ; 
ti^m, bltgen, to mock <id.). 

Bltlnder. (E.) See Blend. 

BlnnderboBS. a short gnu. (Dn.) In 
Pope. A singular cormplioa of O. Do. 
domdtrbtiai, ' a bODibard ' (Hexham) ; Ehi. 
domiUrbtat, a blnnderboss. — Dn. dander, 
thnrnlcr ; and bui, a guo, orig- a boa. bar- 
rel ; see Box (i). So also G. i&iifRrf^iuij:^. 

Blunt. (Scaod.) See Blend. 

Blur, a Main. 'Scand.) See Blaar. 

Blurt. (E.> See Blow (i). 

Blaah-(E.) i.\.¥..blMselun.ilus,kai, to 
glow, A. S. blyscax. used to translate L. 
TuHlan, to shine (.Moof, t^eUen, 355!. 
Extended from A. S. iljian. onlj in comp. 
diliiiam. aillsiaH, to bluh ; from A. S. 
Ufi (ilyti) in i.r.'-*//j, lit, -a fire-blaie.' 
4> Dn- blaten. to blc^, from h!es, a blush ; 
Din. bitusi, to flame, glow, from bluj, a 
torch ; Swed. blassa, to blaze, from blois, a 
torch. Prob. allied to Blaaa. 

Bluster. (Scand.) See Blow (iV 

Boa, a lat^e snake. (L.) L. bca (PIidt); 
perhaps allied to bos, an ox ; &om its sii'e. 

Boar, an animaL (E.) M. E. bon, bear. 
A. S. hdr. + Dn. bar-, M. H. G. */r; 
Rnsi. *jrjr". Perhaps orig. 'wild beast" 
Uke Bear (i>. 

Board, (t) M.E. bard. A.S. tetd, 
board, side of a ship, shield. + Do. bird ; 
Iccl. bard, plank, side of a ship ; G.tarJ-. 
Goth. -baurJ in fatu-taurd, a foot-stool. 
Ct Iiisfa. Gael., W., and Com. bard, a 
board. \ The senw ' side of a ship ' 
eapliins slar-bisird. lar-beatd, cm beard, 
e^r-t.xird. Hei. bjard, to live at table ; 
from SmrJ, a table. 

border, an edge. (F.— O. Do.) M. E. 
hrdurt. Cb.-F. bordun.-Dn. bivrd.b<a- 
der, edge; orig. the same word as Dn. 
A-W, a board : see above. 

Boast. (O M. E. teit. - W. ftjf, a 
hr^^ing ; Com. bail ; Irish and Gael. 
A.-J, boast, vain-gloiy. 

Boat (E-1 M. E. Axr. A. S. + 
Icel. bJ.'r; Swed. bdlx Dn. MV; Kuss. 
A/ ; W. bed: GaeL bJ.'j, a boat. P- The 
orig. beat was prob. a biif. i.e. stick, branch, 
stem of a tree; cf. Gael, and Irish Ai/j, 
staff, s;ick, pole, branch, bai. See Bat. 

boat-swain, (E.) Lit. 'boat-lad;' A.S. 
tv-in. IccL treimi. a lad. 

Bob, to jerk. (C. 7) Perhaps imitatrre. 
Or altered frim Gad. tfg; to bob agitate; 
Imh Aqcniw, I bot^ wag. Ion. SecBo*. 


Gk.) Milanese bornbds, Ital. bombagio, 
cotton wadding. •Low L. dwulax, cotton ; 
put for L. bomiyx, ^ Gk. fi6/t0vi, silk, 
cotton. ^ Prob. Eastern; fh>m Pers. 
dandasA, carded cotton. 

bombasine, bombusine, a fabric of 
silk and worsted. (F.->L.-Gk.) F. bom- 
basin. » Low L. bombacynus, made of 
cotton. — Low h, bombaXf cotton; see 

Bond. (E.) See Bind. 

Bondage, servitude. (F.»Scand.) See 

Bone. (E.) M. E. boon ; A. S. bdn.'^ 
Du. been; Icel. ban; Swed. ben; Dan. 
be^n ; O. H. G. fetn, peini. 

bonfire. (£.) Orig. a bone-fire. 'Bani- 
Jin, ignis ossium;* Catholicon Anglicanum, 
A.D. 1483 ; where bam is the Northern form 
of bone. 

Bonito, a kind of tunny. (Span. •■Arab.) 
S^m. ^»//^.«>Arab. baynis, a bonito. 

Bonnet. (F. - Low L. - Hind. ?) F. 
bonmL — Low L. bonneta (a.d. 1300), the 
name of a stuff of which bonnets or caps 
were made. Perhaps Hindustani ; cf. Hind. 
bandit woollen cloth ; Rich. Diet. p. 290. 

Bonny, fair. (F.— L.) From F. bonne^ 
fair, fern, of bon, good. ^ L. bonus, good ; 
O. L. duonus. 

boon, good. (F.»L.) In the phr. '^^mt 
companion.* »F. bon, good. 

bounty, orig. goodness. (F.^L.) M.E. 
bountee.»0.¥. bonieit.^'L, ace. bonitatem, 
from bonitas, goodncs&»L. bonus. 

Bonge, apnest (Port. ^ Japanese.) Port 
bonzo.^Jap. busso, a pious man (Mahn). 

Booby. (Span.i«L.) Span, ^^t^, a block- 
head, booby (related to F, baube, stammer- 
ing). — L. balbus, stammering ; hence stupid. 
Cognate with Gk, fiApfiapos ; see Bar- 

Book. (E.) M.E. book; A.S. b<fc, of 
which the orig. sense was a beech-tree. 
The orig. 'books' were pieces of writing 
scratched on a beechen board.^-Du. boek; 
IceL b^A; Swed. bo^; Dan. bo^i", G. bucA; 
also 'L./ajpts, a beech, Gk. tpr/ydi, a beech. 
(V BH AG.) 

beech. (E.) A. S. b/ce, a beech ; b/cen, 
adj., beechen ; both derivatives (by change 
from 6\o f) from the older form bSc above. 
buckwheat. (£.) Lit. beech-wheat; 
from the resemblance of its seeds to the 
mast of the beech-tree. The form buck is 
Northern. So also Du. boekweit, buckwheat ; 
G, buchwdzen. See Book. 



Boom (i), to hum. (£.) M. £. bbmmen \ 
not found in A. S. 4- Du. bomnun^ to boom, 
to give out a hollow sound like an empty 
barreL An imitative word; allied to ll 
bombus, Gk. fidpifioM, a humming. 

bomb, a shell for cannon. (F. i- L. » 
Gk.) F. bombe. •• L. bombus, a humming 
noise. «Qk. 06tifios, the same. 

bombard. (F. - L. - Gk.) The verb 
is from E bombard, a great gun; Sh.i*F. 
bombards, a cannon ; extended from F. 
bombe. Der. bombard-ur, F. bombardier 

bound (i), to leap. (F. . L.- Gk.) F. 
bondir, to bound; but orig. to resound.^ 
L. bombitare, to resound. » L. bombus, a 
humming sound. — Gk. fibfifios, the same. 
Der. re-bound (F. rebondir). 

bumble-bei9. (E.) C{.O.Dn.bomfne/en, 
to buzz, frequent of bommen, to boom ; 
see Boom (i). 

bump (a), to boom as a bittern. (C.) 
W. bivmp, a hollow sound ; hence aderyn y 
bwmp, a bittern. 

bumper, a drinking- vessel. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) A corruption of bombard^ used in 
the same sense (Temp. ii. 3), a jocular 
word ; it orig. meant a kind of caxmon ; sec 
bombard above. 

Boom (3), a pole. (Du.) See Beam. 
Boon (i), a petition. (Scand.) M.E. 
bone, Ch. ^ Icel. bdn, Dan. and Swed. bon, 
a petition. ^ A. S. b^ (whence bene in 
Wordsworth). Perhaps allied to Ban. 
Boon (3) ; see Bonny. 
Boor, a peasant. (Du.) Du. boer, a 
peasant, lit. 'tiller of the soil.* ^ Du. 
botiwen, to till. 4- A. S. biian, to -till, to 
dwell, whence btir, gebtir^ a peasant (only 
preser\-ed in neigh-bour). So also G. 
bauen, to till; whence bauer, a peasant. 
(V BHU.) 

bonda^, servitude. (F. » Scand.) M. E. 
and F. bondage, servitude ; the sense bein? 
due to conmsion with the verb fo bind. 
But it orig. meant the condition of a bond" 
man, called in A. S. bonda, a word 
borrowed from Icel. b6ndi, a husband- 
man. And bdndi = bdandi, a tiller; from 
Icel. btia, to till, prepare, cognate with 
A. S. biian. 

boimd (3), ready to ^o. (Scand.) In 
' the ship is bound for Spam,' &c. Formed, 
with excrescent d, from M. E. boun, ready, 
Ch. C. T. 1 1807. — IceL btiinn, prepared; 
pp. of bda, to till, prepare. 

bower, an arbour. (E.) M.E. boure. 



A. S. bdr, a chamber. — A. S. bdan, to dwell. 
•^Icel. bUr, a chamber. 

busk (i), to get oneself ready. (Scand.) 
Icel. biiask, to get oneself ready. ~ Icel. 
biia, to prepare ; and ^k^ put for sik, one- 
self ; see bound (3) above. 

by-law, a law affecting a township. 
(Scand.) Formerly also birlaw, burlaw. 
-• Icel. bajar-log, a town-law, by-law ; 
from bajar, gen. of bar or byr, a town, 
village (from biia, to dwell) ; and log, a 
law. So also Dan. by-lov, town-law, simi- 
larly compounded. 

byre, a cow-house. (Scand.) Icel. biir, 
a pantry; Swed. bur, Dan. buur, a bird- 
cage; Swed. dial, bur, a cottage, pantry, 
granary, &c The Scand. equivalent of £. 
husband ; see under House, 
neighbour. (£.) Lit. one who dwells 
near. A. S. mdhbilr^ nedhgebdr, ■• A. S. 
nt&hf nigh; and biir, gebur, a peasant, 
dweller.4-0. muhbar, similarly formed. 

Boot (i), a covering for the foot. (F.— 
O. H. G.) See Butt (2). 

Boot (a), advantage. (£.) See Better. 

Booth. (Scand.) M. E. bothe, — Icel. 
^i/t$, a booth, shop ; Swed. bod, Dan. bod, 
•4-G. bude. So also Gael, buth, Irish both^ 
boith, W. bwth, a hut. Allied to Skt. bha- 
vana, a house. (^ BHU.) 

Booty. (Scand.) Icel. byti, Dan. bytte, 
Swed. byte, exchange, barter; also booty, 
spoil (whence also F. butiri). — Icel. byta, 
to divide, deal out ; so that the ori^. 
sense of booty was ' share.* 4* I^Q* ^^t. 
(The G. beute is merely borrowed from 
Low G.) 

Borage. (P.— Low L.) Formerly bottr- 
age, — F. bourrache. — Low L. borraginem, 
ace. of borrago, borage ; prob. named from 
its roughness. Perhaps from Low L. borra, 
burra, rough hair (whence F. bourre, Ital. 
borrd) ; see Burl. 

Borax. (Low L. — Arab. — Pers.) Low L. 
borax ; also boracum. — Arab, btirdq. — Pers. 
btlrah, borax (Vullers). 

Border, an edge. (F. — O. Du.) See 

Bore (i), to perforate. (E.) M.'E.borien, 
A.S. bon'an.'^uvL. boren; Icel. bom; Swed. 
bcrra ; Dan. bore ; G. bohren ; L. forare. 
(^BHAR, to cut.) See Perforate, 

bore (2), to worry. Merely a metaph. 
use of the verb above ; Hen. VIII, i. i . 1 28. 

And see Burin. 


Bore (3), a tidal surge in a river. (Scind.) 
Icel. bdra, a billow caused by wind. Cf. 
Swed. dial, bdr, a mound. 
Boreas, the north wind. (L.— Gk.)^ L. 
Boreas . » Gk. Bop^at, Boyi>paff, the N. wind. 
Borough. (E.) M. £. burgh, borgh : 
also borwe, A. S. burh, burg (gen. and 
dat. byrtg), a fort.— A. S. burg-an, pt pi. 
of beorgan, to protect ; cognate with Goth. 
bairgan, to hide, keep, L. farcire, to stuff. 
( V liHARGH.) + Du. burg\ Icel. borg\ 
Swed. and Dan. borg; G. burg\ Goih. 

barrow (i), a burial-mound. (E.) Put 
for berrow (like parson for person, &c) 
M. E. bergh, beoruh, a hill, mound.— A. S. 
beorg, beorh, a hill, grave-mound. — A. S. 
beorgan, to hide, protect ; see bury below. 

lK>rrow. (E.) M. E. borwen ; A. S. 
borgian, lit. to give a pledge. — A. S. A^/y, 
borh, a pledge. — A.S,borg'en, pp. of beorgan, 
to keep, protect. 

burgess. (F.-M. H. G.> M. E. bur- 
geys, — O. F. burgeis. — Low Lat. burgensis, 
belonging to a fort or city. — Low Lat. 
burgus, a fort.-M. H. G. bitrc (G. burg) ; 
cognate with A. S. burg above. 

burgher. (E.) Formed by adding -er 
to burgh =5 borough. 

burglar. (F.-G. and L.) O. F. burg- 
lar (a law-term) a house-breaker, lit. 
' borough-thief.* — F. bourg (from G. burg), 
a town ; and O. F. teres, a robber, from 
Lat. lairo ; see Laroeny. 

burgomaster. (Du.) Du. burgemeester, 
a town-master. — Du. burg, cognate with 
E. borough ; and meester, a master, from 
O. F. meistre ; see Master. 

btirial. (E.) M. E. burieU biriel, a 
tomb ; also spelt beriels, biriels. — A. S. 
byrgels, a tomb. — A. S. byrgan, to buiy ; 
see bury (i). 

burrow, a shelter for rabbits. (E.) 
M. E. borwgh, a cave, shelter ; merely a 
varied spelling of borough above. Der. 
burrow^ verb. 

bury (I ), verb. (E.) "b/l.E. burien.-^ 
A. S. byrigan, byrgan, to bury, hide in the 
ground. Formed (by change of o to y^ 
from borg-en, pp. of beorgan, to hide, pro- 
tect (as above). 

bury (2), a town. (E) In Canterbury, 
&c. — A. S. byrig^ dat. o( burh, a borough. 

Bosom. (E ) M. E. bosom. A. S. b(fsm. 
+ Du. boezem ; G. btuen. ( ^ BHUGH ?) 

Boss, a knob. (F.-O. H. G.) See Beat. 

Botany. (F.-Gk.) F. botanique, orig. 


an adj. ^ Gk. fioravi^s^ belonging to plants. 
»Gk. fioToamj, a herb.^Gk. fi6<TM€iv, to 
Botoh (i), to patch. (O. Low G.) See 

Botoh (a), a swelling. (F. ^ G.) See Beat. 

Both. (Scand.) M.£. da]fe, Scot, baith.^ 
Icel. MKir, both, doal adj. ; Dan. baade ; 
Swed. ddifa. -^ G. ^ide; Goth, iajoiks. 
Allied to A. S. 64, both ; Lat. -^ in am- 
60; Gk. -^ in dn-^; Skt. 'dAa in u-dAa, 

Bother, v. and sb. (C.) In Swift.- 
Irish htaidkirt, sb., trouble ; huaidhrinit I 
disturb; cf. buair, to vex, trouble. So 
also O. Gael, buaidheart, tumult, confu- 
sion ; ^iMEtr, to vex, trouble, disturb. 

Bets, small worms. (C.) Gael, boius, a 
belIy>worm ; boiteag, a maggot. 

Bottle (x), a hollow vessel. (F. — Low 
L.-Gk.) M. £. hotel, - F. bouteilU.^ 
Low Lat. huticula^ dimin. of butica, a kind 
of vessel. -"Gk. fi^u, ^oOrir, a flask. Per* 
haps allied to Butt (2) and Boot (1). 

butler. (F. - Low L. - Gk.) M. E. 
boteUr^ one who attends to bottles ; from 
M. £. bctdy a bottle ; see above. 

buttery, a place for provisions, esp. 
liquids. (F.— Low L. — Gk.) A corruption 
of M. E. botelerie, a butlery, properly a 
place for a butler ; from M. £. bottler^ a 
butler ; see above. (Thus buttery =i bottUty.) 
Confused with the word butter. 

Bottle (2), a bundle of hay; see Beat. 

Bottom. (£.) M. £. botum, bothom, 
A. S. botm, 4* 1^°' bodem ; Icel. botn ; 
Swed. botten; Dan. bund; G. boden; Lat. 
fundus; Gk. wvOfd/v; Vedic Skt. budAna, 
depth, ground. Allied to Irish bann, sole 
of the foot ; Gael, bonn, sole, bottom ; W. 
ban, base, stock. See Fundament. 

Boudoir. (F.-C?) F. boudoir, b, pri- 
vate room for a lady; lit. a place to sulk 
in.— F. bouder, to sulk. Perhaps Celtic; 
cf. W./Wm. to pout, sulk ; see Pout (i). 

Bough. (£.) M.£. boug^, A. S. %, 
UA; of which the orig. sense was 'an 
arm.' + Icel. bSgr, Swed. bog^ Dan. Afe, 
the shoulder of an animal* hence the bow 
(shoulder) of a ship; G. bug; Gk. ir^xw, 
the fore-arm; Skt. bdAus, the arm, allied 
to ba^u, large. 

bow (4), the bow of a ship. (Scand.) 
Lit. the * shoulder ' of a ship. •> Icel. b(fgr, 
Swed. bog, Dan. bov ; as above. Der boW' 

Bought, the same as Bout. See Bow (i). . 



Botdder, a large stone. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, bullersteen^ a large rolling stone ; so 
called from its rolling down stream with a 
crash. » Swed. bttllra, to thunder, roar ; 
and steen, a stone ; see Bellow and Stone. 
Danish puts Id for //, and has buldre, to 
roar, butder, a crash. 

Bounce, to jump up quickly. (O. Low 
G.) M. E. bunsen, to beat. — Low G. 
bunsen, to beat, knock at a door; Du. 
bonzen, to bounce, throw. From Du. bons, 
a bounce, thump; cf. G. bumps, bounce: 
Icel. bops, bump ! imitative of the sound of 
a blow. See Bump (i). 

Bound (I), to leap. (F.-L.-Gk.) See 
Boom (i). Der. re-bound. 

Bound (2). a boundary. (F.-C.) M. E. 
bounde, Ch. ; with excrescent </, as in 
soun-d. — O. F. bonne, a boundary ; also 
spelt bodne (Burguy); Low Lat. bodina 
(contr. form bonna), a bound, limit.— 
Bred. bSden, a thicket, tuft of trees ; bSd, a 
tuft of trees; cf. Irish bot, a cluster, a 
bunch. Thus the orig. bound was a tuft of 
trees or a thicket. Der. bound-ary (for 

boiim (i), a boundary. (F.-C.) In 
Sh. — F. borne, a botmd; corrupted from 
O. F. bonne, a boundary, as above. 

Bound (3), ready to go. (Scand.) See 

Bounden, the old pp. of Bind. As in 
' bounden duty.' 

Bounty. (F.-L.) See Bonny. 

Bouquet. (F. - Low G.) See Bush. 

Bourd, a jest; to jest. (F.-Teut.?) 
M. E. bourde, sb. ; hourden, v.— F. bourde, 
a game; bourder, to play. Etym. doubt- 
ful ; but F. bourder prob. = O. F. bohorder, 
to tourney, joust with lances, hence, to 
amuse oneself. — O. F. bohort, a mock 
tournament; supposed to stand for bot- 
horde, i.e. a beating against the hurdles or 
barriers of the lists. — O. F. bot-er, to beat : 
and horde, a hurdle. — M. H. G. b6zen, to 
beat (O. H. G. p6zan); and M. H. G. 
hurt, a hurdle ; see Beat and Hurdle. 

Bourn (i), a boundary. (F.-C.) See 
Bound (2). 

Bourn (a), Bum, a stream. (£.) M. £. 
bourne. A. S. buma, a fotmtain, stream, 
well. (VBHUR ?) + Icel. brunnr; Swed. 
brunn; Dan. brand; G. brunnen; Goth. 
brunna, a spring, well ; cf. Gk. ^ppiap, a well. 

Bouse, BouBe, Boose, to drink deeply. 
(Du.) See Box (i). 

Bout, a turn. (Scand.) - See Bow (i). 



Bow (i% to bend. (E.) VL/E. howen, 
bogen, bugen, A. S. bdgan, -^ Du. buignt ; 
G. beugen\ Goth, biugan; Skt Muj, to 
bend ; Lat. fugere, to tnm to flight, give 
way; Gk. ^«try(iK, to flee. (yBHUGH.) 
DOW (a), a bend. (K) From the verb, 
bow (3), a weapon to shoot with. (£.) 
M. E. bow€. A. S. boga^ a bow ; becanse 
it is bent or bowed.'^fyi, boog ; led. bogi ; 
Swed. bUge ; Dan. bue ; O. H. G. pogo. 

bight, a coil of rope, a bay. (E.) M. E. 
bight. A. S. byht, as in wateres byht, a 
bight (bay) of water (see Grein).«»A. S. 
bu^'On, pt. pi. of bilgOHf to bow, bend. 

bout, a turn. (Scand.) Also bought, 
Spenser, F. Q. i. i. i5.»Dan. bugi, a bend, 
a tnm ; also a bight or bay; cc^^nate with 
A. S. byht above ; see bight. 

bo^-window. (K) A window of semi* 
circular ibnh; not the same as bay- 
window, •" 

bilzoHL (E.) M. E. bcxom, buhsum; 
the old sense was obedient, obliging, |[ood- 
humoured. Lit ' bow^onu^^K. S. bug-cat, 
to bow, bend, obey; and -vftaw, suffix, as in 
wifi'Some, And see Bugle (a). 

Bow (4), the 'Moulder ^ of a ship. 
(Scand.) See Bough. 

BoweL (F. - L.) M. E. botule.^O, F. 
boil\ (mod. F. boyau),^'LaX. ace. bolellum, 
a sausage, intestine ; dimin. of botulus, a 

Bo^er, an arbour. (£.) See Boor. 

Bowl (x), around wooden ball. (F.i«L.) 
See Bull (a). 

Bowl (a), a dxinking-vesseL (E.) See 

Bow-window ; see Bow (x). 

Box (i), the name of a tree. (L.) M. E. 
box ; A. S. box, •■ Lat. buxus, the box-tree. 
^Gk. vi;£or, the box-tree. 

box (a), a chest or case to put things 
in. (L.) M. £. box; A. S. box. » L. buxum, 
anyUiin^ made of box-wood ; hence, a box. 
»Lat. buxus, the box-tree. (Hence a box 
at a theatre; a shooting-Aftr; a Christmas 
box or present ; &c.) 

bouse, boose, to drink deeply. (Du. 
-• L.) Spelt bouse in Cotgrave (s. v. boire). 
■• O. Du. buystn, * to drinke great drafts/ 
Hexham. » O. Du. buys, Du. buis, a tube, 
pipe, &c. ; also the tap of a barrel; allied to 
Du. bus, a box, urn, barrel of a gun ; bor- 
rowed from Latin, like £. box, 

bush (a), the metal box in which an 
axle works. (Du.—L.) Du. bus, a box; 
see bouae, above. 

bushel, ameasnre. (F.— Low.L.•-Gk.)- 

Box (3), to fight with fists; a blow. 
(Scand.) M.£. box, sb.-'Dan. baske, to 
slap, strike; bask, a slap, thwack; allied 
to Swed. basa, to whip, flog, beat (Ihre). 

Box (4), in pfar. 'to box the compass.* 
(Span.) Span. box€tr, to sail ronnd ao 
island (Meadows) ; O. Span, boxo, ft dfcnit 

Boy. (O.LowG.) M.E. A>y. Preserved 
in K Friesic A», boy, a boy (Koolman); 
allied to O. Du. boef, a boy. Do. boef, a 
knave.-f IceL bdfi, a knave ; G. bube, m. boy; 
Lat. pupiu, a boy. See PapiL 

Brabble, to quanel. (Du.) Do. brab» 
belen, to stammer, confound ; whence brab' 
beltaai, foolish talk. See Blab, Babble. 

Brace, orig. a firm hold. (F.— L.) From 
the notion of embracing. —O.F. bract, the 
two arms (Bartech) ; hence a measure of 5 
feet, formed with extended arras- (Cot); 
and hence, a grasp. «• Lat. brachia, pL of 
brachium, the arm.-f-Irish brae, W. aratch^ 
the arm ; Gk. fipaxioaiw, 

bracelet. (F.^L.) F. bracelet', dimio. 
of O. F. bracel, an armlet (Bartsdi.)*Li^ 
brachiU, an armlet. »L. brachium, an arm. 
branch. (F.-C.) M.K branche,^¥. 
branche. ^ BreL^mnr, an arm ; allied to Lat. 
brachium, an arm, a branch. 

embrace. (F. — L.) O. F. embracer, to 
grasp in the arms.i«O.F. em-, {or pi («sL. 
tn) ; and brace, the grasp of the arms ; see 

Brach, a kind of hunting-dog. (F.— L.) 
M. E. brachc.^O. F. brachc (F. braque).^ 
O. H. G. bracco (G. brack), a dog that hunts 
by the scent 

Birackish. (Du.) Du. brak, briny, nanse* 
OUS. — DU. broken, to vomit Prob. allied 
to Break. 

Bracken, fern. (E.) See Brake (a). 

Bracket, a corbel. See Breeohes. 

Bract. (L.) Lat. bractea, a thin plate 
or leaf of metal. 

Brad. (Scand.) M. K brod. * IceL 
broddr, a spike ; Swed. brodd, Dan. brodde, 
a frost-nail. 

Brag. (C.) See Break. 

Bragget. (W.) M. E. bfytget. - W. 
bragot, a kind of mead ; allied to Irish 
bracat, malt liquor. » W. brag, malt ; Irish 
and Gael, braich, malt, fermented grain. 
The Gael, braich is from Gael, brack, to 
brew ; allied to £. Brew. 


Bgahman, BrahmlxL (Skt) Skt. 
hrdAmoDO^ a brahman, holy man. » Skt. 
brahman, prayer; also the miknown god. 
Supposed to mean ' support ;* from bhii, to 
bear; see Bear (i). 

Braid, to weave. (£.) M.E. hreidm, 
A. S. bregdany bredan, to brandish, weave, 
braid.-^fcel.^^f^, to brandish, tnm about, 
change, start, braid, &c. ; hence bragfi, a 
tndden movement. 

Bndl, a ligature ; tee Breeiohea. 

Brain. (£.) Vi,lLbrayne, A,S, bregen, 
bntgen, the bcatn.-f Du. brein, 

wato (i) ; see Break. 

Brake (a), bush, fem. (E.) A. S. brarce, 
feni.<^Low G. braie, willow-bush. Prob. 
so called because growing on rough or 
broken ground; cf. G. brack, fallow, nn- 

toaokfldi, fem. (£.) A.S. braccan, pi. of 
braces, fem.4-IceL burkni (allied to brok, 
sedge, rough grass); Swed. broken, Dan. 
bregne, fem. 

Bramble. (£.) M.E. brembil, A.S. 
brtmel, bnmbeL'^DvL, braam, a blackberry ; 
Swed. brom-bar, Dan. brom-bar, G. brom- 
Aflfrr, a blackberry. (VBHRAM.) 

Bran. (C.) M. E. bmn.m.'W. bran, Irish 
bran, husk, chaff. So also F. bren ; from 
Bret, brenn, bran. 

Branch. (F.-L.) SeeBraoe. 

Brand, Brandish, Brandy; see Bum. 

Branks, a punishment for scolds. (C.) 
See Jamieson.«*GaeL brangas (O. Gael. 
braneas), a sort of pillory ; Gael, brang, 
Irish braneas, a halter. 4- Iai. pranger, pin- 
oen, barnacle, collar; G, granger, a pillory ; 
Da. prangen, to pinch. 

Bran-new. (£.) SeeBiim. 

Brass. (£.) M. E. bras, A. S. bras. 
Derived from the verb seen in Icel. brasa, 
to harden by fire ; Swed. brasa, to flame ; 
Dan. brase, to fry. Der. braz-en, A. S. 

brasier, brazier, a pan to hold coals. 
(F.— Scand.) Y.braisiere, a camp-kettle. 
— F. braise, live coals. » Swed. brasa, fire, 
allied to brasa^ to flame ; see above. 

braae (i), to harden. (F. - Scand.) 
K. Lear, i. i. 11. It merely means to 
harden ; it is the verb from which brtus is 
derived, not vice versa. — F. braser, to 
solder. ■•Icel. brasa, to harden by fire. 

braae (2), to ornament with brass. (E.) 
In Chapman, tr. of Homer, Od. xv. 113. 
In this sense, it is K, and derived from 
brass, sb. 



breeae (2), cinders. (F.« Scand.) O.F. 
brese, spelt brese in Cot., the old form of 
F. braise, live coals ; see braaier above. 

Brat, a child. (C.) So named from its 
pinafore ; it also meant a rag, clout, or (in 
derision) a child. » W. brat, a rag, pinafore ; 
Gad. and Irish brat, a cloak, rag. 

Brattice, a fence of boards ma mine. 
(F. - Teut.?) M. K brttascke, bretasce, 
brutaske, a parapet, battlement. » O. F. 
brttesehe, a small wooden outwork, battle- 
ment ; cf. Prov. bertrtsca, Ital. bertesca, the 
same. A difficult word; prob. formed 
from G. brett, a plank. 

buttress, a support, in architecture. 
(F.»Teut) M. E. boteras, a battlement, a 
corrapt form of brutaske or bretesche above ; 
as shewn by boterased as a various reading 
for brttasked, &c. ; P. Plowman, A. vi. 79, 
B. V. 598. Really the same word as brat- 
tice ; but confused with O. F. boutani^ a 
buttress (Cot.), from bouter, to support; 
see Butt (i). 

Bravado. (Span.) See Brave. 

Brave. (F.) F. brave, 'brave, gay, 
fine, proud, braggard, valiant ;* Cot. The 
same as Ital., Span^ and Port, bravo. Etj-m. 
unknown ; none of the explanations ore 
satisfactory ; the Bret, brav, O. Swed. braf, 
appear to be borrowed from F. Cf. Bret. 
braga, to strut about, Gael, brtagk, fine ; 
see Brag. 

bravado. (Span.) Altered from Span. 
bravado, *a bravado;' Minsheu's Span. 
Diet. ••Span, bravo, brave. 

bravo, a daring villain. (Ital.) Ital. 
^nxv0, brave; as a sb., a cut*throat, villain, 
bravo ! well done. (Ital.) Ital. bravo^ 
brave ; used in the voc. case. 

Brawl (i), to quarrel. (C.) M.E. 
braulen.^\i , brawl, brol, a boast ; broUo, 
to boast; bragal, to vociferate; cf. Irish 
bragaim, I boast, bounce, bully. Prob. 
allied to Brag. 

Brawl (3), a sort of dance. (F.-Teut.) 
See Bum. 

Brawn, muscle. (F. -O. H. G.) M. E. 

braun, muscle, boar's ^c^.^O.Y.brcum, 

a slice of flesh ; cf. Prov. bradon, the same. 

— O. H. G. brdton, ace. of brdto, M. E. 

brAte, a slice of flesh for roasting. » O. H. G. 

proton (G. braten), to roast. % The orig. 

sense was merelv • muscle ;* the restriction 

to that of * boar s flesh' is accidental. 

Bray(i), to bruise. (F.-G.) See Break. 

Bray (a), to make a roaring noise. (F.«* 

C.) See Break. 



(i) to harden ; (a) to oroament 
with brass; see Brass. 
Breach. (E.) See Break. 
Bread. (E.) M. E ^rud, A. S. drtiU. 
Prob. allied to Brew, because fermented. 
CC A.S. pt t brea-w, + Du. brood; lod. 
bmufi; Swed. and Dan. Md; G. brod. 
Breadth. <E.) See Broad. 
Break. (E.) M. E. breJken ; pt. t. bmJk; 
pp. broken. A. S. brtcan, pt. t. bnec, pp. 
brocen.'^'iyvL. brektn ; Icel. braka, to creak ; 
Swed. braka, to crack; Dan. brakke; 
Goth. brikan\ G. brechen\ VaX.. frangere. 
(VBHRAG.) The orig. sense is to break 
with a noise, to crack. 

bra^, to boast. (C.) W. bragio, to 
boast ; Irish bragaim, I boast. Allied to 
GaeL bragk, an explosion. (^ 6HRAG.) 

braggart, a boaster. (F. — C.) F. 
bragard.^'^Tct. braga^ to stmt aboat ; cog- 
nate with W. bragio^ to boast ; see above. 

brake (i), a machine for breaking 
hemp ; a name for varioas mechanical con- 
trivances. (O. Low G.) M.E brake,^ 
Low G.brake^z, flax-brake; O. \>i,braeck€t 
* a brake to b^t flax ;' Hexham. •» Do. 
brekat^ to break ; see Break. 

bray (i), to bruise, pomid. (F.— G.) 
M. E brayen.^O. F. brtter (F. broyer).^ 
G. brechiHy to break ; see Break. 

bray (a), to make a roaring noise. 
(F. — C.) F. braire (Low Lat. bragire^ 
bragart). Of Celtic origin ; cf. W. bragal, 
to vociferate ; Gael, bragk, a burst, explo- 
sion ; see brag above. 

breach. (E) M. E brecAt, a fracture. 
.«A.S. brec£, as in Aldf-grbriece, a piece of 
bread (more commonly brue, a breaking). 
« A. S. brecan, to break. 

brick. (F. - O. Du.) F. brique, a brick ; 
also a fragment, bit.»0. Du. bricke, a 
brick ; orig. a fragment. * Du. breJun^ to 
break. Der. brick-bat (see Bat). 

a fish. (F. -O.IkG.) See 

Breast. (£.) See Burst. 

Breath. (E) M.E. breeik, brtth, A.S. 
brdS.'^G. brvdem, broden, brodel, steam, 
vapour, exhalation. 

Breech. (E) See Breeches. 

Breeches, Breeks. (E.) A double 
plural, the form breek being, in itself, a pi. 
form. A.S.^r/r, breeks; pl.of ^nfe-, with the 
same sense.4-Du. broek, a pair of breeches; 
Icel. br^k (pi. bmkr) ; M. H. G. bruoch ; 
Gael, brog^ a large shoe, briogais^ breeches. 
Cf. L bracca, a word of Celtic origin. 

. BREW. 

bracket, a corbel, ftc (F.<*C.) For- 
merly spelt bragget^ as in Minsheo, ed. 
1627. So named from the resemblance to 
the front part of a pair of breeches, as 
formerly made.— F. braguetU, ' a codpiece,^ 
Cot (the front part of a pair of breeches) ; 
the allied Span, bragueta also meant a 
projecting mould in architecture, a bracket 
or corbeL Dimin. of O. F. bragm^ 'a. 
kind of mortaise,* Cot; from brogues, 
breeches; so also Span, bragueta is the 
dimin. of Span, ^n^^, breeches. •*L.3nicr/r; 
of Celtic origin; Bret, bragew, breeches. 

brail, a kind of ligature or fastening. 
(F.— C.) O.F. bnue/, a cincture; orig. 
for fastening up breeches; dimin. of F. 
braie, breeches.— L. bnuca, BreL braget, as 

breech. (E.) M.E. breech, propedy 

breeks, or the covering of the hinder put <^ 

the body. * A. S. br^c, pL of br6c ; see above. 

brogues, coarse shoes. (C.) GaeL and 

Irish brog, a shoe, legging ; see Breeohei . 

Breed. (E) See Brood. 

Breeae (i), a gadfly. (E.) Also brUte, 
brimsey.^A. S. brimse, a gadfly, named 
from its humming. 4* T>Oi,brems ; G. bremse 
(from M. H. G. bremen, to hum) ; Skt 
bhramara, a large black bee (from Skt. 
bhram, to hum, whirl, fly about as insects). 
Cf. lAt.fremere, 

Breese (a), a strong wind. (F.) Formerly 
brise.^O. F. brtse, usied by Rabelais in the 
same sense as F. bise, the N. wind; cf. 
Span, brisa. Port, briza, the N.E. wind ; 
Ital. bretza, a cold wind. Orig. unknown. 

Breese (3), cinders. (F.^Scand.) See 
Brass. ^ (Juite distinct from prov. E. 
bn'ss, dust, F. bris, rubbish, whence F. 
debris ; see Debris. 

Breve, Breviary ; see Brief. 

Bre^. (E) M. £. breweu, A. S. 
brehuan, pL t. bredw, pp. gebroweH.'^T>ii. 
brouwen ; G. brauen ; Icel. brugga; Swed. 
brygga ; Dan. brygge, (^ BHUR, to boil, 

brewis. pottage. (F.-M. H. G.) M. E. 
brorjoes,^0. F. broues, a pi. form ; from a 
sing, brou, broth. — Low Lat. brodum, 
broth.— M. H. G. brSd, broth; cognate 
with E Broth ; see below. 

brose, pottage. (C.) Gael. brotAas, 
brose. From the same root as E. Brew, 
broth. (E) A.S.brcifi.^A,S,bro-wen, 

pp. of brehoan, to brew. ^ Icel. ^fwO; 

M. H. G. brdt ; cf. G.gebraude, as much as 
, is brewed at once. And see Bread. 


r. Brier. (E.") M.E.^mT?. A.S. 

Gael, and Irish /mzf, a bush, briar. 

e. (F.-C.) M.E. bribe,^0,Y. 

k piece of bread given to a beggar; 
bri/e^ a fragment of bread.* Bret 
to break ; cp. W, briw, broken, 

ra (a ifriw dam\ broken bread, 

rituo, to break. Allied to Briok and 

L (F. - O. Da.) See Break. 
e. (£.) M. £. drt'de ; also dirde, 
bunU. A. S. brydf a bride. Prob. , 
to Irish brUf the womb, Gk. fipi^tv, 
n. 4* Du- bruidi IceL bnWr; Swed. 
&n. brud ; G. braui ; Goth, bruths^ 
laL (£.) Formerly bridt-cUe, a bride- 
A.S. bryd-ealo, a bride-ale, bride- 
•A. S. ^/>^, bride; and ealo^ ale, 
feast ; see Ale. 

l^^om. (£.) For bridegoom ; the 
. r is intrusive. A. S. bryd-guma^ lit. 
nan ; where gutna is cognate with L. 
a man ; see Homage. 4* Du. bruide- 
IceL bni^gumi ; Swed. brudgumme ; 
\rudgom \ G. brduiigam, O. H. G. 

^e. (E.) M. E. ^njgj^, ^rwgyr. A.S. 
f Icel. bryggja ; Swed. brygga ; Dan. 
, a pier ; G. briicke. Allied to Icel. 
)an. brOf a bridge, pavement; O. 
bro^ a paved way. 

lie. (E.) M. E. bridtL A. S. bridel. 
I. breidcl\ M. H. G. bHUl, brittil 
ce F. bride). Perhaps allied to 

i (i). short. (F.-L.) M.E. bref, 
bref. » L. breuis, short. 4* ^k- 
p, short. 

ef (3), a writ, &c. (F.-.L.) F. 
a brief; Cot The same as F. bre/ 
; from its being in a short form. 
>reviate. (L.) L. abbreuiafus, pp. 
>reutare, to shorten. •> L. o^-, put for 
; and breuis, short. 
ridge. (F.-L.) M.E. abregtn,^ 
abregitr, another form of abrevitr, to 
n.»L. abbreuiare ; see above. 
ive. (Ital.— L.) Orig. a short Tio\t\ 
he longest in use. » Ital. breve^ brief. 
:. breuiSy short. Der. semi-breve, 
>vet. (F.— L.) F. breveL 'a brief, 
.te, little writing ; ' Cot. Dimin. from 

nriary. (F.— L.) F. brhfiairt,^!,. 
irium, a summary. 

SVlty. (F. — L.) F. bri?ve/^. ^ h. Acc. 
atem, shortness.— L. breuis^ short. 



Brig, Brigade ; see Brigand. 
Brigand. (F.-ltal.) F. brigand, a 
robber. «• Ital. brigante, an intriguer, robber ; 
orig. prei. part, ofbrigare, to strive after. » 
Ital. briga, strife, quarrel* trouble. Orig. 

brig; see brigantine (below). 

brigade. (F. » Ital.) F. brigade, a crew, 
troop.— ItaL brigata, a troop ; orig. fem. of 
pp. of brigare, to strive, fight, as above. 

brigandine, a kind of armour. (F.— . 
Ital.) F. brigandine, a kind of armour, 
worn by brigands. —F. brigand, a robber; 
see above. 

brigantine, brig, a ship. (F.-Ital.) 
Brig is merely short for brigantine, ^Y. 
brigantin, a kind of ship. — Ital. brigantino, 
a pirate-^ip. — Ital. bnpante, a robber. 

Bright. (E.) M. E. bnjAt, A. S. beorht, 
+ Icel. biartr ; M. H. G. berht ; Goth. 
bairhts, shining. Allied to Skt. bhrdj, to 
shine; L.^^-nir^, to flame. (^BHAKG, 
to blaze.) See Flame. 

Brill, a fish. (C.) Com. brilliy mackarel, 
contr. form of brithelli, pi. of briihel, a 
mackarel, a spotted fish. — Com. brith, 
s^kled. Cf. Irish and Gad. breac, speckled. 
1 he brill is minutely spotted with white. 

Brilliant, shining : see Beryl. 

Brim. (E.) M.E. brim, A.S. brim, 
surf, surge on the shore. + Icel. brim, surf, 
G. brame, border, M. H. G. brem, border ; 
Skt. bhrimi, a whirl-pool, from bhram, to 
whirl. The brim of the sea is its margin, 
where the surf is heard to roar; cf. L. 
fremere, (V BHRAM.) 

Brimstone, Brindled, Brine; see 

Bring. (E.) A. S. bringan, pt. t. brang; 
also brengan, pt. t. brohte, (M<>d. E. retains 
only the weak pt. t brought^ + Du. 
brengen ; G. bringen ; Golh. briggan 
(written for bringan), pt. t. brahta, (An ex- 
tension from ^ BH AK, to bear.) 

Brink. (Scand.) M. E. brink. - Dan. 
brink, verge; Swed. brink, descent or slope 
of a hill ; Icel. brekka {*sbrenka), a slope, 
crest of a hill ; alli^ to Icel. bringa, a 
grassy slope, orig. the breast. Ct W. 
bryncu, a hillock, bryn, a hill, bron, the 

Brisk. (C.) W. brysg, quick; Gael. 
briosg, quick, lively. Allied to Gael, briosg, 
to start with surprise, leap for joy ; Irish 
briosg, a start, a bounce. 

Brisket. (F.-C.) O.F.^wf^/(Brachet, 
8. V. brechet); brichet, • the brisket, or breast- 



piece * [of uiefttl Cot Mod. F. brecket.^m 
Bret, hruehed^ the breast ; spelt brusk in die 
dialect of Vaimes. 

Briatle. (£.) M. E. hristU, berstU, HrstU ; 
dimin. of A. S. byrsU & brist]e.4-Da. borsUl\ 
led. burst \ Sw«i. borst ; G. bonU. Allied 
to Skt. bhrisAti, pointed. 

Brittle. (£.) M. K briU/, broUh bnUeU 
Formed, with snffix -^(sA.S. -cl\ from 
A. S. brut-<m, pL of pt. t. of brtStan, to 
break; whence also bryttan^ to break 
(secondary verb). It means * fragile.* CI 
IceL bfjitOf Swed. bryta, Dan. brydc, to 

Broach. (F.-L.) See Brooch. 

Broad. (£.) M. E. brvod, A. S. brdd, 
4-Da. breedi Icel. brtVSr ; Swed. and Dan. 
^yn/; Goth, braids ; G. ^/r&f. 

breadth. (£.) The ^aaX-tk is late; tiie 
M. & fonn is ^/r<iSr ; Ch. ~ A. S. br^u^ 
breadth. « A. S. br6d^ broad.4-Icd. breidd\ 
Goth, braidei ; G. bniie ; Do. brtedte. 

Brocade, Broccoli, Brochure; see 

Brock, a badger. (C.) A.S. ^m-.-W., 
Com., and Bret. broch\ Irish, GaeU and 
Manx broc, a badger. Named from his 
white^streaked frice ; cf. GaeL broeackt 
speckled, grayish, as a badger; bntauh, 
spotted; GaeL and Irish brau, W. bruht 

Brocket. GF.-L.) See Brooch. 

Bro^^oee. (C.) SeeBreechaa. 

Broider, to adorn with needlework. (F. 
»C?) [In I Tim. iL 9, brtndcrtd is pat 
for braided, old form of braidtdJ] Formerly 
^^^9dtr, Jndg. V. 30 (Bible of 1551).— F. 
brodtr, ' to imhroyder/ Cot Perhaps (Celtic; 
from Bret bromJOy to pierce, also to em- 
broider, bromd, a spike, goad ; \V. brodio, to 
embroider; GaeL ^/W, a goad. p. It has been 
coofrised with F. border, ' to border, also to 
imbroyder,* Cot., Span, and Port b&rdar^ to 
embroider, which seem rather to be con- 
nected with F. bard, the edge of a garment ; 
see Border. Der. em-braider. 

Broil (I), to fry, grilL (F. -Tent?) 
M. £. brailen, — O. F. bruiller, to boil, roast 
(Roquefort). Prob. a frequent form of 
O.F. bruir, to roast (Borgny); mod. F. 
brauir. Perhaps of Teut origin ; cf. Do. 
broeijim, to foment, hatch eggs» grow Tery 
hot ; G. brUken, to scald. % \Vc also find 
Gad. bruicky to botl, roast ; Irish brui^iim^ 

Broil (2\ a tumult (F.— Teut?) F. 
hvuilier, to jumble, confuse, confound. 


Perhaps related to G. brudehi, brodeln^ to 
bubble (whence to give off steam, confuse) ; 
G. brodely brodem^ vapour, allied to £. 
Breath (Schder). Ct F. brouiHard, a 
mist, fog. f We also find W.M>rA, tumult, 
broehell, a tempest ; GaeL broighleadh, tur* 
moil, broi^iek, noise (perhaps unrelated). 

Broker. (£.) See Brock (i). 

BronchiaL (Gk.) Gk. fiphx^ B«Qt. 
pL, the ramifications of tiie wmdpipe.— 
Gk. fip6rfX9t, the windpipe ; tL fipajxot^ a 
gilL Allied to Gk. ^/)dxa>'> to roar. Der. 
bnmeh'itit ; from fipu-fxot, 

Bronae. (F.-ItaL-Teut) See Brown. 

Brooch. (F.^L.) Named from the pin 
which frtstens it M. £. brocAe, a pin, peg, 
brooch.»F. bracke, a spit, point** Low L. 
brocca, a pointed stick. « L. ^^vrotf, a sharp 
tooth, pomt Cf. Gad. br^, to goad, brag, 
an awl ; W. proeic, to stab. 

broach. (F. - L.) M. E. setien em 
broche^Xo set a-broadi, tap li<|nor. ^ F. 
mettre en broehe, to tap, by piercmg a bar- 
ret— F.^rwrA/r, to pierce. — F. brocke, 'a 
broach, spit' Cot ; see ^xire. 

brocade. (Span.— L.) Span, bracada, 
brotade ; orig. embroidered, the pp. of a 
verb brocar* (not used) answering to F. 
bracher^ 'to broach, also, to stitch . . . with 
great stitdies,' Cot— Low L. brocea, L. 
broccus ; see Brooch. 

broccoli (Ital. — L.) ItaL broccoli, 
sprouts ; pL of broccola, a qirout Dimin. 
oibrxeo, a skewer, a shoot stalk.— L. broo' 
CMS, a point 

brochure, a pamphlet (F. — L.) F. 
brochure^ a few leaves stitched together.— 
F. brochcr, to stitch ; see brocade. 

brocket, a red deer two years old. 
(F.— Lw) F. broatrt, the same; so called 
because he has but one tine to his horn.— 
F. broehe^ a spit also, a tine of a stag's 
hom; see Brooch. 

Brood. (£.) M.E. brod, A. S. br6d 
(rare) ; ' hi br^daS heora ^nii/*=r they nour- 
ish their brood ; .£lfric*s Hom. iL 10.4-Du. 
braed; G. brm/. Perhaps it means 'that 
which is hatdied by heat;' allied to Brew; 
cL W. brwd, warm. 

breed. (EL) M. E. brrdem. A. S. br/ti- 
am, to produce a brood, nourish. — A. S. 
brA/, a brood. (So also feed from /aod; 
by change from <f to /.) 

Brook (i), to endure, put up with. (E.) 
M. £. brmtem^ brouAem. A. S. b nUun^ to 
use, enjoy : which was the orig. sense, -f" 
Du. gebrmJtem^ IceL bnUa, G. bruucMen, 


Goth, brmkjan, to use; l^frui, to enjoy; 
Skt. bhut (for bhrujX to enjoy. (V 

broker. (£.) M. E. broker, brocour, an 
agent, witness of a transaction. Prob. al* 
lied to A. S. brtUan (pp. brocen), to use, 
employ. Cf. Low G. bruuk, custom, Swed. 
bruk, custom, usage, Dan. bru^, custom, 
trade, business ; all allied words. 

Brook (a), a small stream. (£.) M. £. 
brook. A. S. brdc. 4- Du. broek, G. bruch, a 
marsh. (VBHRAG.) 

Broom. (K) M. £. brome, broom, A. S. 
bnfm, the plant broom; hence a besom 
made from twigs of it. ^ Do. brem. Allied 
to Bramble. 

Brose, Broth ; see Brew. 

Brothel. (K; confused vnihT.^TeoX.) 
1. M. £. brothelf a lewd person, base wretch. 
■•A.S. brad-en^ pp. of breSfkm, to perish, 
become vile; whence also iibrotSen, dege- 
nerate, base. Hence was made brothel- 
koustf a house for vile people (Dryden), 
afterwards contracted to brothel. 2. Grig, 
distinct from M. £. bordel, which was used, 
however, in much the same sense. ~ O. F. 
bonUIf a hut, orig. of boards. » O. Dn. (and 
Du.) bordt a pladc, board ; see Board. 

Brother. (£.) M.£. brother. A.S. 
^nfiJ^r.+Du. broeder\ lce\. br^Sir; Goth. 
brothar; Swed. and "Dsji. broder ; G. bru- 
der; Gael, and Ir. bruthair; W. brawd; 
Russ. ^m/'; LALfnUer; Gk. <f>par/ip; Skt. 
bhrdiH. The Skt. bhrdtri is from bkxi, 
to support, maintain; orig. to bear. {/J 

Brow. (E.) M.E. browe. A-S. bni, 
bredw. ^ Du. braauw ; Icel. brtin, eye- 
brow, brd, eye-lid ; M. H. G. brd, cye-lid ; 
Ruse, brove; Gael, brd; Bret, abrant; 
Gk. b^piut ; Pers. abni ; Skt. bhrti. Orig. 
the eye-lid; named from twitching; cf. 
Goth, brahw, the twinkling of an eye. 
(V BHUR.) 

BrowXL (E.) M. E. broun. A. S. brdn. 
•f- Du. bruin ; Icel. bninn ; Swed. brun ; 
Dan. bruun; G. braun. From the same 
root as Bom. 

bronae. (F.-Ital.-Teut.) F. bronu. 
^Ital. bronzOt bronze; cf. abbromare, to 
scorch. Allied to bruno, brown, whence 
bmneaa, swarthiness, bruntre, to burnish. 
■•G. braun, brown ; see above. 

bruin. (Du.) In Reynard the Fox. the 
bear is called brum, Le^ brown. «* Du. bruin, 
brunette. (F,»G.) Y. brunette, Um. 



of brunetf brownish. — M. H. G. bnln, 

burnish, to polish. (F.-G.) M.E. 
bumisen ; also bumen. — O. F. bumir, 
brunir (pres. part, bumisant), to embrown, 
to polish. — O.F. brun, brown. — M.H. G. 
brdn, brown. 

Browse. (F.— M. H. G.) A corruption 
of droust. — O.F. brouster (F. brouter), to 
nibble off young shoots.— O.F. broust (F. 
brout), a sprig, shoot, bud.- M. H. G. broz^ 
a bud ; Bavar. brosst, bross, a bud ; see 

Bruin. (Du.) See Brown. 

Bruise. (F.-Teut.? or C?) M.E. ^rw- 
sen, brisen. mmO. F. bruiser, briser^ to break. 
Either from M. H. G. bresten (G. bersten), 
to burst (Diez) ; or of Celtic origin, as seen 
in Gael, bris, to break, Ir. brisim, I break. 
% Not from A. S. brysan, which may also 
perhaps be of Celtic origin. 

Bruit, a rumour. (F.— C?) F. bruit, a 
noise. — F. bruire, to make a noise. Per- 
haps of Celtic origin ; cf. Bret, bruchellein, 
to roar as a lion ; W. broch, din, tumult. 
Cf. Gk. ^pvx^oficu, I roar. p. Scheler derives 
F. bruire from L. rugire, to roar, with pre- 
fixed b. 

Bnmette ; see Brown. 

Brunt ; see Bum. 

Brush. (F.-Teut.) M. E. brusche, a 
brush ; also brush-wood, which is the older 
sense, the orig. brush being made of twigs. 
— O. F. broce, F. brosse, brushwood ; also, 
later, a brush. — Low L. brustia, brttscia, 
a thicket. Derived by Diez from O. H.G. 
brusta, G. borste, a bristle : but rather from 
Bavar. brosst, bross, a bud, M. H. G. broz, 
a bud ; see Browse. 

Brusque, rough in manner. (F.— Ital.) 
F. brusque. — Itaf. brusco, sharp, tart, sour, 
applied to fruits and wine. Origin un- 

Brute. (F.-L.) F. brut, fem. brute.^ 
L. brutus, stupid. 

Bryony. (L.-Gk.) L. bryonia.^Gk. 
fipvojvia, fifwdnnj, bryony. — Gk. fipiuv, to 
teem, grow luxuriantly. 

Bubble. (Scand.) Swed. bubbla, Dan. 
boble, a bubble ; also Du. bobbel, a bubble, 
bobbelen, to bubble. A dimin. form ; pro- 
bably put for biobble, a dimin. of blob, a 
bubble; see Bleb. 

Bucoanier. (F.— West Indian.) T.bou* 
canier, a pirate. — F. boucaner, to broil on 
a sort of wooden gridiron. — P\ boucan. a 
wooden gridiron, used by cannibals for 



broiling men and animals. The word boucan 
is said to be Caribbean, and to mean 'a 
place where meat is smoke-dried.' 
Buck (I ), a male deer, goat. (£.) M.E. 
bukke, A. S. bucca^ a he-goat. 4- ^^ bok^ 
Icel. bukkr, Swed. bock, a he-goat; Dan. 
buk, a he-goat, ram» buck; G. b&ck, W. 
bwchf Gael, boc, Irish boc. Also Skt bukka, 
a goat. 

buckram, a coarse doth. (F. «• M. H. G.) 

M.E. bokeram,^0,Y, baucaran (F. bou- 

graft), a coarse kind of cloth ; Low L. bo- 

qturannus.^lj^vf L. boquena, goat*s skin. 

» M. H. G. boc, a he-goat. 

butcher. (F. - G.) M. E. bocker, - F. 
bocher, orig. one who kills goats. »0.F. 
boc (F. bouc), a goat. •> G. bock, a goat 

Buck (3), to steep clothes in lye. (C.) 
M.E. bouken. ^G?it\., buac, dung used in 
bleaching, lye in which clothes are washed ; 
Irish buac, lye. Orig. cow-dung; from 
Gael, and Irish bo, a cow ; see Cow. 

Bucket. (E.) M.E. boket. Formed with 
dimin. suffix -et from A. S. biU, a pitcher. 
Cf. Gael, bucaid, Irish buiceady a bucket. 

Buckle. (F.-L.) M.E. A?ife^/.-0. F. 
bock (F. boucU), the boss of a shield, a ring, 
a buckle. « Low L. bticula, the boss of a 
shield ; buccula, visor of a helm, boss of a 
shield, buckle. •> Lat. buccula, the cheek, 
dimin. of bucca, the cheek. 

buckler. (F. - L.) M. E. bokeler, - 
O. F. bocUr (F. bouclUr), a shield; so 
named from the boss on it ; see above. 

Buckram ; see Buck. 

Buckwheat ; see Book. 

Bucolic, pastoral. (L. - Gk.) L. buco- 
licus. •• Gk. iovKokiKot, pastoral. «• Gk. fiov- 
k6\os, a cowherd. — Gk. fiov-i, an ox ; and 
ir/XAciv, to drive. 

Bud. (E. ?) M. E. budiie, a bud ; budden, 
to bud. Not found in A. S. Cf. Du. boU 
a bud ; botten, to bud, sprout. Prob. allied 
to Beat ; see button under Beat. 

Budge (i), to stir; see Bull (a). 

Budge (a), a kind of fur; see Bag. 

Budget, a leathern bag ; see Bag. 

Buff, the colour of dressed bufialo-skin. 
(F. - L.) F. buffle, a buffalo. - L. bufalus ; 
see below. 

Buffalo. (Span.-L.-Gk.) Span.^aA?, 
buffalo, orig. a kind of wild ox. — L. bufalus, 
also bubalus. » Gk. fiovfiaXos, a buffalo, 
wild ox. — Gk. fiow, an ox ; see Beef. 

Buffer (i), and (a) ; see Buffet (i). 

Buffet (i), a blow ; to strike. (F.) 
M.K ^1^/, htJTa, a blow, csp. on the 


cheek. » O. F. bu/et, a blow, dimin. of bu/e; 
a blow, esp. on the cheek ; d.bu/er, buffer, 
to puff out the cheeks, also to buffet ; mod. 
F. bouffer, Prob. of imitative origin, allied 
XjQpouffer, to puff; see Puff. 

buffer (I), a foolish fellow. (F.) Orig. 
a stammerer ; hence a foolish fellow. M. £. 
buffen, to stanmier.^O. F. bufer, to puff 
out the cheeks (hence, to puff or blow in 

buffer (a), a cnshion, to deaden con- 
cussion. (F.) Lit. • a striker ;' from M. E. 
bufftn, to strike, orig. to buffet on the 
cheek ; see Buffet. 

buffoozL (F.) F. bouffon, a buffoon, 
jester, one who made grimaces. ^ F. bcuffer, 
to puff. 

Buffet (a), a side-board. (F.) F. buffet, 
a side-boaid. Origin unknown. 
Bug (I), a spectre. (C.) In Sh.-W. 
bwg, a hobgoblm. spectre; Gael, and Ir. 
bucan, a spectre.-f-Lithuan. baugus, terrific, 
from bugti, to terrify, allied to Skt. bkuj, 
to bow, turn aside ; see Bow (i). 

bug (a), an insect. (C.) So named be- 
cause an object of terror, excitmg disgust 

bug-bear. (C. and E.) A supposed 
spectre in the shape of a bear, 
^ugle (1), a wild ox ; see Beef. 

Bugle (a), a kind of ornament (M.H.G.> 
Low L. bugoli, pi., the name of a kind of 
ornaments (a.d. 1388). Dimin. of M.H.G. 
bouc, boug, an armlet, large ring, ring- 
shaped ornament •> M. H. G. biegen, to 
bend, bow ; cognate with Bow (i). 

Build. (Scand.) The final d is either 
excrescent, or due to A. S. bold, a house, 
which appears to be of Scand. origin, and 
formed by adding d to IceL b6l, a house, 
farm. The word is really Scand. » O. Swed. 
bylja^ to build (Ihre). — O. Swed. bol, a 
house, dwelling ; Icel. b6l, a house, Dan. 
bolt a small farm. Formed (like A. S. btir 
■> £. bower) from Icel. btia, O. Swed. bo, 
to live, abide, dwell ; cf. Skt. bhtl, to be. 
See Be. 

Bulb. (F.-L.) F. bulbe.'^'L. bulbus, a 
bulb.^Gk. fio\06t, a bulbous root, onion. 

Bulge. (Scand.) A rather late word. 
Of Scand. origin; Swed. dial, bulgja, to 
swell out ; bulgin, swollen, pp. of a strong 
verb which occurs as A.S. belgan (pp. 
^lgf»)t one. to swell, but only u^ in the 
sense to ^ell with anger. So also Icel. 
bdlginn, swollen, angry. (^ BHALGH, to 

boil (a), a small tum9ur. (E.) M.E. 


fyle. A. S. hyl, or hyle, a boil, swelling.^- 
Dq. buili Icel. bSla^ Dan. byld, G. ^»/^. 
Cf. Goth, ufbauljan, to puff up. 

bole, stem of a tree. (Scond.) M.E. 
l(9/(f.— Icel. bolr^ bulr^ the trunk of a tree, 
stem; Swed. ^d/; Dan. bul. From its 

boiled, swollen. (Scand.) Icel. bSIghtn^ 
swollen, pp. of a lost verb ; Dan. bullen^ 
swollen, bulne, to swell ; Swed. bulna^ to 

bolster. (E.) A. S. bolster \ with suffix 
-j//r as in hol'SUr ; from its round shape. 
•flcel. boUtr ; O. H. G. pclstar. 

bolt, a stout pin of iron, an arrow. (£.) 
M. £. bolt, A. S. boltf only in the sense of 
catapult for shooting bolts; but properly a 
round pin, and named from its roundness. 
•I-O. Du. bolt^ Du. b<mt ; G. bolzen. 

bowl (2), a drinking- vessel. (E.) M. £. 
bolle, A. S. bolla, a bowl ; from its round- 
ness. 4- Icel. bolli\ M. H. G. bolU, See Ball. 

bidk (x), size. (Scand.) M.E. bolke, a 
heap. —Icel. biilki^ a heap ; O. Swed. bolk ; 
'D9Xi.bulk^2i lump. Cf.Swed.^//ia, to swell. 

blQk (a), the trunk of the body. (Du.) 
In Sh. — O. Du. bulcke^ thorax (Kilian); 
Du. buik, Cf. Icel. biikr^ the trunk ; Swed. 
buk^ Dan. bug, G. bauch^ the belly (which 
have prob. lost an /). The Gael, bulg 
means (x) trunk of the body, (a) lump, 
mass ; see bulk (i). 

bulinrark. (Scand.) Dan. bulvcerk^ 
Swed. boherk; cf. Du, bolwerk, G. boll- 
werk (whence F. boulevard). Compounded 
of Dan. bult trunk of a tree, log, Icel. bulr, 
bolr, the. st^m of a tree ; and Dan. vark, 
Swed. verkf a work. Lit. 'log-work,' or 
' bole-work ;' see bole above. See also 
under Ball (i) and Bag. 
Bulk (3), a stall of a shop ; Bulkhead ; 
see Balk (i). 

Bull (i), male of the cow. (E.) M. E. 
boUp bule. Not found in A. S., but the 
dimin. bulluca, a bullock, occurs. Prob. 
' the bellower ;* see Bellow. -^ Du. bul ; 
IceL bolt; G. bulle\ Lithuan. bullus, Der. 
buU'Ock, A. S. bulluca, as above. 
Bull (3), a papal edict. (L.) M.E. bulle. 
•*Lat. bulla^ a bubble, boss, knob, leaden 
seal or an edict ; a bull (in late Latin). 

bill (3), a writing, account. (L.) Low 
L. billa, a writing; the dimin. is billeta, 
bulleta, shewing miXbilla is a corruption 
of Lat. bulla, a papal bull, &c. ; see Bull 
{i) above. 
. billet (1), a note. (F.-L.) F. bii/el. 



i* Low L. bilUta, dimin. of billa, a writing; 
see bill (a) above. 

boil (I), to bubble up. (F.-L.) O. F. 
boillir, to boil (F. boutllir).^!^. bullire, to 
bubble up, boil. — L. bulla, a bubble ; see 
Bull (a) above. 

bowl (1), a round ball. (F. - L.) F. 
boule, a bowl to play with.— Lat. bulla, a 
boss, knob, &c. 

budge, to stir. (F.-L.) F. bouger, to 
stir ; the same as Ital. bolicare, to bubble 
np.^h. bullt're ; see boil(i) above. Cf. 
Span, bulltr, (i) to boil, (a) to stir. 

bullet. (F.-L.) F.^w</<f/, dimin. of F. 
boule, a ball; see bowl (i) above. 

bulletin. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. bullelm, 
a ticket. — Ital. bullettino, a safe-conduct, 
pass, ticket. Dimin. of bulletta, a pass> 
port, lottery ticket, dimin. of bulla, a seal, 
bull. — L. Imlla ; see Bull (a) above. 

bullion. (F.-L.) F. bouillon, a stud; 
but the O. F. bullione meant a mint, and 
Low L. bulliotta, bullio meant a mass of 
metal. — Low L. bullare, to stamp, mark 
with a seal. — L. bulla, a seal; see Bull (a). 

ebidlition, a boiling over. (F. — L.) 
O. F. ebullition. ^\„ ace. ebullitionem \ a 
coined word, from ebullitus, pp. oie-bullire, 
to bubble up; see boil (i) above. 

parboil. (F.-L.) It now means 'to 
boil insufficiently,' by confusion with part. 
The old sense is 'to boil thoroughly.*— O. 
F. parbouillir, to cook thoroughly (Roque- 
fort).- Low i.. parbullire, h. perbullire, to 
boil thoroughly. — L. per, through ; and 
bullire ; see boil (above). 
Bullace, wild plum. (C.) M. E. bolas. 
— Gael, bulaistear^ a bullace ; Irish bulos, 
a prune ; Bret, bohs, polos, bullace. 
Bullet,Bulletin,Bullion; seeBull(a). 
Bully, a noisy rough fellow. (O. Low G.) 
In Sh. — O. Du. bollaert, ' a jester or a gyber,' 
Hexham ; Low G. buller/aan, bulleHfdk, in 
Hamburgh bullerbrook (cf. £. bully-rook), 
a boisterous fellow. So also Swed. buller- 
bas, a noisy fellow; buller, clamour; bullra, 
to make a noise. Allied to Bull (i). Bel- 
low, and Boulder. 
Bulrush. (Scand. and £.) M. E. bul- 
rysche. Prompt. Parv., p. 344, col. a. Lit. 
' stem-rush ;' from its stout stem. — Dan. 
bul, stem, trunk ; see bole, under Bulge. 
Bulwark. (Scand.) See Bulge. 
Bum, contracted form of Bottom. (E.) 
So also O. Friesic boden, bottom, became 
N. Friesic b6m. 

bum-baiUff, \md«-\mV\R. (J-.and^^ 



A slang term. Todd quotes passages to shew 
that it arose from the pursuer catdiing at 
a man by the hinder part of his garment. 

Bumble-bee, a be« that booms or hmns. 
See Boom (i). 

Bumboat. (Du.) Put for bun-boat, a 
boat with a bun^ or receptacle for keeping 
fish alive. mO. Du. bon, bonne, box, diest 
(Oudemans) ; bonne, bunne, ' the decks of 
a ship/ Hexham. 

Bump (i), to thump ; a blow. (C.) W. 
fntjmpio, to thump; pwmp, a lump ; Com. 
bom, bum, a blow ; Gael, and Irish beum, 
a stroke, also to strike. The senses are : 
(i) to strike, (2) a blow, (3) the effect of a 
blow. See Bunoh. 

Bump (2), to boom. (C.) See Boom (i). 

Bumper. (F.-L.) See Boom (i). 

Bumpkin. (Du.) See Beam. 

Bun. (F. — Scaivd.) O. prov. F. bune, 
bugne, a cake, kind of fritters ; the same as 
F. bigne, a swelling or bump due to a 
blow (Burguy), whence mod. F. beignet, a 
fritter. 'Signets, little round loaves or 
lumps,* &c. ; Cot.^Icel. bunga, a con- 
vexity; bunki, a bunch; see Buncli. 

biinion. (Ital.— Scand.) A late word. 
••Ital. bugnone, a round lump, boil, blain ; 
augmentative of bugno, the same ; cf. O. F. 
bugne, bune, a swelling ; see Bun. 

Bunch. (Scand.) M. £. buncke.'^lcel. 
bunki, a heap, pile ; Dan. bunke, a heap. 

^O. Swed. bunga, to strike ; Swed. dial. 
biinga, to bunch out. Cf. Du. bonken, to 
beat; yf.pwng, a cluster; and see Bump (i). 

Bundle. (E.) See Bind. 

Bung. (C. ?) Perhaps Celtic ; W. bivng, 
an orifice, also a bung ; O. Gael, buine, a 
tap, spigot ; Irish buinne, a tap, spout. 

Bungalow, a Bengal thatched house. 
(Pers.— Bengalee.) Pers. bangalah, of or 
belonging to Bengal, a bungalow; Rich. 
Diet. p. 393. From the name Bengal. 

Bungle. (Scand.) See Bang (i). 

Bunion. See Bun. 

Bunk, a wooden case or box, berth. 
(Scand.) Cf. O. Swed. bunke, the plank- 
ing of a ship, forming a shelter for mer- 
chandise, &c. (Ihre); the usual sense of 
Swed. bunke is a heap, pile, something 
prominent ; see Bunoh. 

Bunt, the belly of a sail. (Scand.) It 
answers in form to Dan. bundt, Swed. 
bunt, a bundle, a bunch ; from the pp. of 
the verb to Bind. But the right words 
for ' bunt * are Dan. bug, Swed. buk, Du. 
/%^ from the verb to Bow, 


Bunting (i), a bird. (E. ?) M. E. 
bunting; also buntyle {^buntel), LowL 
Sc. bunt/in. Origin unknown. 

Bunting (2), a thin woollen stuff, of 
which ships* fli^ are made. (£. ?) Or^^ 

Buoy. (Du.— L.) Du. boei, a buoy; also 
a shackle, a fetter.— Low L. boia, a fetter, 
clog.— L. boia, pi. a collar for the neck, 
orig. of leather. 

Bur, Burdock ; see Burr. 

Burbot, a fish ; see Barb (i). 

Burden (i), a load ; see Bear (i.) 

Burden, (a), the refrain of a song. (F.^ 
Low L.) F. bourdon, a drone-bee, hum- 
ming of bees, drone of a bagpipe ; see Cot. 
— Low L. burdonem, ace. of burdo* a drone. 
Prob. of imitative origin; cf. Lowland 
Sc. birr, to make a whizzing noise, £. 

Bureau. (F.-L.— Gk.) See Bolt (2). 

Burganet, a helmet (F.) F. boutgui" 
gnote, * a burganet,' Cot. So called because 
first used by the Burgundians. — F. i9^»r- 
gogne. Burgundy. 

Burgeon, a bud. (F.-Tcut.) F. btmr- 
geon, a young bud. Lengthened from 
Languedoc boure, a bud, eye of a shoot 
(Diez). — M. H. G. buren, O. H. G. purjan, 
to raise, push up. push out. — M. H. G. 
bor, por, an elevation; whence G. tmpor 
{^rsiin por), upwards. 

Burgess, 3urgher, Burglar, Bur- 
gomaster, Burial ; see under Borough. 

Burin, an engraver's tool. (F.— Ital.— 
G.) F. ^/n«. — Ital. borino, Prob. from 
M. H. G. boren (G. bohren), to bore ; see 
Bore (i). 

Burl, to pick knots and loose threads 
from cloth. (F. — L.) To burl is to pick 
oK burls. M. £. biirle, a knot in doth.— 
Languedoc bouril, an end of thread ia 
cloth; dimin. of F. bourre, a flock or lock 
of wool or hair. — Low L. burra, a woollen 
pad ; allied to L. bums, refuse, trash. Low 
L. reburrus, rough, as if from a L. burrus^, 
rough. See Burr. 

Burlesque, comic. (F. — Ital.— L.) F. 
burlesque, — Ital. burlesco, ludicrous. — Ital. 
burla, waggery, a trick. A dimin. from L. 
burra, rough hair, also a jest (Ausonius). 
See Burl. 

Burly. (C. \ with E. suffix,) M. E. burlu 
burliche, borli, Formea by adding the 
sufHx 'ly (A. S. -lie) to the base of Gael. 
and Irish borr, borr-a, a knob, bundi, gratis 
deur, greatness, whence also Irish borr-ach^ 


prond man, Gael, borr-ail^ swa^eiing, 
MstfuU See Burr. 

Bum ( I), verb. (E.) M. E. bemen ; also 
^at9un. A. S. deoman, dyman, brinnan, 
rong verb, pt. t. beam, bran, pp. bomen, 
rutuun\ also beman, baman^ brennan, 
eak verb. + Icel. brenna, Dan. brancU, 
wed. brdnna; G. brenfun; Goth, brin- 
an. P^haps allied to JjAt. /eruere, to 

brand, a burning piece of wood, scar of 
re, a si^rord. (£.) M. E. brandy A. S. 
rand, a burning, a sword ; from the pt t. 
f A. S. bionrnn. + Icel. brandr, a fire- 
rand, sword-blade (from its flashing); 
wed. and Dan. brand, fire-brand, fire; 
I. H. G. brant, a brand, sword. 

bran-new. (E.) Short for brand-new, 
e. new from the fire. 

brant-fox, brant-goose or brent- 
OOee. The prefix is Scand., as in Swed. 
randraf^ a brant-fox, brandgAs^ a brent- 
oose. The orig. sense is * burnt,' with 
le notion of redness or brownness. 

brandish. (F. — Scand.) M. £. braun- 
isen. — F. brandiss-an/, pres. pt. of brandir, 
> blandish a sword. * Norman F. brand, a 
trord.— Icel. brandr: see brand above.. 

brandy. (Du.) Formerly brand-wine, 
rtmdy-itnne ; whence brandy. — Du. brande- 
njn, also brandtwijn, brandy; lit. burnt 
•ine. — Du. brandt, for gebrandet, burnt ; 
ad wijn, wine ; see Burn. 

brawl (a), a sort of dance. (F.— Scand. 
r Tcut.) * A French brawl* L. L. L. iii. 
. — F. bransle, * a totter, swing, . . brawl 
X dance,* Cot. — F. bransler, to reel ; 
lod- F. branler. Allied to O. F. brandeUr 
Littre), brandiller, to wag, shake (Cot), 
equeiitative forms of F. brandir. See bran- 
iili above. 

brimstone, sulphur. (E.) M. E. brim- 
*on, brenutoon, also brtnstoon (Wyclif). — 
[. £. brenn-en, to bum, and stoon, stone. 
o also Icel. brennisteinn, brimstone. 

brindled, brinded, streaked. (Scand.) 
BcL brand', as in brundSttr, brindled, said 
f a cow. M Icel. brandr, a brand, flame, 
word. Thus brinded— branded. 

brine. (E.) M. E. brine. A. S. bryne, 
lit liquor; a particular use of bryne, a 
xirching; from the burning taste. — A. S. 
runn-en, pp. of beoman, to bum. + O. 
►u. brijne \ whence Du. brem, pickle. 

brunt, shock of an onset. (Scand.) 
[. £. brunt, an attack.— Icel. bruna, to 
Ivance with the speed of fire, as in battle. 



*Icel. bruni, burning, heat — IceL brunn- 
urn, pt. pi. of brenna, to bum. 

Bimi (2), a brook ; see Bourn (a). 

Burnish ; see Brown. 

Burr, Bur. (E.) M. E. burre, knob on 
a burdock ; borre, roughness in the throat. 
Not in A. S. + Swed. borre, a sea-urchin ; 
kardborre, a burdock ; Dan. borre, burdock. 
Cf. Gael, borra, a knob, borr, to swelL 
Der. bur-dock. 

Burrow ; see Borough. 

Bursar. (L. - Gk.) See Purse. 

Burst. (E.) M. E. bersten, bresten, pt t. 
brast, A. S. berstan, to burst asunder, 
break ;. str. vb. + Du. bersten ; G. bersten ; 
Icel. bresta; Swed. brista; Dan, briste^ 
Cf. Gael, brisd, to break. 

breast. (E.) M. E. breast. A. S. bre<fst. 
+ Du. borst; Icel. brj6st\ Swed. brost', 
Dan. btyst ; G. brust ; Goth, brusts. The 
O. H. G. pmst means (i) a bursting, (a) a 
breast ; the orig. sense is a bursting forth, 
from the swelling of the female breast. 

Bury ( I ), to hide; (a) town; see Borough. 

Bush (I), a thicket (Scand.) M. E. 
btisch, busk.^'Dan. busk, Swed. buske, a 
bush, shmb. + Du. bosch (whence F. bois) ; 
O. H. G. busc ; G. busch. 

ambuscade. (Span. -Low L. - Teut. 
Span, ambuscado, emboscada, an ambush^ 
Ong. pp. of emboscar, to set in ambush. — 
LowLat. imboscare, lit. to set in a bush or 
thicket. — L. im-, for m, in ; and Du. bosch, 
Dan. busk, a bush, thicket. 

ambush. (F.-Low L.-Teut.) For- 
merly ^w^«jA. — O. F. embuscher.embuissier, 
to set in ambush. — Low L. imboscare', as 

bouquet. (F. - Low L. - Teut ) F. 
bouquet ; O. F. bosquet, orig. • a little wood,' 
dimin. of O. F. bos (F. bois), a wood. — 
Low L. boscum, buscum, a wood. — Du« 
bosch, a wood, or O. H. G. busc. 

Bush (a) ; see Box (i). 

Bushel, a measure ; see Pyx. 

Busk (i), to get oneself ready. (Scand.) 
See Boor. 

Busk (a), a support for a woman's stays. 
(F.) F. busque, * a buske, or buste ; * Cot, 
Also spelt buste. It seems to be the same 
word as Bust, q.v. 

Buskin. (Du.) Put for bruskin. O. Du. 
brooskens, buskins (Sewel) ; dimin. of broos, 
a legging. Cf. Du. brock, breeches. 

Bliss, to kiss. (G. ; confused with Y.^Ij,) 
The old word was bcus, — F. baiser, to kiss, 
— Lat bcuium, a kiss. CoxiVv^^si^ n«'\x}dl Q^ 



and prov. G. (Bavarian) bussen, to kiss; 
cf. Gael, and W. bus^ mouth, lip. 

Bust. (F.-Ilal.) F. ^«j/^.-Ital. busto, 
the bust, trunk of human body, stays. * 
Low L. bustum, the trunk of the body. 
Etym. uncertain. 

Bastard. (F. - L.) See Aviary. 

Bustle. (Scand.) Icel. bustla, to bustle, 
splash about as a fish. Cf. Dan. base, to 
bounce, pop; Swed. dial, busa, to strike, 
thrust. Prob. allied to Busy. 

Busy. (E.) M. E. bisy. A. S. byn^, 
active; whence bysgu, exertion. + Du. 
bezig^ busy. Cf. Bustle. 

But (i), prep, and conj., except (E.) 
See Out. 

But (2) ; see BuU (i), Butt (a). 

Butcher : see Buck (i). 

Butler; see Bottle. 

Butt (i), an end, to thrust ; see Beat. 

Butt (a), a large barrel. (F.-G.) We 
find A. S. bytt\ but ouf mod. word is 
really F.-O. F. boute, F. botte, * the vessel 
which we call a butt,* Cot. -O.H.G. 
buteUt G. butt£, biitte, a tub, cognate with 
A. S. bytt or bytte, a pitcher, bottle. 

boot (i), a covering for the leg and 
foot. (F.-G.) O. F. bouU, F. botte, (i) 
a butt, (a) a boot ; the same word as the 
above ; from their former shape. 

Butter. (L.-Gk.} M. £. boterei A.S. 


buter, butera, — L. butyrum. — Gk. $o&rvpoi^, 
butter; lit ox-cheese.— Gk. /3ov-r, an ox; 
and rvpbs, cheese. % The G. butter is 
likewise of Gk. origin. 

butterfly. (E.) A. S. buttor-JUSge, lit 
butter-fly. So called from its excrement 
resembling butter, as shewn by the O. Du. 
boter-schijte, a butterfly, lit. butter-voider 
(Kilian). + Du. botervlug\ G. bulUr^ 

Buttery; see Bottte. 

Buttock, Button ; see Beat. 

Buttress; seeBrattioe. 

Buxom; see Bow (i). 

Buy. (E.) M. E. buggen, btggm, A. S. 
bycgan, to purchase. 4* Goth, bugjan. 
Der. abide (a), q. v. 

BU2SL (E.) An imitative wdrd ; cf. LowL 
Sc. bizt^ to hiss ; Itat bu%zicare, to hum, 

Buzzard. (F. — L.) M. E. besard.busard^ 
an inferior kind of falcon. — F. busard,^ 
F. buse, a buzzard; with suffix -ard.^ Low 
L. busio-^h. buteo, a sparrow-hawk. 

By. prep. (E.) M. E. «. A, S. bf, big. 
-I- Du. bij; G. An'; Goth, bi, Cf. Skt 
abhi, Gk. dft^l. 

By-law, a law affecting a township. 
(Scand.) See Boor. 

Byre, a cowhouse. (Scand.) A Northern 
variant of bower; see bower, mider Boor. 


Cab (i) ; see Caper (z). 

Cab (a), a Heb. measure. (Heb.) Heb. 
^ab, the i8th part of an ephah. The literal 
sense is 'hollow;' cf. Heb. qdbab, to form 
in the shape of a vault ; see Alcove. 

Cabal. (F.- Heb.) Orig. • a secret.' F. 
cabale, *the Jewes Caball, a hidden science;* 
Cot.— Heb. qabbdldk, reception, mysterious 
doctrine. — Heb. qdbal, to receive; qibbel, 
to adopt a doctrine. 

Cabbage (i); see Capital (i). 

Cabbage (a), to steal. (F.) F. cahasser, 
to put into a basket — F. cabas, a basket; 
of unknown origin. 

Cabin. (C.) M.E. caban.^^, caban, 
a booth ; diroin. of cab, a booth made with 
rods set in the ground and tied at the top ; 
Gael, and Irish caban, a booth, hut, tent. 
(Hence also F. cabane.) 

cabinet. (F.-C.) F. cabinet, dimin. 
of F. cabane, a cabin ; a word of Celtic 
origin, as above. And see Oabardiile. 

Cable, a rope ; see Capaoioos. 

Caboose, the cook*s cabin on board ship. 
(Du.) Formerly camboose. — Du. kom' 
buis, a cook*s cabin ; also ' the chimney in 
a ship,* Sewel. A jocular word ; it means 
lit. 'dish-pipe;* from Du. kom, a dish, 
and . buis, a pipe ; with reference to the 
cook*s dishes and chimney. (Hence also 
Dan kabys, Swed. kabysa, caboose.) 

Cabriolet; see Caper (i). 

Cacao, a tree. (Span. — Mexican.) Span. 
cacao ; from the Mexican name of the fruit 
of the tree whence chocolate is made. 
% Not the same as cocoa. 

chocolate, a paste made from cacao. 
(Span. — Mex.) Span, chocolate. — Mex. cfuh 
colatl, chocolate, Clavigero, Hist. Mex. i.433. 

Ccushlnnation. (L.) L. ace cachinna^ 
tionem, loud laughter. — L. cacAinnare, to , 
laugh. Cf. Cackle. 

Cack, to go to stool. (L.) M. E. caJtAetu 
■•L. cacan. 


Cackle. (E.) M. E. kaktlcn, a frequent- 
ative form. Not in A. S. + Da. kakelen ; 
Swed. kackla ; Don. kagie\ G. gackeln. The 
sense is ' to keep on saying kak ;* oi^gablhU, 

Cacophony, a harsh sound. (Gk.) Gk. 
MOMo^civla, a harsh sound. — Gk. tcaicoipwvos, 
harsh. M Gk. taued-Sf bad ; and <pca¥-^, sound. 
]>er. ceicophofums (Gk. KOKo^pwoi), 

Cad, a low fellow. (F.— L.) See nnder 

Cadaverous ; see Cadenoe. 

Caddy, a small box for tea. (Malay.) 
Better spelt catty. A small package of tea, 
less than a half-chest, is callea in the tea-trade 
a caddy or ra//>^.— Malay kati, a catty, a 
weight equal to i^-lb. avoirdupois. This 
weight is also used in China and Japan, 
and tea is often made up in packages con- 
taining one catty. 

Cade, a barrel, cask. (L.) L. cadus, a 
barrel, cask.-^Gk irdSof, a cask. 

Cadence, a fall of the voice. (F.— L.) 
M. E cadence. — F. cadence, * a cadence, just 
falling of words;* Cot. — Low L. cadentia^ 
a falling. —L. ccuient', stem of pres. pL of 
cadere, to fall. + Skt. fad, to fall. 

accident^ a chance event. (F.—L.) F. 
accident, 'an accident;' Cot—L. accident-, 
stem of pres. pL of accidere, to happen.— 
L. cu" (for ad) ; and cadere, to fall. Per. 
accidence, F. accidence, L. accidentia, 

cadaverous, corpse- like. (L.) L. 
cadauerofui.'^L,. cadauer, a corpse. — Lat. 
cadere, to fall, fall dead. 

caducous^ falling. (L.) L. caducus, 
falling.— L. cadere, to fall. 

oaSoade. (F.— Ital.-L.) F. cascade.^ 
Ital. cascata, a waterfall ; orig. fem. pp. of 
cascare, to fall. Put for casicare*.^!^. 
casare, to totter.— L. casum, sup. oi cadere, 

case (i), an event. (F. — L. ) M.E. cos. — 
F. ror.— L. ace. casum, a fall, a case.— L. 
casus, pp. of cadere. 

casual. (F.— L.) Y.casuel.-mL.casuaiis, 
happening by chance. — L. casu-, crude form 
of casus ; see case. So also casu-ist, 
chance, hap. (F.—L.) M.E.cAaunce. 

— O. F. cAaance.'^Loyr L. cadentia, a fall- 
ing, a chance; see Cadenoe. Der. de- 
efumce, mis-chance, 

coincide, to agree with. (L.) L. c(h 
(for con* '» cum, widi), and incidere, to fall 
upon ; see inoident below. 

decadence, decay. (F. — L.) F. d^- 
tadence. — Low L» deeadentia, deca/. — 



L. de, down; cadentia, a £Edling; see 

decay, to fall into ruin. (F.— L.) O. F. 
decaer,^0.¥. de* ; and ccur, to fall.— L. de, 
down ; and cadere ^ to fall. 

deciduous, falling off. (L.) L. decid- 
uus, that falls down. — L. decidere, to fall 
down. — L. de, down ; and cadere. 

escheat. (F.— L.) M. £. cschete (also 
chete), a forfeit to the lord of the fee.— O.F. 
eschet, rent, that which falls to one, pp. of 
escheoir (F. ichoir).^\j(y9t L. ex-cadere, to 
fall in with, meet.— L.M; out ; and cadere, 
to fall. Hence cheat. 

incident. (F. - L.) F. incident, 'an inci- 
dent;* Cot — L. incident', stem of 
incidere, to fall upon.— L.f;f, on ; z.n6.cadere. 

occasion. (F.— L.) — F. occasion.^!.. 
ace. occasianem.^h. oc- (for o^, at); and 
cas-us, pp. of cadere, to fall. 

Occident, west. (F.— L.) O.F. accid- 
ent, west. — L. Occident-, stem of pres. pt. 
of occidere ; see oooasion (above). 
Cadet ; see CapitaL 
Cesura. (L.) L..c(Bsura, a cutting; a pause 
in a verse. — L. cas-us, pp. oi cadere, to cut. 

circumcise. (L.) L. drcumcis-us, pp. 
of circumcidere, to cut round. — L. circum, 
round ; and cadere, to cut. 

concise. (F. — L.) F. concis.'^h. con- 
cisus, brief, cut short ; pp. of concidere. — 
L. can- (for cum, together); and cadere, 
to cut Der. cancis-ion. 

decide. (F.-L.) F.d^cider.^la. decid- 
ere, pp. decisus, to cut off, decide. — L. de, 
down ; and cadere, to cut. Per. decis-ion 
(from pp. decisus). 

ez<nsion. (F. — L.) F. excision, 'a 
destroying;' Cot. — L. ace. excisionem, a 
cutting out, a destroying.— L. excisus, pp. 
of ex-cidere, to cut out. 

incise, to cut into. (F.— L.) F.inciser. 
— L. incisus, pp. oiin-cidere, to cut into. 

precise. (F.— L.) O.F. precis, strict 
^'L. pracisus, cut off, concise, strict; pp. 
oi pra-cidere, to cut off. 

Note also suflSx -cide in hami-cide, stti- 
-cide, infanti-cide, &c. ^ Here probably 
belong chisel, scissors, q. v. 

Caducous ; see Cadenoe. 

Caftan, a Turkish garment (Turk.) 
Turk, qaftdn, a dress. 

Cage; see Cave. 

Cairn, a pile of stones. (C.) GaeL, 
Irish, W., Bret, cam, a crag, rock ; also a pile 
of stones. Gael, cairn, gen. of cam \ cam, 
Ycrh, to pile up. 



Caiti£f ; see Capaoiou*. 
Cajole ; see Cave. 
Cake ; see Cook. 

Calabash. (Port. ^r Span. -Arab.) Port. 
calabofa, a gourd; Span. ccUabata, Lit. 
'dried gourd/ — Arab, qar^ a gourd; and 
aybas^ dry. 

Calamity. (F.-L.) F. calamiil'^'L. 
ace. calamitatem^ a misfortune. 

Calash, a sort of carriage. (F. -G.- 
Slavonic) F. caliche. 'mQ, kaiesche.^VoX. 
kolcuka, a small carriage, dimin. of kolasa^ 
a carriage; Russ. koliaska, a carriage. — Pol. 
and Russ. koio, a wheel. (V KAL.) 
Calcareous, Calcine, Calculate ; see 

Caldron, Cauldron. (F.-L.) O.F. 
caldron * (prob. Picard), given only in the 
form chaldron, mod. F. chaudron (Ital. 
calderonc^ Span, calderon), a vessel for hot 
water. — L. caldus, contr. form of calidus, 
hot. — L. caUre, to be hot^Skt. frJ, to boil, 
calenture, a feverous madiness. (F.— 
Span. — L.) F. ra/<?///i//v.— Span. caUniura, 
— L. caUnt; stem of pres. pt of caUre, to 
be hot. 

caloric. (F. - L.) F. calorique. — L. 
calory heat. — L. calere^ to be hot. 

calorific, making hot. (L.) L. calori- 
ficus, making hot — L. calori-, crude form of 
calor, heat ; and -fic', lox fcuere, to make. 

caudle, a warm drink. (F.-L.) O. F. 
caudel, chaudcl, a sort of warm drink. — 
O. F. chaud, chald, hot. — L. caldus, for 
caliduSf hot. 

chafe, to warm by friction, vex. (F. — 
L.) M. E. chaufen, to warm. — O. F. 
chaufer (F. chauffer), to warm ; cf. Prov. 
calfar, to warm. — Low L. ccUeficare, to 
warm. — L. calefacere, to warm» make to 
glow. — L. cale-re^ to glow ; facere, to make. 
chaldron, a coal-measure. (F. — L.) 
O. F. chaldron^ orig. a caldron ; see 

scald (i), to bum. (F.-L.) M.E. 
sccUden. — O.F. escalder*, later form es- 
chauder, to scald (F. ichauder). — L. 
excaldare, to wash in hot water. — L. ex, 
out, very; and ccUdus = calidus, hot. 
Calendar ; see Calends. 
Calender, a machine for pressing cloth; 
see Cylinder. 

Calends. (L.) L. calenda, s. pi., the first 

day of the (Roman) month. Ong. obscure ; 

but certainly fromO.Lat.ra/ar^ {or calere*), 

(oproclaim.4-Gk. KoAcri^, to summon. 

ttaJendar, (L.) L. caietidarium^ an 


account-book kept by money-changers ; so 
called because interest was due on the 
calends (ist day) of each month; also, a 
calendar.— L. calendar calends. 

conciliate. (L.) Pp. of L. conciliare, to 
bring together, conciliate.— L. concilium 

council. (F. — L.) F. concile, — L. concil- 
ium, an assembly called together. — L. con- 
{cum), together ; and calare, to summon. 

intercalate, to insert (L.) From pp. 
of L. inter <alare, to proclaim that a day 
has been inserted in the calendar, to insert. 

reconcile. (F.-L.) O.F. reconcilier. 
— L. re-, again; conciliare; see conciliate 

Calenture ; see Caldron. 

Calf. (E.) M. E. half. A. S. cealf.-k- 
Du. half; Icel. hdl/r; Swed. half; Dan. 
hcUv; Goth, haldo; G. hald. Der. calve, 
A. S. cealfian. 

Caliber, Calibre, bore of a gun. (F.) 
F. calibre, size of a bore. Et}Tn. unknown. 
Perhaps from 'L.qud librd, with what weight 
(Diez) ; or from Arab, qdlib, a form, moidd, 
model, Rich. Diet. p. iiii (Littr^). 

calipers, compasses. (F.) Put for 
caliber-compasses, i.e. compasses for measur- 
ing diameters ; see above. 

caliver, a sort of musket. (F.) Named 
from its caliber or bore ; see Kersey's Diet. 

Calico, cotton-cloth. (E. Indian.) Named 
from Calicut, on the Malabar coast, whence 
it was first imported. 

Calif, CaUph. (F.- Arab.) F. calife, a 
successor of the prophet. — Arab, khalifa, 
successor. — Arab, khalafa, to succeed. 

Caligraphy, Calligpraqphy, ^ood writ- 
ing. (Gk.) Gk. /voAXtTpa^o. — Gk. «aAAi-, 
prefix (from «aA<$f, good, fair) ; and 7/)^^ 
Civ, to write. 

calisthenics, callisthenics, grace- 
ful exercises. (Gk.) From Gk. iroAAi- 
aBfv-ifi, adorned with strength. — Gk. leoXAi- 
(for iea\6s, fair) ; and aBiv-vs, strength. 

calomel, a preparation of mercury. 
(Gk.) Coined to express a white product 
from a black substance. — Gk. itaXo-t, fair; 
and iiiX-as, black. 

CaJipers ; see Caliber. 

Calisthenics ; see Caligraphy. 

Caliver ; see Caliber. 

Calk, Caulk. (F.-L.) M.E. cauken, 
to tread. — O. F. cauquer, to tread ; to tent 
a wound with lint. — L. calcare, to tread, 
force down by pressure.— L. calC'^ stem of 
calx, \he beel *, see Heel. 




Inenloate. (L.) From pp. of L. in- 
atlcarg, lit. to tread in, hence, to enforce 
by admonition. — L. in, in ; calcare, to 

CalL (E.) A. S. ceaUian ; cf. hilde-calla, 
a herald. +Du. kalUn\ Icel. and Swed. 
kalla : Dan. kalde ; O. H. G. chcUlm, 
(V GAR.) 

reoalL (L. and £.) From L. re-^ back ; 

Oalloua, hard. (F.-L.) F. calleux.^ 
l^calUsus, thick-skinned. ^ h,ca//us, callum, 
hard skin. 

Callow, unfledged, bald. (E.) M.E. 
€aiM, caleit^. A.S. ca/u, haXd.^Dvu Jtaa/, 
bald; Swed. io/; G,kahl\; Skt 
iUoAi/f, bald-headed. (VSKAR.) 

Calm. (F.-Gk.) F. ^a/m^,adj. Allied 
to Prov. chaume, the time when the flocks 
rest ; F. chdmer (formerly chaumer), to rest 
from work. M Low L. cauma, the heat of 
the son (whence, time for rest). — Gk. icavfu, 
heat.«-Gk. 4m/cii^, to bum. "Dbt, be-calm, 

CalomeL (Gk.) See Caligraphy. 

Caloric, Calorific ; see Caldron. 

Calumny. (F.-L.) F. caJomnie.^'L. 
aUumma, iidse accasation. — L. ca/ui, 
€ahtere, to deoeire. 

challenge. (F.-L.) M.E. chalengCt 
eaienge, often in the sense 'a claim/ — 
O. F. ehalonge, caUnge^ a dispute, claim ; 
an accusation.— L. calumtiia ; see above. 

Calve; see Calf. 

Calx. (L.) L. calx^ stone, lime (stem 

taic") ; in late L., a calx. -^ W. careg^ stone. 

calcareous. (L) Should be caUarious. 

— L. cakarius, pertaining to lime. — L. 

cak'^t stem of calx, 

calcine. (F.— L.) F. calctrttr.^hovr 
L. caidnare^ to reduce to a calx.— L. calc-^ 
stem of caix, 

calculate. (L.) L. calculai-us, pp. of 
^aUuiaret to reckon by help of small 
pebbles.— L. calculus^ pebble; dimin. of 

oauaeway, a paved way, raised way. 
(F.— L.) A corruption (due to confusion 
with way) of causey, M. E. causce, — 
O. F. caucU ( « mod. F. chaussie, Prov. can- 
soda. Span, ce^zcuia) ^'Low L. calciata, put 
for ccJciata uia, a paved way.— Low L. 
calcia/us, pp. of caUiare, to make a road- 
way with mortar containing lime. — L. ca/ci-, 
.crude form of oi/r, lime. 

chalk. (L.) M. K cAa/k, A. S. cealc, 
wbL. caU-t stem of calx, lime. 

Calyx. (L.^Ck.) L. ra/j'x. - Gk. mAXv(, 

a covering, calyx (or cup) of a flower. 
(V KAL.) 

Cam ; see Comb. 

Cambric. (Flanders.) Named from 
Cambray^ a town in Flanders, where it was 
first made. 

Camel. (F.-L. - Gk. - Heb.) M. E. 
camel, camail, chamel, — O. F. camels chamel, 

— L. camelus. — Gk. cdfti/Aos. — Heb. gdmdl, 
Cf. Arah.jamal, 

camelopard, a giraffe. (L. — Heb. and 
Gk.) Formerly camelcpardalts. — L. ca- 
melopardalis.^GV, MOfArjkowdpdaXit, girafie ; 
partly like a camel, partly like a pard. — 
Gk. icifufXo-5, a camel {Heh. gdmdl) i and 
wap9a\is, a pard ; see Pard. 

camlet. (F.-L.-Gk.-Heb.) For- 
merly camelol, at first a stuff made of 
camelus hair. — O. F. cameht, — Low L. ca- 
mehtum^ camlet. — L. camelus ; as above. 

Camellia. (Personal name.) A plant 
named after Geo. Jos. Kamel, a Moravian 
Jesuit, who described the plants in the 
island of Luzon. 

Camelopard ; see Camel. 

Cameo. (Ital.) Ital. cammto^ a cameo, 
precious stone carved in relief. Origin un- 

Camera. (L.) L. camera^ a chamber; 
hence camera abscura^ a dark chamber, box 
for photography ; see Chamber. 

Camlet ; see Camel. 

Camomile ; see Chamomile. 

Camp. (L.) We find F. camp (Cot.) ; 
but the £. word was prob. taken directly 
from L. campus^ a field, ground held by an 
army. ^ Gk. inivoi, a garden. 

campaign, orig. a large field. (F. — 
L.) F. (Picazd) campaigner campagne^ an 
open field.— L. campania, open field. — L. 
campus, a field. (Also spelt champaign, 
and even champion in old authors.) 

campestral, growing in fields. (L.) 
L. campestr-is, growing in fields.— L. cam' 
pus, a field. 

champagne. (F.-L.) A wine named 
from Champagne in France, which means 
' a plain ; ' see below. 

champaign, open country. (F.— L.> 
In Sh. F. champaigne, of which the Picard 
form was campaigne ; see oampalgn. 
champion. (F.-L.) 0,¥, champion. 

— Low L. campionem, ace of campio, a 
combatant. — Low L. campus, a duel, com- 
bat ; a peculiar use of L. campus, a field. 

decamp, to depart. (F.-L.) F. d^- 
camper', O.F. dticamptr^ orv^. Xo \^mw^ 




a camp.-»L. dis-^ away; and campus^ a 
field, later, a camp. 

encamp. (^.— L.) Coined from en- 
(«>F. en^ L. in)\ and camp; hence *to 
form into a camp.* 

scamp. (F. — Ital. — L.) Formerly a 
vagabond, or fugitive. — O. F. escamper, 
^escamper^ to flee. — Ital. scampare^ to es« 
cape, decamp. — L. ex^ oat; and campus^ 
battle-field. Der. scamp-er, to nm or flee 

shamble, to walk awkwardly. (Da. — 

F. — Ital. — L.) Du. schampelen^ to stumble, 
trip, also to decamp.— O.F. s*escamp€r, to 
decamp ; as above. 

Campaign, Camx>e8tral ; see Camp. 

Campanula. (L.) Lit ' a little bell ; ' 
dimin. of Low L. campana^ a belL Hence 
also campani-form. 

Camphor. (F. — Arab.- Malay.) For- 
merly spelt camphin (with an inserted i). 

— F. camphre^ * camphire ; * Cot. — Low 
L. camphora (whence the form camphor), 

— Arab, kdftir^ camphor ; cf. Skt. karpilra^ 
camphor. — Malay ktipUr, lit. chalk; kdptlr 
Bards, chalk of Barous, a name for cam- 
phor. Barous is in Sumatra. 

Can(i), 1 am able. (£.) A. S. can, 
cann, ist and 3rd persons sing. pres. of 
cunnan, to know. The pres. t. can is 
really an old pt. t. ; the same peculiarity 
occurs in Du. kunncn, Icel. and Swed. 
kunna, Dan. kunde, to know, to be able ; 

G. konnen, to know. p. The pt. t. is 
could, with intrusive /; M. £. coudc, A. S. 
al(Se\ cf. Goih.^ kuniha^ Du. kondc, G. 
konnie ; shewing that A. S. ctltk (for 
cunfSe*) has lost an n. y. The pp. couth, 
A. S. ctS^S, known, only survives in un- 
couth, which see below. (^ GAN.) 

oon (i), to enquire into, observe. (£.) 
M. £. cunnun, to examine. A. S. cunnian, 
test, seek to know; a desiderative form 
from cunnan, to know. Der. aU'Conner, 
i. e. ale-tester. 

cuddle. (£.) Put for couth-le, frequent, 
form of M.£. ku^^n {kuththcn), to be 
familiar, embrace. — A. S. kUfi, known, fa- 
miliar ; see Can, § y* 

cunning, adj. (£.) Orig. pres. pt. of 
M. £. cunncn, to know. 

cunning, sb. (Scand.) Modified from 
Iccl. kunnandi, knowledge. — Icel. kunna, 
to know. See Can (i). 

ken, to know. (Scand.) M. £. kenmn. 

«• Jcel. kenna, Swed. kdnna, Dan. kiende, 

to know^ so also G, kifmen, A, S. annan^ 

Goth, kannjan. Causal form of cunnan, 
to know, derived from can by vowel-change 
of a to e, 

kith, kindred, acquaintance. (£.) M. E. 
ct^e, kith. A. S. cy^fSe, native land, kin- 
dred.— A. S. a/5, known, pp. of kunnan, 
to know. 

kythe, to make known. (£.) A. S. 
cfSan, to make known. — A. S. cdS, knowt> 

uncouth. (£.) A. S. unctllS, orig. un- 
known; hence, strange, odd. — A. S. un-, 
not ; and cdiS, knbwn, pp. of cunnan, to 
know. And see Know. 

Can (2), a drinking-vessel. (£.) A. S. 
canna, cc^nne, + Du. kan ; Icel. kanna ; 
Swed. kanna', Dan. kande; G. kannc, a 
tankard, mug. (Apparently a true Teut. 

Canal. (F. — L.) F. canal (whence also 

Du. kanaat.) — L. canalis, a channel, trench ; 

orig. a cutting. Cf. Skt. khan, to dig, 

pierce ; khani, a mine. (V SKA.) 

channel. (F.— L.) M,E.chancl,cane/. 

— O. F. chaml, cartel, a canal. — L. canalis ; 
as above. 

kennel (a), a gutter. (F.— L.) A corrup- 
tion of M. £. cancl, a channel ; see above. 
Canary, a bird, a wine, a dance. 
(Canary Islands.) All named from the 
Canary islands. 
Cancel ; see Cancer. 
Cancer. (L.) L. cancer, a crab ; also an 
' eating ' tumour. + Gk. /capKivos, Skt. kar^ 
kaia, a crab ; cf. Skt. karkara, hard. Named 
from its hard shell. 

cancel. (F.— L.) F. canceler. — Law 
L. cancellare, to cancel a deed by drawing 
lines across it. — L. canullus, a grating, pi. 
cancelli, lattice-work ; dimin. of cancer, a 
crab, whence pi. cattcri, sometimes used to 
mean lattice-work. 

canker. (L.) L. cancer, a crab, a 
cancer ; hence that which oorrodes. 

chancel. (F. — L.) So called because 
orig. fenced off by a latticed screen. — O. F. 
chancel, an enclosure fenced off with an 
open screen.— Low L. cancellus, a chancel, 
screen ; L. cancellus, a grating ; see 
cancel (above). 

chancellor. (F.-L.) O.T.chancelier. 

— Low L. ace. ccuuellarium, a chancellor ; 
orig. an officer who stood near the screen 
before the judgment seat. — L. cancellus, a 
grating ; see chancel (above). 

chiuicery. (F.— L.) For chanulry, 
M. E. cluifuelem.«»0. F, <hanccllcru. » 


Lov L. €tt9ueilariat the record-room of a 
tam eei i a rims ; see chanoellor. 

Candelabrum ; see Candid. 

Oaadi c L (F.-L.) F. candide, white, 
fux, ii]icere.«»L. candidus, white, shining. 
-•L. candire^ to shine. ^L. candtfrt *, to set 
on fire (in comp. tn-andcre), + Skt. chand^ 

oandelabnixn. (L.) A candle-holder; 
from candela ; see oandle below. 

candidate. (L.) L. candidatusy white- 
robed ; because candidates for office wore 
white. * L. candidus, white. 

candle. (L.) K.^.candel.^l^candtla^ 
a candle. —L. candgrt, to glow. 

candour. (F. » L.) F. eandeur, — Ljicc. 
tOMd^rtm, brightness (hence, sincerity). 

oannal-oc»L (L. and £.) Lit. a 
'candle-coal;* because it bums brightly. 
Pror. £. cannel, a candle ; see oandle. 

oenaer. (F.—L.) Shorter for incemcr. 
wm F. tncensoir, — Low L. incensorium, a 
vase for incense.— Low L. internum) see 
inoensa {i) below. 

chandelier. (F.-L.) O. Y . chatideliir, 
a candle-holder.— Low L. candelaria^ a 
candle>atick.— L. candela ; see oandle. 

chandler. (F.-L.) O. F. chandelier, a 
diandler.— Low L. candelarius, a candle- 
leUer. «• L. candela ; see oandle. Der. 
corn-chandler, whexe chandler merely 
means seller, dealer. 

ineandeeoent, glowing hot. (L.) From 
stem of pres. pt. of in-candescere, to glow ; 
wha« candescere is the inceptive form of 
candere, to glow. 

incendiary. (L.) L. incendiarius, set- 
ting on fire.— L. ittcendium, a burning. —L. 
incendert, to set on fire. — L. in^ upon ; and 
candfre*, to bum ; see Candid. 

incense (i), to inflame. (L.) L. in- 
§ensus, pp. of incendere, to set on fire ; see 

inoenae (2), smell of burnt spices. 
(F.^L.) F. encens, incense, bumt spices. 
— L. incensum^ that which is bumt ; neut. 
of pp. of incendere, to set on 6re (above). 

•PwtfilA (i), to inflame. (Scand. — £. — L.) 
From loeL kyndill, a candle, torch. Bor- 
rowed from A.S. candel, a candle (as in 
candilmasse^ Candlemass, whence loel. 
kytidillmessa). — L. candela, 

Oandy, to crystallise. (F. — Ital. — Pers.) 
F. se eaiidir, ' to candie ; * Cot. — Ital. 
eandire, to candy.— Ital. candi, candy; 
MMcehero candi, sugar-candy. — Pers. and 
Arab. f«i»d^ sugarHOAd^; whence Arab. 



^andl, made of sugar. The word is Aryan 

(Pers.) ; cf. Skt. hhdndava, sweetmeats, 
hhanda, a broken piece. Per. sugar^candy, 
Ital. zuechero candi. 

Cane. (F.-L.-Gk.) 'M.'E.cane,canne. 

— F. canne. — L. canna. — Gk.«awa, tcdvurf, 
a reed. CL Heb. qdneh, reed ; Arab, qandt, 

canister. (L. — Gk.) L. canistrum, a 
reed basket. — Gk. K&vaarpov, the same.— 
Gk. K6.v7i=it6yvri, a reed. 

cannon. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. canon, 
orig. a gun-barrel.— L. canna, a reed ; see 

canon. (L.-Gk.) A.S. canon, - L. 
canon, a rule. — Gk. xavitv, a rod, rule.— 
Gk. ie6jni = Kianni, a (straight) cane. 

Canine. (L.) L. caninus, belonging to 
a dog. — L. canis, a dog ; see Hoiind. 

kennel (i), a house for dogs. (F.-L.) 
M. E. kenel, A Norman form of O. F. 
chenil, a kennel. — Norman F. ken, O. F. 
chcn (F. chicn), a dog, from L. ace canem, 
a dog ; with suffix -il^'L, 'He, as in ou-ile, 
a sheep-fold. 

Canister ; see Cane. 

Canker ; see Canoer. 

Cannel-coal ; see Candid. 

Cannibal. (Span.— W. Indian.) For- 
merly ra/f i^o/.- Span, carnal, corruption 
of Caribal, a Carib, native of the Carib- 
bean Islands. The W. Indian word cari^ 
means 'brave.' 

Cannon ; see Cane. 

Canoe. (Span. — W. Ind.) Span. raiMa; 
orig. a Caribbean word for ' boat.' 

Canon ; see Cane. 

Canopy ; see Cone. 

Cant (i), to sing in a whining way^ 
whine. (L.) L. caniare, to sing ; frequent, 
of canere, to sing. So also Gael, cainnt, 
talk ; from can, to sing, say. Cant was at 
first a beggar's whine ; hence, hypocrisy ; 
see recant. 

accent. (F.-L.) F. accent, '^'L. aca 

accentum, a tone. — L. or- (for cut) ; and 

cantus, a singing.— L. cantus,pp. of canere, 

canorous, tuneful. (L.) 'L,canorus,» 

L. canere, to sing ; see above. 

canticle. (L.) L. canticulum, a little 
song ; dimin. of eanticum, a song ; dimin. 
of cantus, a song. 

canto. (Ital. — L.) Ital. canto, a sing- 
ing, section of a poem.- L. ace. cantum, a 
singing, song. 

canzonet. (Ital.— L.) li^. canxonetfa, 
dimin. of canzone^ & hymn, son^.-^L. can- 



timuntt ace. of cantio, a song.^L. canius, 
pp. of canere, to sing. 

. chant. (F.— L.) F. chanier.^'L. can- 
tare, to sing ; frequent of canere, Der. 
chant-ry, M. £. chaunterie ; chanti-deer, 
H. K chaunte-cUer, clear-singing. 

descant. (F.—L.) Orig. a variation in 
a song.— O. F. descant, a kind of song.— 
O. F. deS' ( « L. dis"), apart ; and cant ( «= L. 
cantus), a song. 

enchant. (F.— L.) F. enchanter, to 
charm. — L. incantare, to repeat a chant.— 
L. iV, upon ; and cantare; see Cant (i). 

incantation. (L.) L. incantatio, an 
enchanting. — L. incantare \ see above. 

incentive. (L.) L. incentiuus, striking 
up a tune, inciting. — L. incentus*, unused 
pp. of incintre, to sound an instrument.— 
L. in, into ; and canere, to sound. 

precentor. (L.) L. pracenior, the 
leader of a choir.— L. prce, before; and 
cantor, a singer. — L. ^oxr/arr, to sing; see 
Cant (I). 

. recant. (L.) L. recantare, to sing back, 
echo; also to recant, recall. — L. re-, back; 
and cantare, to sing. 

Cant (2), an edge ; as verb, to tilt. (Du.) 
Du. kant, an edge, comer. -^ Dan. and 
Swed. kant, edge; Dan. kantrt, to cant, 
tilt, capsize ; G. kante, a comer. 

canteen. (F.— Ital.-G.) F. cantine. 
^It&L cantina, Si cellar, cool cave (hence 
the sense of vessel for liquids). Orig. ' a 
little comer.*— G. kante, a comer. 

cantle, a small piece. (F.— Tcut.) O. F. 
cantely a small piece, a comer ; dimin. from 
G. kante, a comer ; see Cant (a) above. 

decant. (F.-Ital.-L. and G.) F. 
dicanter, to pour out wine. — Ital. decantare, 
to tilt a vessel on its edge. — L. de, down; 
and G. kante, a comer, edge. Der. decant- 
er, wine-vessel. 

scantling, a cut piece of timber, a 
pattern. (F. — Teut. ; with L. prefix). 
From O. F. eschantiUon, * a small cantle, 
scantling, sample ; * Cot. — O. F. es-, prefix, 
L. ex ; cantel, a cantle ; see oantle 

Canteen, Cantle ; see Cant (2). 

Canter, an easy gallop. (Proper name.) 
Short for Canterbury gallop, the pace at 
which pilgrims rode thither. 

Cantdcfe, Canto ; see Cant (i). 

Canton, a region. (F. — Low L.) F. 
lanton (Ital. cantone).'^'Lovr L„ cantonum, 
fonto, a region, province. Origin doubtful. 
IQ' Canton (in heraldry), a corner of a 


shield, is from F. canton, a comer, Low L. 
canto, a squared stone; fi^om G. kafite, a 
comer ; see Cant (2). 
Canvas. (F.— L.— Gk.) M,'E. canevas. 
F. canevas,^how L. canadacius, hempen 
cloth. —L. cannabis, hemp. — Gk. mu'i^a^i;, 
hemp. Cf. Skt. fana, hemp ; see Hemp. 

canvass. (F.-L.— Gk.) Orig. to sift 
through canvas; hence to sift, examine. 
— O. F. canabasser, to canvass, to sift out. 
Canzonet ; see Cant (i). 
Caoutchouc. (F.-Carib.) F. caottt- 
chotu ; orig. a Caribbean word. 
Cap; see Cape (i). 
Capable ; see below. 
Capacious, able to contain. (L.) Coined 
from L. capaci; cmde form of capax^ able 
to hold. — L. capere, to hold, contain; see 
Have. (VKAP.) 

accept. (F. — L.) F. accepter. — L. 
acceptare, frequent, of accipere, to receive. — 
L. (u- i^ad) ; and capere, 

anticipate. (L.) L. anticipare, to take 
beforehand. — L. anti-, before; and capere, 
to take. 

cable. (F.-L.) M. E. cable. '^O.F. 
cab/e. — Low L. capulum, caplum^ a strong 
(holding) rope. — L. capere^ to hold. 

caitiff. (F. - L.) M. E. caitif.^ O. F. 
caitif, a captive, a wretch (F. chitif).^ 
L. captiuus ; see captive below. 

capable. (F.-L.) F. capable. ^Ijovr L. 
capabilis, comprehensible ; afterwards, able 
to hold.— L. capere, to hold. 

capsule, seed-vessel. (F. - L.) F. capsule, 
a small case.— L. capsula, dimin. of capsa, 
a case; see case (2) below. 

captious. (F.-L.) F. captieux, cavil- 
ling.- L. captiosus.^'L, captio, a taking, 
a sophistical argument. — L. captus, pp. of 
capere, to hold. 

captive. (L.) %. captiuus^ a captive. 
— L. captus, pp. oi capere, to take. 

captor, capture ; from L. pp. captus. 

case (2), a receptacle. (F.-L.) O. F. 
casse. — L. capsa, a box, cover. — L. capere, 
to hold. 

casement, frame of a window. (F. — L.) 
Short for encasement, that which encases or 
encloses. From encase (below) ; with 
suffix 'tnent. 

cash, coin. (F.-L.) Orig. a till or box 
to keep money in. — F. ccuse, a case; see 
case (2) above. Der. cash-ier, sb., one who 
keeps a money-box or cash. 

casket, a small box. (F.-L.) Corrapted 
from F. cassette, <a small casket;' Cot. 


Dimin. of F. cofti, a case, box ; see case 
(a) above. 

eatolL (F.*L.^ Picard cockier^ variant 
of O. F. chacier, to hunt, chase ; hence to 
catch. It answeh to Ital. ccuciare^ Low 
L. caciare, put for capiiare,* extended form 
of L. eaptare^ to catch. — L. captus, pp. of 
iapertf to seize. % We even find O. Du. 
kaetsen, to catch, borrowed from Picard 
tackier. Doublet, chase (i). 

oater, to buy provisions. (F. — L.) 
Fonned as a verb from M. £. ccUour, a 
buyer of provisions (whom we should now 
am a cater^er), Catour is short for acatour^ 
formed from cuatCf a bujring, purchase, Ch. 
prol. 573. —O. F. acat (mod. F. achat), a 
buying. * Low L. accLptum, a purchase 
(aj>. 1 118); put for accaptum.^Loyr L. 
accaptart, to purchase (a. d. iooo), frequent, 
of accipcre, to receive, also to buy; see 
accept above. 

chase (i), to hunt after. (F.-L.) O. F. 
chacicr, chaccr, to pursue ; see oatoh above. 

ohaae (a), to enchase ; short (or enchase, 
which see below. 

chase (3), a printer's frame. (F. — L.) 
F.chdsse, a shrine. --L. capsa, a box; see 
case (a) above. 

conoeit (F.-L.) M. E. conceit. ^0.¥. 
conceit, pp. of concevoir, to conceive; see 

oonoeive. (F. — L.) M. £. conceuen.wm 
O. F. concever, concevoir.^L.. concipcrc, to 
conceive.— L. con- {^cum, together) ; and 
capere, to hold. 

conception. (F.— L.) Y. conception, '^ 
L. ace conceptionem.^'L. conceptus, pp. of 
concipert ; see above. Der. pre-conception. 

deceive. (F.— L.) O. F. dccever, dcce- 
voir, — L. decipere, to take away, deceive. — 
L. de, away; and capere, to take. Der. 
deceit, from O. F. deceit, pp. of decever. 

deception. (F.-L.) O. F. deception. 
*L. ace. deceptionem.'m'L. deceptus, pp. of 
decipere^ to deceive ; see deceive. 

encawe. (F.— L.) O. F. encaisser, 'to 
pot into a case;' Cot.— F. en, in (L. in) ; 
and O. F. eaisse, casse, a case ; see case (a) 

enchase. (F. L.) O. F. enchasser, 'to 
enchace or set in gold,^ Cot. Hence to 
emboss.- F. en, in (L. in)i and chasse, the 
aamc as ecuse, a case ; see case (a) above. 

except^ to exclude. (F. — L.) F. excepter, 
to except ; Cot. — L. exceptare, frequent, of 
excipere, to take.— L. ex, out; capere, to 
take. Der. except, prep. ; &c. 




imperceptible. (F.-L.) From im» 
— f/f, not; zxM^ perceptible \ see below. 

inceptive.. (L.) Coined from L. incep- 
tus^ pp. of incipere, to begin ; see below. 

incipient. (L.) L. incipient-, stem of 
pres. pt. of incipere, to begin. — L. wi, 
upon ; capere, to lay hold of. 

intercept. (F.-L.) F. intercepter.^ 
L. intercept-US, pp. of intercipere, lit. to 
catch between.— L. inter, between; capere, 
to take. 

occupy. (F.-L.) M. E. occuHen. F. 
occuper.^L,. occupare^ to lay hold of.— L. 
oc' {^^ob, near); capere ^ to seize. Der. 

perceive. (F. - L.) O. F. percever. - L. 

rcipere, to apprehend.— L./^r, thorough- 
y ; capere^ to seize. 

perception. (F. - L.) ¥, perception. - L. 
ace. perceptioftem. — L. perceptus, pp. of 
percipere ; see above. 

precept. (F.-L.) 0.¥. precepte.^l,. 
praceptum^ a prescribed rule. — "L.praceptus, 
pp. oi pracipere, to take beforehand, give 
rules.— L. pra, before; capere, to take. 
Der. precept-or. 

purchase, verb. (F.-L.) M.E. pur- 
chosen, purchacen, — O. F. purchacer, to 
pursue eagerly, acquire, get. — O. F. pur 
(F. pour), from L. pro ; and O. F. chacer; 
see chase (i) above. 

receive. (F.-U) O. F. recever, re- 
cevoir. — L. recipere, to take back. — L. re, 
back ; capere, to take. 

receptacle. (F.-L.) F. r^ceptacle.^ 
L. receptaculum, a place to store away. — 
L. recept'Us, pp. of recipere ; see above. 

reception. (F.-L.) F. riccption,^\^ 
ace. reccptionem, a taking back.— L. recept* 
US ; as above. 

recipe. (L.) L. recipe, take thou ; imp. 
of recipere ; see receive. 

recipient. (L.) L. recipient-, stem of 
pres. pt. of recipere ; see receive. 

sash (i), a case or frame for panes of 
glass. (F. — L.) Corruption of F. chassis, ' a 
frame of wood for a wmdow ; ' Cot. — O. F. 
chasse (F. chdsse), a case, shrine. — L. 
capsa, a case. See chase (3) and case (a) 

scaffold. (F.-L. and Teut.) M.E. 
scafold. — O. F. escafalt,* only found as 
escafaut, mod. F. ichafaud, a scaffold. 
Short for escadafalt (Burguy), corresponding 
to Span, and Ital. catafalco, a funerad 
canopy, also a stage, scaffold, p. The 
former part of the word occurs in O. Span. 




■ctUar, to sefe, view, from L. captare,, to 
strive after, watch, observe, frequent of 
capertf to seize. The latter part is the 
same as Ital. balco, a stage, of Tent, origin ; 
see Balk. The lit. sense is * view-balk,' 
i;e. a stage to see from. 

susceptible. (F.-L.) F. susceptible.^ 
"Lt. susceptibiliSf ready to receive. — L. j«j- 
cipere, to receive. — L. sus* (for sub-s)^ under; 
and capere, to take. 
Caparison ; see Cape (i.) 
Cape (i), a covering for the shoulders. 
(F.— Low L.) O. F. cape.^hovr L. capa, 
a cape (Isidore of Seville) ; whence sdso 
Prov., Span., Port, capa, Ital. cappa, A.S. 
ceeppCf Du. kap, G. happe^ Icel. kipa, &c. 

cap, head-covering. (Low L.) A. S. 
^'^F//^.— Low L. cappa, the same as capa^ 
orig. a cape ; see above. 

. caparison, trappings of a horse. (F.— 
Span. — Low L.) O. F. caparasson. — Span. 
eaparazon, cover for a saddle ; augmenta- 
tive from Span, eapa, a cloak, cover.— 
Low L. capa, a cape ; as above. 

capuchin, hooded friar, hood. (F.— 
Ital. — Low L.) Y . capucin,^\K^, cappu- 
Hno, a small hood, hence a hooded mar ; 
dimin. of cappuccio, a cowl. — ItaL cappa, 
a cape ; see Cape (i). 

chapel. (F.— L.) O.F.cAape/e.^Lofw 
L. cape/la, orig. a shrine in which was pre- 
served the capa or cope of St. Martin 
(Brachet). — Low L. capa, cappa, cape, 
hooded cloak ; as above. 

chaperon. (F.-L.) F. chaperon, a 
protector ; orig. a kind of hood.— F. chape, 
a cope.— Low L. capa ; as above. 

ohaplet. (F.-L) 'i/l.'E, chapelet.^ 
O. F. chapeJet^ a head-dress, wreath. — O.F. 
chapel^ head-dress. — O. F. chape, a cope ; 
see chaperon. 

oopo (i)» a hood, cape. (F.— Low L.) 
M. £. cope^ variant of cape^ a cape ; see 
Cape above. (For the o^ cf. Icel. kdpa^ 

escape. (F. — L.) M. E. escapen. — 
O. F. escaper (F. ichapper), to escape, lit. 
to slip out of one*s cape. — L. ex cappd, out 
of one's cape ; see Cape (i) above. 

scax>e ; short for escape (above). 
Cape (2), headland ; see Capit^ 
Caper (i), to dance about. (Ital.— L.) 
Formerly eapreole (Sir P. Sidney). — Ital. 
capriolare, to skip as a goat — Ital. ca- 
j^riolo^ a kid ; dimin. of caprio^ wild-goat ; 
cf. capra^ she-goat.— L. capra, she-goat; 
cf. caper, he-goat. 

cabi cabriolet. (F.- ItaL- L.) Cab 


is diort for cabriolei.^F. cabriolet, a cab; 
from its supposed lightness. — F. cabriole , 
a caper, leap of a goat ; formerly capriole ; 
see capriole below. 

Capricorn. (L.) L. capricomus, homed 
goat. — L. capri'=^caprO', stem of caper, 
goat ; and com-u, a horn. 

capriole, a peculiar frisk of a horse. 
(F. — Ital. — L.) F. capriole \ see Cot.— 
Ital. capriola, tiie leap of a kid ; see Cai>er 

Caper (2), the flower-bud of a certain 
plant. (F.-L.-Gk.-Pers.) O.F. capre 
(F. f4//T?), — L. capparis, — Gk. tcdvrtapi?, 
caper-plant ; its fruit. — Pers. habar, capers. 

Cai>ercailzie. (Gael.) Here z « 3 — >'. 

— GsLeLcapull-coilletgresit cock of the wood ; 
lit. horse of the wood. — Gael, captdl, a horse 
(see Cavalier) ; coille, coill, wood. 

Capillary, like hair. (L.) L. capillaris, 
adj., from capillus, hair. Perhaps allied to 
cap-uty the head. 

disl^evel. (F.-L.) O.Y, discheveler, 
* to dischevell,' i. e. to disorder the hair ; 
Cot. — O. F. deS' (L. dis-), apart ; chevel 
(F. cheoet*), a hair, from L. ace. cctpillunt. 

Capital (i), chief. (F.-L.) F. capital. 

— L. capitalis, belonging to the head. — L. 
capil', stem of caput, the head ; see Head. 

achieve. (F.-L.) M. E. acheuen.^ 
O.F. achever, lit. to bring to a head.— 
O. F. a chef, to a head. ^L. ad captit (the 
same). Der. achieve-ment, 

cabbage (i), a vegetable. (F.— Ital.— 
L.) O. F. choux cabus, *a cabbidge,* Cot. 
(lit. 'round-headed cabbage;' we have 
dropped choux). The F. cabus, round- 
headed, is from Ital. capuccio, a little head, 
dimin. of capo, head. — L. caput, head. 

cad. (F. - L.) Short for Lowl. Sc 
cadie, an errand-boy, boy ; see Jamieson. 

— F. cculet ; see cadet. 

cadet, orig. a youneer son. (F.-L.) 
F. ccuiet, a younger brother ; Prov. capdet, 
Capdet is a Gascon form = Low L. capit- 
ellum (by a habit of Gascon, which puts 
t for II; P. Meyer); lit. a little (younger) 
head, dimin. from L. caput, a head. 

cape (2), a headland. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
F. rdr/.— ItaL capo, head, headland.— L. 
caput, head. 

capital (2), stock of money. (F.-L.) 
F. capital. — Low L. capitate^ wealth ; neut. 
oi capitalis, chief; see Capital (i), 

capital (3), head^f a t^'^t.. (Low L. 

— L.) Low L. capi rf a pillar ; 
dimin. from L. capu 


capitation, poll-tax. (F.-L.) F. cap- 
Uation, «- Low L. ace. eapitationem^ poll- 
tax. *L. caput y poll, head. 

oapitoL (L.) The temple of Jupiter, 
at Rome, called Capitolium. •» L. capU-^ 
stem of caputs a head ; but the reason for 
the name is obscure ; see Smith, Class. Diet 

cajiitiilar, relating to a chapter. (L.) 
Low L. capitulariSf adj. of capiiulum, a 
chapter of a cathedral, or a chapter of a 
book ; see chapter below. 

capitulate. (L.) Low L. capitulatus, 
pp. of capUtdare, to divide into chapters, 
auo to propose terms (for surrender).— 
Low L. capUuluntj a chapter; see chapter 
below. Der. rt-capitulate, 

captain. (F.— L.) Vi,^. capitain,^ 
O. F. cttpitain. — Low L. capita futu, capit- 
anus, a leader of soldiers. -•L. capit-, stem 
oi caput, head. 

cattle. (F. — L.) M. E. catel, property ; 
hence, live stock, cattle. — O. F. catcl. — 
Low L. capitate, capital, property; see 
capital (a) above. 

chapiter, the capital of a column. (F. 
-L.) O. F. chapitcl (F. chapiteau), the 
same. * L. capitellum, the same ; diniin. of 
caput, a head. 

chapter, a division of a book, synod of 
clergy. (F. ■- L.) M. K chapitre, also 
chapitcl, — F. chapitre ^ corruption of an older 
form chapitle,^!^ capitulum, a chapter of 
a book (little head) ; also, in late L., a 
sjnod ; dimin. of caput, a head. 

chattels. (F. - L) PI. of M. E. chatel, 
property, also cattle.— O.K. chatel^O,Y, 
catel, property ; see cattle above. 

chief. (F. - L.) M. E. chef, chief, - 
O. F. chef, chief, the head.— L. caput, head. 
Der. ker<hief, q. v. 

chieftain. (F.— L.) O. F. chevetaine. 
mLow L. capitaneus, capitanus, a captain ; 
see captain above. 

corporal (i), a subordinate officer. 
(F.— Ital.— L.) A corrupt form ofF. <w- 
^Ji^m/.^Ital. caporale, a chief, corporal of 
a band. — Ital. capo, head. — L. caput, 

decapitate. (L.) From pp. of Low 
L. decapitayCf to behead. — L. de, off ; and 
capit', stem oi caput, head. 
' hatchment^ escutcheon of a deceased 
pejson. (F. — L.) Corruption oiach^ment, 
Idiorteited' forrii oi achievement, 

occiput. (L^ L. occiput, back of the 
•head.— L: OC' (for ok), over against; and 
• caput, head. 

precipice* (F.-L.) 0,¥. precipice,^ 



L. pracipitium, a falling headlong down ; 
a ]^>rec\pice, '^ h, pracipiti; crude form of 
praceps, headlong.— L. prce, before; and 
capiti; cr. form of caput, Der. precipitate, 
from L. pracipitare, to cast headlong. 

sinciput. (L.) The fore part of the 
head ; lit. * half head.* — L. sinciput, half 
the head. — L. j^/7/f*, half; zsii^ caput \ see 
also Oapeise. 

Capitation, Capitol, Capitular, 
Capitulate ; see above. 

Capon. (L. — Gk.) A. S. capun, - L. 
ace caponem, from nom. ra/0. — Gk. ts^w, 
a capon. (^^KAP.) 

Caprice. (F. - Ital. - L. ?) F. caprice, 

— Ital. capriccio, a whim. Perhaps from 
Ital. capra, a she-goat; so that capriccio 
might mean a fr^k like a goat's; see 
Caper (i). % Not certain; for capriccio 
also means a sudden chill, and capriccian 
is to shiver. 

Capricorn, Capriole; see Caper (i). 

Capsize, to upset. (Span.?-L.) Perhaps 
from Span, capuzar, to sink (a ship) by 
the head ; allied to cabecear, to nod the 
head, pitch as a ship does.— Span, cabeza, 
the head, fore part of a ship ; a derivative 
of L. caput, the head; see Capital (i). 

Capstan. (F. — Span. - L. ?) F. cabestan, 

— Span, cabestrante, cabrestante, an engine 
to raise weights. Etym. unknown : per- 
haps from Span, cabestrar, to tie with a 
halter, fasten =^ L. capistrare, from L. cap- 
istrum (Sp. cabestro), a halter, from capere, 
to hold. Others say firom Span, cobra 
estante^ a fixed (permanent) goat; since 
the Span, cobra means (i) goat, ^3) a ma- 
chine for throwing large stones. Here Sp. 
cobra =■ L. capra, a she-goat ; see Cai>er (i ) ; 
and estonte « L. siantem, ace of statu, 
standing, from stare, to stand. 

Capsule ; see Capacious. 

Captain; see CapitaL 

Captious, Captive ; see Oapaoions. 

Capuchin; see Cape (i). 

Car. (F.-C.) M. E. carre.^O.F, car 
(F. char), a car. — L. carrus, a car; of 
Gaulish origin. — Bret, harr, a chariot; W« 
car, O, Gael, cdr, Irish carr, (^KAR*) 

career. (F.-C.) F. carriire, a road; 
also a horse-race, running of horses, career ; 
O. F. cariere, a road. — O. F. carier, to cany. 

— O. F. car, car ; see above. 

cargo. (Span. — C.) Span, cargo, freight, 
load; cf. cargare, to load. — Low L. 
carricare, to load a car ; see charge below. 

caricature. (ItaL - C.) ItaL M#i- 



catunt, a satirical picture ; so called becsute 
exaggerated or 'overloaded.' — Ital. can- 
can, to load, bnrdco. — Low L. carricart, 
to load a car j see cbarKS. 

oarrtuik. [F.-C.) O. F. earraqiu, a 
ship of harden. — Low Lat. carmca, the 

load ; see olurse. 

carrlago. (F.-C.) M. E. cariagi, that 
which i» carried about (as b Bible, A. V.) 
— O. F. tariagi; from caritr, to cany; iCC 
below, ^ Iti modem ose is due to con- 
fosion with camck, a vehicle (Massinger) 
" Ital. camxcio, a chariot, Bagmentative 
of cam, a ur. 

carry. (F. - C.) O. F. «mr, — O. F. 
mr, a car ; see Oar. 

o&rt. (C.) A.S. ow/ (for cfrt).~Vf. 
cart, a wain; Ga«l. «nd Irish eairt; 
dimio. of W. for, Irish nlrr; see 0*i. 

oharge. (F.— C.) F, chargtr, to load. 
— Low L. carricart, to load a car. — L, 
camu, a car, a Gaulish word; see Cor. 
Der. charg-tr, a dish OT horse, because 
carnring a burden. 

oh&rtot. CF--C.) F. ckariet; O. F. 
[harelc. — Low 1„ camta, a, small car, 
dimin. of carrus, a car ; see Oar. 

Dupero&rgo. (L. ; B«rf Span. — C.) 
From L. mptr, above ; and Span, cargo, a 

Fcharga, sb. (F.— L. i»&f C.) F. 
surthargt, an over-cbirge.- F. tur ( — L. 
suptr\ above ; and oliBTce (above). 

Cftraools. (F.-Span.-C. ?) ^.canuel, 
caraevli, a snail ; whence fairt U taracoli, 
applied to a mancenvTe by soldien, and to 
turns made by a horse. —Span, caracal, a 
snail, winding staircase, turning about (from 
the snail-sbdi's spiral form). Perhaps of 
Celtic origin ; cf. GaeL camch, circUng, 
winding, from car, a torn, twist. 

Carat. (F.-Arab.-Gk.) F. carat, a 
very light weight.— Arab, firrdt, a pod, 
hask, carat, 14th part of en oudcc, — Gk. 
xfpinar, fruit of the locust-tree; also, a 
carat; lit. 'BsmaUhoni.'-Gk.ii(/aT-, stem 
of Kipas, a horn ; see Horn. 

Caravan. (F. — Pen.) F. laravant.^ 
Fers. Jtarwdn, a caravan, convoy. 

caravaneaiT. (Pcrs.) Fers. iaraidn- 
sardy, an inn for caravans — Fers. kartodK, 
caravan ; lardji. pnblic building, inn. 

van, a covered waggon for goods. (F. — 
Fers.) Short for tarofoii, lilce hu for 


Caraway, Carrairay. (Span. •> Arab.) 
Span, ai-carahutjm, a caraway ; where al 
is merely the Arab. def. art. — Arab. 
tarviyi^, karavHyi-a, caiaway-sceds or 
plant C£ Gk. nApo!, 'Afor, cumin. 

Carbine. <F.-Gk.) Formerly i^ni^'w, 
caraiin, which meant (not a mmiket, but) 
the man who carried it. a musketeer. — F. 
caraiiM, ' an arquebuzier ; ' Cot Coirupted 
from O. F. calakrin, a iight-armed soldier, 
orig. a soldier who worked one of the old 
war-engines. —Low L. chadiUiula, cadabula, 
a destmctiTe war-engine. — Gk. «aTa£o\^, 
overthrow, destruction. — Gk. mToAi^Afif, 
to cast down, strike down with missiles. — 
Gk. nni, down; ffJMitty, to cast (Cf. F. 
accaiUr, also from cadaiula.) 

Carbon. (F. — L.) F. car&mu.'^'L, ace 
lariencm, a coaL 

oarbonado, broiled meat (Span.— L.) 
Span. larionaJff, meat broiled over coals. 
— Span. cariiM, coal ; see above. 

oarbonola. (L.) L. cariunculm, (1) a 
small coal, (3) a carbuQcle, gem, irom its 
glowing. Double dimin. of L. cario, coal. 

Caroanet.(F.-C.) Dimin. of F.cjrcan, 
a collar of jewels, or of gold. — Bret. 
kirchcH, the bosom, circle of the neck; 
■Iso kelchen, a collar. — Bret, ickh, a ring. 

Caroase, Caroaaa. (F.-Ital.-Pers.l 
M. E. firfraj-r,- O. F. carqttasse, a dead 
body.— ItaL carcassa, a kind of bomb- 
shell, a shell; closely allied to carcaiso, 
also htrcatse, a quiver, case (the body 
being likened to a shell or case). Cor- 
rupted from Low L. larcasiut, s quiver.— 
Fers. larkash, a quiver. (See proof in 
Litlrj that F. carquou and carcasse are the 
same word.) 

Card (i), piece of pasteboard. (F.— Gk.) 
CormptioQ of F. carit, 'a card,' Cot.— 
Low L. carta; L. cAarta. — Gii. XV^- ^ 
leaf of paper. Der. card-beard. 

oarto,abiUoffare.{F.-Gk.) Chiefly 
in the F. phr. carle blancki, lit. white 
paper. — Low L. taria ; see Oard above. 

cartel. (F.-HaL-Gk.) F. cartiL- 
Ital carlello, lit a small paper; dimin. of 
carta, paper, bill ; see above. 

cartoon. (F.-Ital.-Gk.) r.carten.^ 
ItaL cartont, lit. a large paper ; from carta, 

cartouohe, cartridse. (F. — Ital.— 

G.) Cariridgt (with i ' ..-.--- 

a roQ of paper, cartridge. ~ ItaL t 


r«r; Low L. Mr/ai see Card above. 
The cartridge took its name from the 
paper in which it was rolled up. 

<Mfftulary, a raster. (Low L.»Gk.) 
Low L. cartularium, chartularium^ a xegis- 
ter.^Low L. cAartuIa, a document ; dimin. 
oicAarta, a paper; see Card above. 

ehart. (ll*Gk.) L. cMarfa, a paper. «• 
QHl x^prtf ; as above. 

tthazter. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. £. chartre. 
— F. f >kiff /v. — Low L. chartarium^ ar- 
chives. *Lb chartarius^ adj. from charta, 
paper; see above. 

Oard {i)f an instrmnent for combing 
wooL (F.— L.) F. rari/^.-*Low L. cardus^ 
L eanhtms, a Uiistle ; for wool-combing. * 
L carert, to card wool. 
OarcUnaL (L.) L. cardinalis^ principal, 
chief; ori|;. relating to the hinge of a door. 
»L. eardtn-j stem oicardo^ a hinge. 
CSare. (£.) M. £. rari^. A. S. cam, cearu, 
axudety. +0. Sax. kara, sorrow ; IceL Jkari, 
murmur ; O. H. G. cAara, a lament. (V 
GAR.) % No connection with L. cura I 

carkt anxiety. (£.) A. S. care, cark 
(Somner); allied to cearu, care, sadness; 



ehary, careful, cautious. (£.) M. £. 
X. A. S. cearig, full of care, sad. * 
A. S. ctaru^ cam, care. Charjf meant (i) 
sorrowfol, (1) heedfuL 

Oareen. (F.-L.) Lit *to clean the 
keel;' hence to lav a ship on its side.— F. 
tifrmr, carhu, keel.i«L. carina, keel. 

CSareer; see Car. 

GareflS. (F.-ItaL-L.) F. caresse, a 
fondling. ^ Ital. caretxa, a caress, fondling. — 
Low Lat. cariiia, deamess.— L. carus, dear. 
charity. (F.-L.) O. F. cAariM.^L. 
ace. cariicUem, dearaess. — L. cartUt dear. 
% Not allied to Gk. x^P^f- 

cherish. (F.-L.) O. F. ckeris-, stem 
of pres. pt. of chirir, to hold dear.— F. 
cker^ dear. — L. carus, 

Car&x. (F.-L.) M. £. carfoukes, a 
place where four roads meet. -O. F. pi. 
carrefourgSt the same.— L. ace. quatuor 
furcas, four forks.— L. quatuor, four; and 
furca, a fork. See Fork. 

Cargo, Caricature ; see Car. 

Gariee. (L.) L. caries, rottenness. 

Cark. (£.) See Care. 

Carmine. (Span.- Arab. -Skt) Span. 
carmise, short form of carmesin, crimson. 
—Span, carmes, kermes, crimson dye.— 
Arab, and Pers. qirmit, qirmixi, crimson. 
—Skt krimija, produced by an insect (viz. 

the cochineal insect).— Skt ktimi, a worm; 
jan, to produce. (See Cochineal, Worm.) 

crimson. (F. - Arab. - Skt.) M. £. 
crimosin, — O. F. cramming cramoisyne 
(see cramoisi in Littr^).— LowL. cramoi- 
sinus, also carmesinus, crimson. — Arab, 
and Pers. qirmizi ; see above. 
Carnage ; see below. 
Carnal. (L.) L. cama/is, fleshly. — L. 
cam-, stem of caro, flesh.-^Gk. icpiat ; Skt. 
kravya, raw flesh. 

carnage. (F.— L.) F. carnage, flesh- 
time, slaughter of animals. — Low L. 
camaticum, a tribute of animals ; cf. car* 
natum, time for eating flesh.— L* cam-^ 
stem of caro, flesh. 

carnation. (F. - L.) F. camatim^ 
flesh colour (Littr^).— L. ace. camati^mcm^ 
fleshiness. — L. cam-, stem of caro, 

carnival. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. eams' 
val, Shrovetide. — Ital. camevait, cctmovak^ 
the last three days before Lent.— Low. L, 
camelezfale, camelevamen, solace of the 
flesh, Shrovetide.— L.rarff^-m, ace. of caro, , 
flesh ; and /euare, to lighten, mitigate, cour 
sole, from leuis, light. 

carnivorous. (L.) L. camiuorus^ 
flesh-eating. — L. cami-, crude form of caroi, 
flesh ; and uor-are, to devour. 

carrion. (F.-L.) M. £. caroigm, a 
carcase.— O. F. caroigne ; Low L. canmia, 
a carcase.— L. caro, flesh. 

charneL (F. - L.) Properly an adj., 
containing carcases, as in charnel-house.^ 
O. F. chamel, adj. carnal ; as sb. a ceme- 
tery. — L. camalis ; see Carnal above. 

incarnadine, to dye of a red colour. 
(F. — Ital.— L.) F. incamadin, carnation 
colour (Cot.) — Ital. incarnadine, camatioa 
colour (Florio) ; abo spelt incamatino. — ^ 
ItaL incamato, incarnate; also, of fleshi 
colour.— L. incamatus, pp. of iucamare,. 
to clothe with flesh (below). 

incarnation. (F. - L.) F. incama* 
tion.mmh, ace. incamationem, embodiment 
in flesh. — L. incamatus, pp. of incamarc^ 
to clothe with flesh. -L. in, in; and cam-, 
stem of caro, flesh. 
Carob-tree, the locust -tree. (Arab.) 
Arab, khamib, bean-pods. 

Carol, a song. (F.-C.) Formerly, a 
kind of dance. -O. F. carole, a (singing) 
dance. Of C:eltic origin ; cf. Bret. koroU, 
a dance, movement of the body in cadence ; 
Manx carval, a carol ; Com. carol, a choir, 
concert ; W. carol, a song, coroli, to move 
in a circle, dance; Gael, carull, melody. 



carolling. The orig. sense is *a dance 
rotind.' — Irish car^ a twist, turn ; Gael. 
car, a turn, bend, revolution, music. 
(V KAR.) 

Carotid, adj. (Glc.) Ok. tcaporrlBti, s. 
pi., the two great arteries of the neck ; it 
was thought mat an alteration in the flow 
of blood through them qiused stupor. * Gk. 
/tap^f I stupefy; tcdpoi, stupor. 

Carousal, (i) a drinking-bout; (a), a 
pageant, (i. F. — G. ; 2. F. •- Ital.) 1. 
Sometimes from the verb carouse below. 
2. But, in old authors, cdrottsil means a 
sort of pageant, of which some kind of 
chariot-race formed a principal part ; Dry- 
den; Virgil, iEn. v. 777.— F. carrousel^ a 
tilting-match. — Ital. carosello, corrupt form 
of garosello^ a tournament. — ItaL garoso, 
quarrelsome ; gat^a^ a strife. 

Carouse. (F. - G.) F. carous, 'a car- 
rouse of drinke,* Cot. — G. garaus^ right 
out ; used of emptying a bumper. — G. gar, 
quite ; and aus^ out. (Raleigh even writes 
garouse ; directly from G. garaus.) Der. 
carouS'Cil^ but only in one sense of that 
word ; see above. 

Carp (I), a fish. (E.) M. E. carpe. Not 
in A. S.+Du. harper \ Icel. karfi\ Dan. 
karpe\ Swed. karp\ G. karpfcn\ late Lat. 
carpa (whence F. carpc, &c.). 

Cfarp (2), to cavil at. (Scand.) M.E. 
carpertf which often merely means to talk, 
say. — Icel. karpa, to boast ; Swed. dial. 
karpa^ to boast, talk much. ^The pre- 
sent sinister sense is due to confusion with 
L. carpere^ to pluck. 

Carpenter. (F.-C.) O.F. carpentier 
(F. charpentier). ■- Low L. carpentaritis, 
from carpentare, to work in timber. — L. 
carpentum, a carriage; a word of Celtic 
origin, -n Gael, and Insh carbad, a carriage, 
chajiot, litter; Irish ra^, a basket, litter, 
carriage, plank ; Gael, cairb^ chariot, ship, 

Carpet. (F.-L.) O.F. carpUc^-^lM^ 
L. carpUa, carpeta, a kind of thick cloth ; 
dimin. oicarpta, lint. — L. ra/^^r^, to pluck, 
pull to pieces (lint being made of rags 
pulled to pieces) ; cf. F. cAarpJc, lint. 

CorracK, Carriage ; see Car. 

Carrion ; see Carnal. 

Carronade, a sort of cannon. (Scotland.) 
So named because made at Camm, in 

Carrot. (F.— L.) F. caro/e, carotte.^ 
L. carota. Perhaps borrowed from Gk. 
KapQrrSVf a carrot. 


Carry, Cart; see Car. 
Carte, Cartel ; see Card (i). 
Cartilage. (F. — L.) F. cartilage, gristle. 

— L. cartilagitum, ace. of cartilago. Der. 

Cartoon, Cartouche, Cartridge, 
Cartulary; see Card (i). 

Carve. (E.) l/l.E. Jkeruen. A,S, ceorfan. 
+ Du. kerven ; IceL kyrfa ; Dan. karve ; 
Swed. karfva ; G. kerben, to notch, cut. 

Cascade ; see Cadence. 

Ca8e-(i), an event; see Cadence. 

Case (2), a box ; see Capacious. 

Casemate. (F. — Ital.) F. casemate, a 
loop-hole in a fortified wall. — Ital. casa- 
matta, a chamber built under a wall or 
bulwark, to hinder those who enter the 
ditch to scale the wall of a fort. It seems 
to mean Mark chamber.* — Ital. and L. 
casa, house, cottage, room ; and Ital. matta, 
Xem. of matto, orig. mad, but the Sicilian 
mattu means * dim.* 

Casement, Cash ; see Capacious. 

Cashier (i) ; one who attends to cash 
payments ; see cash, under Capacious. 

Cashier (a), to dismiss from service. 
(G. — F. — L.) G. ccusiren, to cashier ; 
merely borrowed from F. casscr, ' to breake, 
burst, . . also to casseere, discharge ;' Cot. 
(G. words, borrowed from F., end in -ircti.) 

— L. cassare, to annul, discharge. •- L. 
ccLSstis^ void, null. 

Cashmere, a rich stuff. (India.) So 
called from the vale of Cashmere, in India. 
Also spelt cassimere, kerseymere. 

Casino, a room for dancing. (Ital.— L.) 
Ital. casifto, dimin. of casa^ a cottage, 
house. — L. casa, a cottage. 

cassock, a vestment. (F. — Ital.— L.) 
F. casaque.^\\.2X, casacca, an outer coat; 
a jocular word; from casa, a house; see 

chasuble, ^ vestment. (F. — L.) F. 
chasuble. ^\jyN L. casabula, a little house; 
hence, a mantle. — L. casa^ a cottage. 

CaeGc. (Span. — L.) Span, ca^co, a skull, 
sherd, coat of an onion ; also a cask of 
wine, a casque or helmet. The orig. sense 
is 'husk;' cf. Span, cascara, peel, rind, 
shell. Port, casca, rind.— Span, ceucar, to 
burst open ; formed (as if from Lat. quassi- 
care *) from an extension of L. quassarc, 
to break, burst ; see Quash. 

casque, a helmet. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. 
casqtu.^\\.t3\. easco, a helmet, headpiece; 
the same as Span, casco above. 

Casket ; see Capacious. 




Casque; see Cask. 

Cas^a^ a species of lanTeL (L.-Gk.- 
Heb.) L. casta, cassia,^ Gk.Mtia fa, a spice 
like dxmamon.— Heb. qetsfSth, in Ps. xIt. 
Q, a pi. form from qetsTdh, cassia-baik. *» 
Heb. root qdtsa\ to cut ; because the bazk 
is cut off. 

CaiwrfTnere ; see Oashmere. 

Cassock ; see Casino. 

Cassowary, a bird. (Malay.) First 
brought from Java. Littr^ (s. v. casoar) 
gives the Malay name as kassuwaris. 

Cast. (Scand.) Icel. kasta, to throw; 
Swed. kasia ; Dan. kasU. Prob. allied to 
L* gerere, to heap up. Der. rc-cast. 

Caste, a breed, race. (Port— L.) Port. 
€€tsia, a race, orig. a ' pure' breed ; a name 
given by the Port, to classes of men in 
India. •■ Post, casta, fem. of casio, pure.— 
Lb castus, pure, chaste. +Gk. icaQa^, 

castigate. (L.) L. ccutigatus, pp. of 
casHgare, to chasten; lit. 'to keep pure.*— 
Lb auhis, chaste. 

chaste. (F. - L.) O.F. chaste, - L. 
castus; see Caste. 

chasten. (F.-L.) Used in place of 
M. £. ckcuty or chastten ; see chastiBe. 

chastise. (F. - L.) M. £. chastiscn ; 
shorter form chastien.^O.F, cAasticr.^h. 
castigare ; see castigate above. 

incest, impurity. (F. — L.) 'hH.TL incest. 
— F. ituestt, sb.— L. incestus, unchaste.— 
L. in, not ; castus, chaste. 

Castle. (L.) A. S. casteL -L. castellum, 
diniin. of castrum, a fortified place. Der. 
casttU-an, O. F. castelain^ chastelain, the 
keeper of a ckastel or castle ; also chAte^ 
laine (fem. of F. ch&telain^O, F. chaste- 
lain), DOW applied to a lady's chain or 
• keeper ' of keys, &c 

chateau. (F.-L.) F. chdtcau, O.F. 
chastel. — L. ccutellum, as above. 

Castor. (L. - Gk.) L. castor, - Gk. 
itAarwp, a beaver. But of Eastern origin ; 
Malay hastiiri, Skt. kastiiri, musk; Pers. 
khaz, beaver. 

castor-oil. Named from some resem- 
blance to castoreum, * a medicine made of 
the liquor contained in the little bags that 
are next the beaver's groin,' Kersey. But 
it is really a vegetable production. 

Castrate. (L.) L. castrcUus, pp. of 
castmrr, to cut 

Casual ; see Cadence. 

Cat. (£.) A. S. cat. -f Du., Dan. hat, 
Icel. hattr, Sw. hatt, G. hater, katu, L. 
ccUus, W. cath\.lx, Gael cat^ Russ. kot\ 

hoshha, Arab, qitt, Turk. hedL (Prob. 

caterpillar. (F.-L.) M. E. catyrpelx 
corruption of O. F. chatepeUuse, a weevil;, 
a fanciful name, really meaning * hairy she- 
cat.' — O. F. chate, a she-cat ; and peUtise, 
hairy. —L. catus, caX; pUosus, hairy, from 
pilum, hair. 

caterwaul. (£.) M. E. caierwawen\ 
coined from ccU, and wawen, to make a 
wailing noise. 

catKin. (£.) A loose spike of flowers 
resembling a cat's tail; hence called a 
cat-hin, i. e. little cat. 

kitten. (£.; with F. suffix.) M. £. 
hitoun, where the suffix -cun is F., sug- 
gested by F. chatton, a kitten. AiV is a 
weakened form of cat^ appearing in the true 
£. form hit-lingt and in (^obs.) ktttU, to pro- 
duce kittens. 

Oata-, prejix. (Gk.) Gk. Kara, down, 

Cataclysm, deluge. (Gk.) Gk. icora- 
K\vcii6i, a dashing over, flood. — Gk. «pard, 
down ; itK6iu¥, to dash, wash, as waves. 

Catacomb. (Ital.-Gk.) Ital catacomba^ 
a sepulchral vault.— Low L. caiacumba.^ 
Gk. Kara, down; /evftfirj, a cavity, hollow 

Catalepsy, a sudden seizure. (Gk.) For- 
merly ccUaUpsis. — Gk. leordAjT^it, a grasp- 
ing, seizing.— Gk. itoxL, down; Xa3-, base 
of Xo/Scry, aor. inf. of Xa/i^aycii^, to seize. 

Catalogue. (F.-Gk.) F. catt^ogue,^ 
Low Lat. ace. ccUalogum.^Gk, /caT^UoyM, 
a counting up, enrolment. — Gk. lasrA, fully; 
X^ciy, to say, tell ; see Iiogic. 

Catamaran, a sort of raft. (Tamil.) 
In Forbes, Hindustani Diet, ed. 1859, P- 
a8o, we have * hatmaran, a raft . . ; the 
woid is orig. Tamil, and means tied logs,* 

Cataplasm, a poultice. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. cataplasme.^'L. ccUaplasma,^G\i, ttard' 
vkaafM, a plaster, poultice. — Gk. «ara- 
vk6(ra€iv, to spread over. — Gk. ttard, fully; 
and vKdfffftiy, to mould ; see Flasteir. 

Catapult. (Low L. - Gk.) Low L. 
catapulta, an engine for throwing stones.— 
Gk. Karttvikrrfi, the Same. — Gk. gard, down ; 
vdXXtiv, to swing, hurL 

Cataract. (L. — Gk.) L. cataracta. Gen. 
vii. II. — Gk. Karafifi&KTrjSt as sb., a water- 
fall ; as adj. broken, rushing down. Prob. 
allied to tcarafififfywfUt I break down ; the 
a aor. nartfifidyrfy was used of the rushing 
down of waterfalls and storms.— Gk. Marai 
down ; f^vfu, I break. 



Catarrh. (Low L, - Gk.) Low L. 
tatarrkus.^GV, ttardfifiootf a flowing down 
(of rheum), a cold in the head. * g£ icard, 
down ; and fi4uv, to flow. 

Catastrophe. (Gk.) Gk. Kareurrpo^, 
an overtuming, sadden tunu^Gk. tcari, 
down ; ffTp4<l>ttv, to turn. 

Catch. (F.-L.) See Oapaoious. 

Catechise. (Low L. « Gk.) Low L. 
cateckizare.^Gk, mnixK*"^* to catechise, 
instruct ; lengthened form of kotiix'^^^^* to 
din into one's ears, lit. * to din down.'-* 
Gk. KaT'&, down; i)x4» & sound, i^x^* ^ 
ringing in the ears ; see Echo. 

<&tQgory, a class. (Gk.) Gk. imnriopla, 
an accusation ; but in logic, a predicament 
or class. — Gk. Korriyopuv, to accuse. — Gk. 
Kar-ii, down, against ; 6.yop^{ittv, to declaim, 
address an assembly, from dyopA, an as- 

Cater ; see Oapaoious. 

Caterpillar, Caterwaul ; see Cat. 

Cathartic, purging. (Gk.) Gk. KoBaprt- 
ic6$, purgative. — Gk. ttaBalpfiy^ to cleanse, 
purge. — Gk. ica0ap6s, pure; see Oaste. 

Cathedral. (L. - Gk.) L. cathedralis 
ecclesia a a cathedral church, or one which 
has a bishop's throne.— Low L. cathedra^ 
a throne.— Gk. Ka$4ipa, a seat. — Gk. «a0-, 
for seard, down; and tSpa, a seat, chair, 
from i(ofiat (i^^d-j^o/uu), I sit ; see Bit. 

chair. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. cAaire, 
cAaere.^O, F. chaiere, chaere, — Low L. 
catkedra^ a throne, raised seat, chair; see 

chaise, a light carriage. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. chaise, a Parisian modification of F. 
chairit a pulpit, orig. a seat 

Catholic. (L.-Gk.) L. catholicus (Ter- 
tollian). — Gk. HoBoXucot, universal. — Gk. 
KoBdK-ovt adv., on the whole, in general. — 
Gk. KoB; for Kara, according to; and 
Bkov, gen. of 5\ot, whole. 

Catkin; see Cat. 

Catoptric ; see Optic. 

Cattle; see Capital. 

Caudal, belonging to the tail. (L.) L. 
Cauda, the tail. 

coward. (F.-L.) Norm. F. cauard, a 
hare, F. couard, a coward ; cf. Ital. codardo, 
a coward. Named from the * bob-tailed' 
hare.-O. F. cot (Ital. coda\2i tail. -L. 
Cauda, a tail. 
cue, the same as queue (below). 
queue, a taiL (F.-L.) F. ptcue, a 
tail. — L. Cauda (above). 

Caudle ; see Oaldron. 


Catd, a net, covering, esp. for the head. 
(F.-C.) O. F. caU, • a kind of Httk cap ; ' 
Cot — Irish calia, veil, hood, cowl; Gael. 
ccUl, the same. 

Cauldron ; see Caldron. 

Cauliflower ; see Cole. 

Caulk ; see Calk. 

Cause. (F.-L.) F. cause.^h, causa, 
caussa, a cause. 

accuse. (F.-L.) F. accuser. ^L., accu- 
sare, to lay to one's gharge. — L. ac- (for 
ad), to ; and cause, a suit at law, a cause. 
Der. accus-at-ive, the case expressing the 
subiect governed by the trans, verb. 

Decause, for the reason that. (E. a?id 
F.) Formerly vmtten be cause, bi cause, 
i. e. by the cause. 

excuse. (F. — L.) F. excuser, - L. excu- 
sare, to release from a charge.— L. ex, 
out ; and causa, a charge, a cause. 

recusant, opposing an opinion. (F. — 
L.) F. ricusotnt, 'rejecting/ Cot; pres. 
pt. of rhuser, — L. rccusare, to reject, 
oppose a cause or opinion.— L. re-, back, 
from ; and causa, 

ruse, a trick. (F.-L.) F. ruse, a trick. 
^F.ruser, to beguile; contr. from OF. 
reuser, to refuse, recoil, escape, dodge.— 
L. rccusare, to refuse ; see above. 

Causeway ; see Calx. 

Caustic. (L. — Gk.) L. causticus.^Gk. 
KavoTtKds, burning. — Gk. icaiety (fut Kavacu), 
to bum. 

cauterise. (F. — Low L. — Gk.) F. 
cauteriser. ^Low L. cauterizare, to sear.— 
Gk. Kovrfipiditiy, to sear. — Gk. xavr^ptoy, 
a branding-iron.- Gk. lealfty, to bum. 

holocaust. (L. — Gk.) L. holocaustum. 
Gen. xxii. 8. — Gk. bKhKavoroy, a sacrifice 
burnt whole; neut. of b\(>KQ,v<sro^^ burnt 
whole.— Gk. 5Ao-r, whole; and itaktiy, to 

Caution: see Caveat. 

Cavalier. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. cavalier, 
a horseman. — Ital. cavaliere, the same.— 
Ital. cavallo, a horse. — L. ace. caballum, a 
horse ; nom. caballus, 

cavalcade. (F. — Ital. — L.) F. caval- 
cade.^WaX, cavalccUa, a troop of horsemen ; 
orig. fern, of pp. of cavalcare, to ride. — 
Ital. cavallo, a horse ; as above. 

cavalry. (F.-Ital.-L.) O. F. caval- 
lerie. — Ital. cavalleria, cavalry. — Ital. 
cavaliere, a knight ; see Cavalier. 

chevalier. (F. — L.) F. chevalier, a 
horseman.— F. chexMil, a horse.— L. ace. 
caba/lum, a horse (above). 

. CAVE. 

Chivalry. (F. - L.) M. K Mvalrie, - 
O. F. chevaUrie, horsemanship, knighthood. 
— F. ckival, a hotse.—Low L. ace ca^- 
htm, a horse. 

Cave. (F. •- L.) M. K ante, — O. F. cave, 
eaive, a cave.— ll cama^ a cave, a cage.— 
L. cauits, hollow. (^^KU.) Par. anh-ify; 
MV-erH (L. cauema). 

cage. (F.— L.) F. cagg,^!^ cauea, a 
cave, den, cage ; as above. 

ei^ole. (F. — L.) O. F. cageokr, to 
chatter like a bird in a cage; hence to 
flatter, coax (Roquefort). Coined from 
F. cage, a cage ; see above. 

oonoave. (L.) L. concamts, hollow. ^-L. 
effn- (cum), with, together ; cattus, hollow. 
• ezoavatiozi. (F.— L.) F. excavation.^ 
JL ace excauationem, a hollowing ont.— 
L« excauatus, pp. of excauare, to hollow 
oat.—L« ex, out; coMore^ to hollow, from 

gabion. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. gabion, a 
gabion, large basket filled with earth.— 
Ital. gabbione, a gabion; augment, of 
gabHa, a cage, also spelt gaggia, and allied 
to Span, gavia, a cage (in the nautical 
sense, a cage to which shrouds are fastened). 
— L. cauea, a hollow place, cage, den, 
coop; see Cage. 

^M>\, Jail, a cage, prison. (F. — L.) 
O. F. gaole (F. geSie), a prison, bird-cage. 
«Low L. gabiola, a cage, dimin. of gabia, 
a cage, cpmipt form of cauea ; see cage 

Caveat, a caution. (L.) L. caueat, lit. 
let him beware. — L. cauere, to beware. 

caution. (F.— L.) F. caution.'^^,. ace. 
cauiienem, heed.— L. cautus, pp. of cauere, 
to beware. Bar. prc-caution. 

Caviare, roe of the sturgeon. (F.— Ital. 
— Turk.) F. caviar. — Ital. caviaro. — Turk. 
kavydr, hdvydr, caviare. 

Cavil (F. - L.) O. F. caviller. - L. 
eauillari, to banter; hence to wrangle, 
object, to.— L. cauilla, cauillus, a jeering, 

Caw. (E.) An imitation of the cry of 
the crow or daw. Cf. Du. kaauw, Dan. 
Aaa, a jackdaw : see ChouglL 

Ceaee ; see Cede. 

Cedar, a tree. (L.— Ok.) K.S, ceder. 
•-L. cedrus.^Qik, /cidftot. 

Cede. (L.) A late word.— L. cedett, to 
go, to come, to yield (allied to caden, to 

absoass (L.) L. abscessus, a gathering 
of humoiirs into one mass; lit. a going 



away.— L. abseeuus, i^ of ahs^edere, to 
go away. 

aooede. (L.) L. accedere, to come to- 
wardsk assent to.— L. ac- {ad), to; cedere^ 
to come. 

aooeqs. (L.) From the pp. ac-cessus. 
Der. cucess4on, accest-or-y, &c. 

anoestor. (F.— L.) M. £. ancessour, 
whence anees-t-or, with excrescent / after s, 
— 0»F. ancessour. ^h, ace. antccessorem, 
a predecessor, fore-goer. — L. ante, before ; 
and cesS'Us, pp. of cedere, to go. 

antecedent. (L.) L. antecedefit-, stem 
of pres. part, of ante-cedere, to go before. 

cease. (F.—L.) F. cesser.^h. cessare, 
to loiter, go slowly, cease ; frequent, of 
cedere, to vield, go away, go. 

cessation. (F.—L.) F. cessation. ^L,. 
ace. eessationem, a ceasing. — L. ccssatus, 
pp. of cessare (above\ 

cesidon. (F.— L.) F. cession. ^"L. ace. 
cessionem, a yielding. — L. cessus, pp. of 
cedere, to yield. 

conoeoe. (L.) Y.. con-cedere, to retire, 
yield. Der. conccss-um {from pp. concessus). 

decease. (F. - L.) M. E deces. - O. F. 
deces (F. dtfcis), death. — L. ace. decessum, 
departure, death.— L. deccssus, pp. of de- 
cedere, to depart. 

exceed. (F.—L.) O.F. exceder.^L,. 
ex-cedere, lit. to go out. 

excess. (F.-L.) O.F. ^jr<:«r.— L. ace. 
excessum, lit a going out or beyond.— L. 
excessus, pp. of excedere. 

incessant, ceaseless. (L.) L. inces- 
sant-, stem of incessafu, unceasing. — L. in-, 
not ; cessans, ceasing, pres. pt. of cessare, 
to cease ; see oeaae (above). 

intercede. (F. — L.) F. intercMsr. — 
L. inter-cedere, lit. to go between ; hence, 
to mediate. Der. inter-cession, &c. 

precede. (F.—L.) O.F. preceder (^. 
pricider). — L. prce-cedere, to go before. 
Der. prcced-ent, pre-cession. 

predecessor. (L.) L. predecessor. — 
L. prcB, before ; deccssor, one who retires 
from an office, from decessus, pp. of de-ced- 
•ere, to depart. 

proceed. (F.-L.) O.F. proceder.^ 
L. pro-cedere, to go before or forward. 
Der. process (mod. F. procis) ; process-ion. 

recede. (L.) L. re-cedere, to go back. 

recess. (L.) L. recessus, a retreat.— 
L. recessus, pp. of re-cedere, 

retrocession. (L.) Coined (with 
suffix -ion) from L. retrocess-us, pp. of retro- 
cedere, to go backwards. 




secede. (L<) L. se-ceden, to go apart^ 
withdraw. Der. secess-ion, 

Buooeed. (F.— L.) F.succ/der; Cot. 
•* L. succedert (pp. successus), to follow 
alter.— L. sue- {sub\ next ; cedere, to go, 
come. Der. success, O. F. succes, L. sue- 
cessuSf result, from pp. successus, 

CSeil, Ciel, to line the inner roof of a 
room. (F. * L.) Hence the sb. ceil-it^ or 
ciel'ing. M. £. ceelen, to ceil; from the 
sb. syle or cylU a canopy. •- F. ciel^ a 
canopy ; the same word as cieU heaven. [Cf. 
Ital. ciilo, heaven, a canopy, a cieling.J •- 
L. calufn, heaven. + Gk. icoiKoif hollow. 
(V KU.) % Not to be confused with £. 
stJl, nor with seal\ nor with seel {J^. siller) \ 
nor with L. celare, to hide. The L. calare, 
to embosSy seems to have some slight 
influence on the word, but did not ori- 
ginate it. 

celestial (F. - L.) Y , cilesHel'^'L. 
calesH'S, heavenly. *L. calum^ heaven. 

Celandine, a plant. (F.-Gk.) F. c^li- 
doine ; Low L. ckelidonium.^Gk, x'^'^' 
viw^ swallow-wort. ^ Gk. x^^^^'* stem of 
XcXiSdn', a swallow. (The n is intrusive.) 

Celebrate. (L.) L. celebrtUus, pp. of 
celebrare, to frequent, to solemnise, honour. 
— L. celeher, frequented, populous. 

Celerity. (F. - L.) Y.dUritS. - L. ace. ce- 

leritateffif speed. — L. celer, quick. (^KAL.) 

accelerate. (L.) L. acceleratus, pp. of 

acceltrare, to quicken. * L. or- (for ad) ; and 

celer, quick. 

Celery. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. r/ferr, intro- 
duced from the Piedmontese Ital. seleri. * 
L. selincn, parsley (with change from n to 
r). — Gk. ctXivov, a kind of parsley. 

Celestial ; see CelL 

Celibate. (L.) The orig. sense was 'a 
single life ;' it was afterwards an adj., and 
again a sb., meaning ' one who is single.' — 
L. calibatus, sb. celibacy, single life. — L. 
falib; stem of Calebs, single, unmarried. 
Der. celibac-y (for celibat-y). 

CelL (L.) M. £. celle.^U cella, small 
room, hut. Cf. celare, to hide. (V KAL.) 
cellar. (F.-L.) M. E. celer.^O, F. 
celicr.^h, cellarium, a cellar. — L. cella, 

conceaL (L.) L^concelare, to hide, ^ 
L. con- (cum) ; and celan, to hide. 

oconlt. (F. — L.) F. occulte. mmh, oc- 
cullus, pp. oiocculere,io cover over, conceal. 
•'LhOC' (for ob) : and obs. L. calere*, to 
hide, allied to celare, to hide. 

Cement. (F.-L.) O. F. cement, ^lU 
camcnium^ rubble^ chippings of stone; 


hence, cement. Perhaps for cctdimentum *, 
from cadere, to cut 

Cemetery. (L.-Gk.) Low L. cceme- 
terium. — Gk. Koifjofrripicv, a sleeping-place, 
cemetery. — Gk. kohu&m^ I lull to sleep; in 
pass., to fall asleep. Allied to kuhch, I lie 
down. (VKL) 
coma. (Gk.) Gk. kSjiul, a deep sleep. 

— Gk. KwiuM, I lull to sleep (above). 
Cenobite. (L. - Gk.) L. ccenobita, a 

member of a (social) fraternity (Jerome). 

— L. ccenobium, a convent. — Gk. Koiy60iov, 
a convent.- Gk. iroiK^^cof, living socially. 
— Gk. Koa^S-s, common ; 0i<n, lite. 

Cenotaph. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. ceno- 
taphe, — L. cenotaphium, — Gk. Kworiu^ov, 
an empty tomb. — Gk. jtck^s, empty; T<i^-or, 
a tomb. 
Censer ; see Candid. 
Censor. (L.) L. censor, a taxer, valuer, 
assessor, critic. — L. censere, to give an opi- 
nion, appraise. 

censure. (L.) L. censura, orig. opi- 
nion.- L. censere (above). 
Cent, a hundreid, as in per cent. (L.) 
In America, the hundredth part of a dollar. 
— L. centum, a hundred ; see Hundred. 

centenary. (L.) L. centenafitis, re- 
lating to a hundred. — L. centenus, a hun- 
dred (usu. distributively). — L. centum. 

centenniaL (L.) Coined to mean 
happening once in a century.— L. cent-urn, 
hunared ; ann-us, a year. ^ 

centesimaL (L.) 1^. centestm-uSfYmn- 
dredth. — L. cent-um, hundred. 

centigrade. (L.) Divided into a hun- 
dred degrees. — L. r^»/i-, for r^n/f^m, hun- 
dred ; grad-us, a degree ; see Grade. 

centipede, centiped. (F.— L.) F. 
centipide.'^'L. centipeda, a, many 'footed (lit. 
hundred-footed) insect. ^ h, centi-, for cen- 
tum, hundred ; and ped-, stem of pes, foot. 

centuple. (L.) L. centuplex (stem 
centuplic'), a hundredfold. — L. centu-m, 
hundred ; plic-are, to fold. 

centurion. (L.) h. a,cc. centurioncm, a, 
captain of a hundred. —L. centuria (below). 

century. (F.-L.) ¥, centurie.^l.. 
centuria, a body of a hundred men ; num- 
ber of one hundred. — L. centu-m, hundred. 

quintal, a hundred - weight. (F. - 
Span. — Arab. — L.) F. quintal (Cot) 
—Span, quintal,^ Arab, ointdr, a weight 
of TOO lbs. — L. centum, a hundred. 
Centaur. (L. — Gk.) L. Centaurus.'^ 
Gk. icirraupo$, a centaur, a creature half 
man and half horse. 


oentaiury, a plant (L.-Gk.)^ l^c^n- 
Uuirta.^Gk, Kwravphj, centaury; a plant 
named from the Centaur Chiron. 
Centenary, Centennial, Centuple, 
Centurion, &c. ; see Gent. 
Centre, Center. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. 
centre. * L. centrum, •■ Gk. KivrpWt a spike, 
goad, prick, centre. — Gk. Ktirriot, 1 goad on. 

oentrlAigal, flying from a centre. (L.) 
L. centri-^centrff', cnide form of centrum ; 
vAfug-erCt to fly. 

oentrii>etaly tending towards a centre. 
(L.) L. centri' (above) ; pet-ere, to seek. 

oonoentre, to draw to a centre. (F. «• 
L.«*Gk.) F. concentrer.^h, con- (jcum), 
together; and centr-um, a centre. Per. 
ccncentr-iCt concentr-ate (modem). 

eooentrio, departing from a centre, 
odd. (F. » L. » Gk.) F. exceniriqtu. — 
Late L. eccentricus, * Gk. iKK^vrp-oSt out of 
the centre. — Gk. i», out ; Kivrpov, centre. 
Ceramic, relating to pottery. ^Gk.) 
Gk. icifiapt'Ot, potter's earth. 
Cere, to coat with wax. (L.) L, cerart, 
to wax. «• L. cera, wax. + Gk. Krip6s, wax. 

oerecloth. (L and¥s.) Lit. a waxed cloth. 

oerement. (L.) From cere^ to wax ; 
with suffix -ment (L. -mentum), 

beruse, white lead. (F. — L. ) O. F. ce- 
ruse, — Lk cerussUf white lead. * l^cera^ w&x. 
Cereal, relating to com. (L.) I^cereatis, 
— Lb cercTf com. 

Cerebral, relating to the brain. (L.) L. 
cerebr-um, the brain. Cf. Gk. icapa, head. 

eaveloy, oervelas, a kind of sausage. 
(F. — Ital. * L.) Formerly cervelas (Phil- 
ips). -■ F. cerveiat, cervelas, ^\Xsl, cerve- 
icLta, cervelatta, a saveloy; from its con- 
taining brainst •- Ital. cervello^ brain. * L. 
cerebellum^ dimin. of cerebrum^ brain. 
Cerecloth, Cerement ; see Gere. 
Ceremony. (F.-L.) 1A,Y^ ceremonie, 
^ F. clrimonie, — L. carimonta, a cere- 
mony, rite.+Skt karman, action, rite. 

Certain. (F.-L.) O. F. certein, cer- 
UUn.wm'L, cert-US, sure; with suffix -anus. 
Allied to L. cemere, to discriminate ; Gk. 
Kpiwtiv, to separate, decide. 

aacertain. (F.-L.) The ^ is added. 
«• O. F. acertainer, acertener, to make cer- 
tain.— F. a (bL. cui, to); and certain, 
certain (above). 

oertij^. (F.-L.) M. E. certifien,'-^ 
F. certifier, ^Ijo^ L. certificare, to make 
sure. — L. certi-, for certo-, crude form of 
certus (above) ; and -fic;U>jfac-ere, to make. 



Cerulean, azure. (L.) L. cceruleusn 
carulus, blue. Perhaps for cctlulus*, from 
calum, sky. 

Ceruse, white-lead ; see Cere. 

Cervical, belonging to the neck. (L.) 
L. ceruic; stem of ceruix, neck. 

Cervine, relating to a hart. (L.) L. 
ceruin-us. — L. ceru-us, a hart ; see Hart. 

Cess, an assessment ; short for BjBAenu, 

Cessation, Cession ; see Cede. 

Cess-pooL (C. ?) Also spelt sess-pool, 
sus-pool. Prov. £1. suss, soss, hogwash, 
mess, puddle ; prob. from Gael, sos, any 
unseemly mixture of food, a coarse mess. 
Perhaps allied to Gael, sugh, sogh, moisture, 
W. sug, moisture, W. soch, a drain. Pool 
is certainly a Celtic word; see Fool. 
% The initial letter should certainly be /. 

Cetaceous, of the whale kind. (L.— 
Gk.) L. cete, cetus.^Gli, iciJTos, a sea- 

Chafe ; see Caldron. 

Chafer, CockohafiBr. (E.) A. S. 
eea/or, a kind of beetle. +Du. kever: G. 

Chaff. (E.) A. S. cea/, later cAa/, husk 
of grain.+Du. Jka/; G. kaf. fl" The verb 
to chaffs to chafe, i.e. to vex. 

chafSnch, a bird. (E) I.e. chaff- 
finch ; it frequents bam-doors. 

Chaffer; see Cheap. 

Clutfflnch ; see Chaff, 

Chagrin. (F.-Turk.?) F. chapin, 
melancholy. Diez identifies it with F. 
chagrin, shagreen, a rough stuff taken as 
the type of corroding care ; see Shagreen. 

Chain. (F.-L.) O.F. chaine, chaine. 
— L. catena, a chain. 

chignon. (F.-L.) Hair twisted; 
another spelling of F. chatnon, a link.— 
F. chatne, O. F. chaine, a chain (above). 

concatenate. (L.) L. concatenatus^ 
pp. of concatenare, to link together. — L.. 
con- {cum), together ; and catena, a chain. 

Chair, Chuse ; see Cathedral. 

Chalcedony, a kmd of quartz. (L. — Gk.) 
L. chalcedonius. Rev. xxi. 19. — Gk. 
XaAin7&0y, Rev. xxi. 19 ; a stone found at 
Chalcedon, on the coast of Asia Minor. 

Chaldron ; see Caldron. 

Chalice, a cup. (F.-L.) O.F. calice 
(dialectally, chalice), — L. calicem, ace. of 
calix, a cup. Allied to calyx, but not the 
same word. 

Chalk ; see Cahc 

Challenge ; see Calumny. 

Chalybeate. (L.-Gk.) Used of water 



containing iron. Coined from L. ehalyh'S^ 
steel. — Gk. x^O^ (stem x^^^^^")* ^^^^ \ 
named from the Chalybes, a people of 
Pontus, who made it 

Chamber. (F. - L.) F. chambre ; 
O. F. ccunbre, — L. camera, camara, a 
vault, vaulted room, room. (^ KAM.) 

chamberlain. (F.-O.H.G.-L.) F. 
chamberlain, 0. F. chambrelenc.^O. H. G. 
chamcrlinc, M. H. G. kameriine, one who 
has the care of rooms ; formed with sufBx 
•I'inc (the same as £. -i-ing)^ from L. 
camera (above). 

comrade. (Span.— L.) S^sai.camarada, 
a company ; also an associate, comrade.— 
Span, camara, a chamber, cabin. — L. 
camera (above). 

Chameleon. ^. — Gk). L. chamaleon. 

— Gk. x<^/'^'^<^*'i lit. a ground-lion, 
dwarf-lion ; a kind of lizard. — Gk. x^-f^h 
on the ground (also dwarf, in comp.) ; and 
XcW, lion. 

chamomile. (Low L. — Gk.) Low L. 
camomilla {chamomilld), — Gk. X'^-V^' 
fvuXov, lit. ground-apple, from the apple- 
like smell of the flower. — Gk. x<>M<u, on the 
ground (see above) ; iiriKw, apple. 

Chamois. (F.-G.) F. chamois,^ 
M. H. G. gamx (G. gemse), a chamois. 
% Borrowed from someSwiss dialectal form, 
shammy, a kind of leather. (F.-G.) 
Orig. chamois leather; see Blount and 
Philips. See above. 

Champ, to eat noisily. (Scand.) 
Formerly cham or chamm.^SvrGA, dial. 
kdmsa, to chew with difficulty. Cf. Icel. 
kiaptr, jaw. 

Cfhampagne, Champaign, Cham- 
pion ; see Camp. 

Chance ; see Cadence. 

Chancel, Chancery ; see Cancer. 

Chandler, Chandelier ; see Candid. 

Change. (F.-L.) F. changer \ O. F. 
changier^^ljQyr L. cambiare, to change 
(Lex Salica). — L. cambire, to exchange. 

exchange. (F.—L.) O. F. eschange, 
sb. ; eschanger, vb., to exchange. — O. F. es- 
( = L. ex)\ and F. changer,to change (above). 

Channel ; see CanaL 

Chant ; see Cant (i). 

Chaos. (Gk.) L. chaos, Lat. spelling of 
Gk. x<^'» chaos, abyss, lit. a cleft. — Gk. 
XO-, base of x^''<*»'> to gape, 
chasm. (L. — Gk.) L. chasma, a gulf. 

— Gk. x^^M^f ^ yawning cleft.-«Gk. x^- 

Chap (i), to cleave, crack, Chop, to cut. 


(E. ?) M.E. chappen, choppen, to cut; 
hence, to gape open like a woimd made by a 
cut. Not found in A. S.+O. Du. koppcn, 
to cut off; happen, to cut; Swed. kappa, 
Dan. kappe, to cut ; G. happen, to cut, 
lop. Cognate with Gk. k6vtuv^ to cut. 
Church Slav, shopiti, to cut. (-/ SKAP.) 
See Capon. 

chip. (E.) Dimin. form of chap or 
chop ; hence, to cut a little at a time. 

chop, the same as Chap above. 

chtunp, a log. (Scand.) — Icel. kumbr, 
tf^-kumbr, a log of wood ; from Icel. 
kumbr, nasalised form of kubbr, a chop- 
ping. — Icel. kubba, to chop ; allied to E. 
chop, Der. chump^nd, i. e. thick end. 

Chap (2), Chapman ; see Cheap. 

Chapel, Chaperon ; see Cape (1). 

Chapiter ; see Capital 

Chaplet ; see Cape (i). 

Chaps, Chops, the jaws. (Scand.) A 
South E. variety of North E. chaffs or 
chaffs, jaws (Cleveland Gloss.) — Icel. 
kjaptr (pt pron. as ft), the jaw ; Swcd. 
haft, Dan. kiaft, jaw, chops. Allied to 
A. S. ceafl^ jowl, Gk. yaft<pai, Skt. j'ambha, 
jaws ; and see Chew, Jowl. 

Chapter ; see Capital. 

Char (i), to turn to charcoal. (E.) To 
c/iar is simply to turn ; wood turned to 
coal was said to be charred. M. £. 
cherren, charren, to turn ; A. S. cerran, to 
turn. — A. S. cerr (also cierr, cyrr), a turn. 
+Du. keer, a turn, time, keeren, to turn ; 
O. H. G. chSr, a turning about, G. kehren, 
to turn. Hence char-coal, i.e. charred coal. 
char (a), a turn of work. (E.) Also 
chare, chore, chewre; M. E. cher, char, 
orig. a turn, hence, a space of time, turn of 
work,.&c. Hence char-woman, a woman 
who does a turn of work. See Ajar. 

Char (3), a fish. (C.) Named from its 
red belly; [the W. name is torgoch, red- 
bellied, from tor, belly, and coch, red.] — 
Gael, ceara, red, from ccar, blood; Irish 
cear, red, also blood. Cf. E. gore. 

Character. (L. — Gk.) L. character. — 
Gk. x°P°^*^/>» *° engraved or stamped 
mark. — Gk. x^^aa^w, to furrow, scratch, 

Charade. (F. - Prov. - Span. ?) F. 
charade, introduced from Proven9al (Bra- 
chet) ; Languedoc charrade, idle talk 
(Littr^). Prob. from Span, charrada, 
speech or action of a clown. — Span, charro, 
a clown, peasant. 

Charcoal ; see Char (1). 


Charge, Chariot ; see Car. 

Charity ; see Caress. 

Charlatan. (F. - ItaL) F. charlatan. 
«M ItaL eiarlatano, a mountebank^ great 
talker, prattler. — Ital. ciarlare, to prattle. «• 
Ital.rt(tzr/((Z, prattle. Prob. of imitative origin. 

GharlooK, a kind of wild mustard. (£.) 
Prov. E. carlock. — A. S. cerlic \ the latter 
syllable means 'leek;* origin of cer- un- 

Charm. (F. - L.) M. E. charme, sb. -. 
O. F. charme, an enchantment. •- L. carmen, 
a song, enchantment. (^ KAS.) 

Chfurnel ; see CamaL 

Chart, Charter; see Card (i). 

Chary ; see Care. 

Chase (i), (2), (3) ; see Capadotis. 

Chasm ; see Chaos. 

Chaste^ Chasten, Chastise ; see 

Chasuble ; see Casino. 

Chat, Chatter. (£.) M. £. chateren, 
also chiicrtn, to chatter, twitter ; frequent- 
atire form of chat. An imitative word ; 
c£ Do. kwctteren, to warble, chatter, Swed. 
kvUtra, to chirp ; Skt. gad, to redte, geula, 

Chateau; see Castle. 

Chattels ; see Capital. 

Chatter ; see Chat. 

Chaw ; see Chew. 

ChawSy old spelling of Jaws; see 

Cheap, at a low price. (L.) Not E., 
but L. M. E. chcp, cheep, barter, price ; 
always a sb. Hence good cheap, in a good 
market (F. bon marchi) ; whence £. cheap, 
used as an adj. A. S. cedp, price; whence 
the verb cedpian, to cheapen, buy. So also 
Du. koop, a bargain, whence koopen, to buy ; 
G. hat^, purchase, whence kaufen, to buy ; 
Icel. kaup, Swed. hop, Dan. kiob, a purchase : 
Goth. kaupoi% (weak vb.), to trafEc. But 
all these words are borrowed from L. ; in 
particular, the O. H. G. choufo, a huckster, 
is merely L. caupo, a huckster. Cf. Gk. 
4Ri«rnXof, a peddler, Russ. kupite, to buy. 

chaffer. (L. and E) The verb is from 
the M. £. sb. chapfare, also chaffare, a bar- 
gaining. •■ A. S. cedp, a bargain (see above) ; 
and faru, a journey, also business; see 

chapman, a merchant. (L. and E.) The 

familiar chap is merely short for chcipman. 

•« A. S. cedpman, a merchant. — A. S. cedp, 

price, barter (see above) ; and man, a man. 

<^P (>)> lo barter. (O. Du.) M. £. 



copen (Lydgite).^ Du. koopen, to buy ; the 
same as AS. cedpioM^ to cheapen; see 
Cheap above. 

cope (a), to vie with. (Du.) Orig. to 
cheapen, baiter, bargain with ; M. £. copen 
(as aoove). 

keep, to regard. (L.) Not £., but L. 
M. E. kepen, A. S. cipan, also cypan, orig. 
to traffic, sell, also to seek after, store up, 
keep. This verb is a mere derivative of 
A. S. cedp, barter, price ; see above. 

Cheat, to defraud. (F.-L.) Cheat is 
merely short for escheat ; cf. M. E chete, an 
escheat (Prompt Parv.). The escheaters 
were often cheaters -, hence the verb. See 
escheat, entered under Cadence. 

Check, a sudden stop, repulse. (F.— 
Pers.) M. E. chek, a stop ; also check t in 
playing chess. The word is due to the 
game, which is verv old. The orig. sense 
of check ^as ' king 1 i.e. mind the king, the 
king is in danger. «• O. F. eschec, * a check 
at chess-play,^ Cot. «• Pers; shdh, a king, 
king at chess ; whence shdh-mdt, check- 
mate, lit. * the king is dead,' from mdi, he 
is dead. Similarly we have F. ^chec, a 
check, repulse, defeat, pU ichea, chess ; 
Ital. scacco, a square of a chess-board, also 
a check, defeat. See chess below. 

checker, chequer, to mark with 
squares. (F.«> Fers.) To mark with squares 
like those, on a chess-board. M. £. chsk' 
ker, chekere, a chess-board. (Hence The 
Checkers, an inn*sign.)— O. -F. esckequter, a 
chess-board, also, an exchequer, i- O. P. 
eschec, check I at chess ; see above. 

checkers, chequers, an old name for 
the game at draughts ; from the checker or 
chess-board ; see above. 

check-mate. (F. — Pers.) From Pers. 
shdh mdi, the king is dead ; see Cheek. 

cheque. (F.- Pers.) A pedantic spell- 
ing of check, from confusion with exche- 
quer ; it is really a name given to a draft 
lor money, of which one keeps a memo- 
randum or counter-check, 

chess, the game of the kings. (F. «• Pers.) 
A corrupted form of checks, i.e. kings ; see 
Check above. — O. F. eschecs, chess ; really 
the pi. of eschec, check, orig. 'king.' 
% From Pers. shdh, a king, were formed 
O. F. eschec, F. ^chec, £. check, Ital. scacco. 
Span. xaque,jcLque, Port, xaque, G. schack, 
Du. schctak, Dan. skak, Swed. schack. Low 
Lat Indus sccucorum'^gtooaie of checks, or 
of kings. 

exchequer, a court of revenue. (F. * 



Pers.) M. E. eschekere,^0»Y. eschequier, 
a chess-board ; hence a checkered cloth on 
which accounts were reckoned by means of 
counters. — O. F. eschew check ; see Gheck. 

Cheek. (£.) M. E. cheke, cheoke, - A. S. 
cedce, cheek.+Da. kaak^ jaw, cheek \ JSwed. 
kek, jaw. Allied to Jaw. 

Cheer. ^. - L. - Gk.) M. E. chere. 
orig. the mien ; hence ' to be of good cheer.* 
— O. F. chere, the face. «• Low. L. cara, 
face. «• Gk. K&pa, the head. Der. cheer-ful, 

Cheese. (L.) M. E. ehese. A. S. c/se, 
cyse. •- L. caseus, cheese; whence other 
forms are borrowed. 

Chemise. (F.-L. — Arab.) T. chemise, 
-■Late L. camisia, a shirt, thin dress.— 
Arab, qamis, a shirt, ttmic. 

Chemist, Chymist ; shoit for al- 
chemist ; see Alchemy. 

Cheque, Chequer ; see Check. 

Cherish ; see CareM. 

Cherry. (F.-L.-Gk.) M.E. cheri. a 
mistake for cheris, the final x being mistaken 
for the pi. inflexion. * O. F. cerise. * L. 
cerasus, a cherry-tree. ■• Gk. tcifiaaos, a 
cherry-tree; usually said to come from 
Cerasos, in Pontus ; a story which Curtius 

Chert, a kmd of quartz. (C?) The 
Kentish form is chart, rough ground. Pro- 
bably from Irish ceart^ a pebble ; cf. Gad. 
carrt a shelf of rock, W. careg, stone. 

Cherub. (Heb.) The true pi. is cherub- 
im, * Heb. k*rtlb (pi. k^nibim), a mystic 

Chervil, a plant. (L.-Gk.) A.S. r<?r- 
filU.^'L,. ccerefolium (Pliny). — Gk. xP^pi- 
<f>vWoyf chervil, li^ pleasant leaf. — Gk. 
X^P-t^^t to rejoice ; ^vWov, leaf. 

Chess; see Check. 

Chest. (L. - G.) M. E. cheste, chiste. 
A. S. cyste. — L. cista. — Gk. stitrtri, a chest, 
box (whence G. hirte, 8cc.) 

oist, a sort of tomb. (L. — Gk.) L. cista ; 
as above. 

oistem. (F. — L. — Gk.) F.cisteme.^ 
L. cisterna, a reservoir for water.— L. cista 

Chestnut, Chesnut. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
Chesnut is short for chestnut, which is 
short for chesten-nut, nut of the chesten^ 
which is the old name of the tree, called 
in M. E. chestein, — O. F. chastaigm (F. 
ehdtaigne).^!*, castanect, chestnut-tree.— 
Gk. Kaaravoy, a chestnut ; chesnuts were 
called Koaraya, or tc&pva KaLaraytua, from 


KiffToya, Castana, the name of a city in 
Pontus where they abounded. 

Cheval-de-fHse, an obstruction with 
spikes. (F.) Lit. 'horse of Friesland,' a 
jocular name ; the pL chevaux-de-Frise is 

Chevalier ; see Cavalier. 

Chew, Chaw. (E.) M. E. chewen. 
A. S. ceiwan, to chew, eat. +Du. haauiven ; 
G. hauen ; Russ. j'evate, Der. chaw, sb., 
a jaw ; now spelt jaw. 

Chicanery. (F. -Pers. ?) F. chicanerie, 
wrangling, pettifogging; Cot. ^F.chicaner, 
to wrangle; orig. to dispute in the game 
of the mall or chicane (Brachet). This sb. 
chicane is from the medieval Gk. rivieiiviov, 
a word of Byzantine origin (id.). Prob. 
from Pers. chaugdn, a club, bat 

Chioken. (£.) Sometimes shortened 
to chick ; but the M. E. word is chiken, 
A. S. cicen (for cycen *, not found) ; prob. 
dimin. of cocc, a cock (cf. kitten from coU). 
So also Du. kieken, kuiken, a chicken, ap- 
pears to be a dimin. from O. Du. cocke^ a 
cock ; cf. E. chuck, a chicken (Shak.), and 
G. kiichlein, a chicken. % To prove the re- 
lation to cock, we want further light on the 
A. S. form. Perhaps from Chuck (2). 

Chicory, a plant, succory. (F.-L.- 
Gk.) F. chicorSe, — L. cichorium. — Gk. 
KiyitpiW, Kix^ip^, succory, p. Succory is a 
corrupter form of the word, apparently for 
siccory or cichory, from L. cichorium. 

Chide. (E) M. E chiden, A. S. cidan, 
to chide, brawL 

Chief, Chieftain ; see Capital. 

Chiffonier, a cupboard. (F.) Lit. a 
place to put rags in. — F. chiffonier, a rag- 
picker, also a cupboard. — F. chiffon, a rag. 
Orig. unknown. 

Chignon ; see Chain. 

Chilblain ; see CooL 

ChUd. (E.) M. E. child. A. S. did. 
Allied to Du. and G. kind, a child, Goth. 
kilthei, the womb. (V^^O See Chit, Kin. 

Chill ; see CooL 

Chime ; see CymbaL 

Chim»ra, Chimera. (L.-Gk.) L. 
chimctra. — Gk. x^H^^p^t & she-goat ; also a 
fabulous monster, with a goat's body. — Gk. 
xip^apos, he-goat. +IceL gymbr, young ewe- 

Chimney. (F. — L. — Gk.) Y.chemin^e, 
* a chimney ;' Cot. — Low L. caminata, 
provided with a chimney; hence, a chimney. 
— L. caminus, a fire-place. — Gk. tedfuvos, 
oven, fire-place. 


Chlmpansee, an ape. (African.) I am 
informed that the name is tsimpanue in 
the neighbourhood of the gulf of Guinea. 

ChiXL (£.) M. £. chin, A S. cin, + 
Da. kiiu Icel. kinttt Dan. kind^ Swed. 
kind\ Goth, kinnus^ the cheek; G. kintit 
cheek ; L. pna^ cheek ; Gk. 7^Kvt, chin ; 
Skt. hanu ijw ganu\ jaw. 

Obizia. (China.) Short for china-ware^ 
or ware from China. The name of the 
people was formerly Chinescs\ we have 
dropped the final x, and use Chinese as a 
pi.; hence Chinee in the singular, by a 
second dropping of se, 

Chinoough, whooping-cough. (£.) Put 
for chink-cough \ cf. Scotch kink-cough, 
kink'hosi {host means cough), A kink is a 
catch in the breath, nasalised form of a 
base XIK, to gasp. + Du. kinkhoest ; O. 
Dn. kichhoes/; Swed. kikhosta, chincough, 
kikna^ to gasp ; G. keichen^ to gasp. Cf. 
Oaokle and Choke. 

Chine. (F.-O. H. G.) O. F. eschine (F. 
khine\ the back-bone. — O. H. G. skind, a 
needle, prickle (G. schiene, a splint). For 
the sense, cf. L. s^ina^ a thorn, spine, 

Chink (i), a cleft. (E.) Formed by 
adding k to M. £. chine^ a cleft, rift. — A. S. 
cinu, a chink. — A. S. cinan, to split (strong 
vb.). -^ Du. keen, a chink, also a germ; 
kencn, to bud ; cf. G. keimen, to bud. 
(Germinating seeds make a crack in the 

Chink (a), to jingle. (E.) An imitative 
word; cf. clink, clank \ and see Ohin- 

Chinta. (Hindustani -Skt) lim^.chhint, 
spotted cotton cloth, named from the 
variegated patterns on it; chhit^ chintz, 
also a spot.— Skt chifra, variegated, spot- 

Chip ; see Chap (i). 

Chirog^raphy, handwriting. (Gk.) Gk. 
Xfipoypo4>€iy, to write with the hand. — Gk. 
Xf</>o-, crude form ofx^^Pt'fi^^ hand ; yp6^tv, 
to write. (V GHAR.) Cf. chiro-mancy, 
fortune-telling by the hand ; chiro-pod'ist, 
one who handles (and cures) the feet. 

ohirurg^eon, the old spelling oi surgeon. 
(F. — Gk.) F. chirurgien, * a surgeon ; ' 
Cot — F. chirurgie, surgery. — Gk. xtipovp- 
yia, a working with the hands, skill with 
the hands, art, surgery. — Gk. x*'^» crude 
form of x*^Pt ^^ hand; and Hpyuv, to 

surgeon, contracted form of chirur- 



geon ; see above. Der. surgical, short for 
chirurgical\ surgery, corruption of chir» 
um » F. chirurgie, or else of surgeon-rr* 

Chirp. (E.) Also chirrup. M. E. chir- 
pen. Also M. E. chirken, chirmen, to 
chirp. The forms chir'P, chir-k, chir^m 
are from an imitative base KIR, to coo ; 
cf. Du. kirren, to coo ; Skt. gir, the voice ; 
Vugarrire, to chatter. (^GAR.) 

Cuiirurgeon; see Chiromancy. 

ChiaeL (F.-L.) M.E. chisel. ^O. F. 
chisel, cisel (F. ciseau). Cf. Low L. 
cisellus, scissors (a.d. 135 a). O. F. cisef 
answers to Low L. casillus * or casellus \ 
not found, but a mere variant of h-cisorium, 
a cutting instrument (Vegetius) ; see Sche- 
ler*8 note to Diez.—L. f<er-f//7i, supine of 
cadere, to cut ; whence also late L. incisor, 
a carver, cutter; siee CsMmra. 

ecissors. (F.-L.) The mod. E. scis* 
sors is a corrupt spelling, due to confusion 
with Low L. scissor (from scindere, to cut), 
which, however, only means a man who 
cuts, a butcher, a tailor, and has, in fact, 
nothing at all to do with the word. The 
old spelling was sizars, cizars, or ciurs; 
and this again was adapted (by putting 
the E. suffix -ers in place of F. -eaux) from 
F. ciseaux, * sizars, or little sheers ; ' Cot. 
This F. ciseaux « cutters, pi. of ciseau, a 
chisel. Thus, etymologically, E. scissors 

reisers ^cisels, pi. oi cisel ^chisel. 

Chit, a shoot, sprig ; a pert child. (£.) 
The true sense is a shoot, or bud ; hence, 
a forward child. Put for chith, A. S. d^, 
a germ, sprig, sprout. Allied to Goth. 
keian, uskeian, to produce a shoot ; also to 
E. child, kin. (VGI, for GA.) 

Chivalry ; see Cavalier. 

Chlorine, a pale green gas. (Gk.) 
Named from its colour. — Gk. xAa;/>-^;, pale 
green. (VGHAR.) 

chloroform. (L. and Gk.) The latter 
element relates to formic acid, an acid 
formerly obtained from red ants. — L. for' 
mica, an ant. 

Chocolate ; see Caoao. 

Choice ; see Choose. 

Choir ; see Chorna. 

Choke. (£.) M. E. chowken, cheken, 
cheokien. A. S. cedcian ; only in the deri- 
vative dcedcung, to translate L. ruminatio, 
which the glossator hardly seems to have 
understood. + Icel. koka, to gulp, kyka, to 
swallow, from kok, the gullet. Allied to 
Cough, and Chuck (2). 

Choler, the bile, anger. (F. -L.-Gk.) 



Ang^r was snppos^'to he due to excess of 
bile. M. £. ^okr. * O. F. coUre. — L. choUra, 
bile ; also cholerai bilious complaint —Gk. 

Xo\4pa, cholera; x"*^* ^^c» X^^<^* ^^» 
wrath. See QaU. 

cholera. (U » Gk.) L. cholera^ as 
above. And see Melanoholy. 

Choose. CE.) M. £. cAesm, chusm. A. S. 
cedsan^ to dioose (pt t ceds\ -^ Du. and 
G. kiesen^ Groth. kiusan \ allied to L. ^itf- 
-/ar(f, to taiste, Gk. ytiofuu^ I taste, bkt. 
JusA, to relish. (-^GUS.) See Oust. 

choice. (F. - Teut) Not K M. £. 
chois, •-. O. F. ckcis (F. cAifix). - O. F. 
choisirt coisir, to choose. Of Teut. origin ; 
cf. Goth, kiusan, to choose. 

Chop (i), to cut ; see Ohftp (i). 

Chop (a), to barter ; see Oheftp. 

Chops ; see Chaps. 

Chord. (L. - Gk.) L. chofxla, - Gk. 
Xo^* the string of a musical instrument, 
orig. a string of gut, related to x<>^^<^t 

cord. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. corde,^ 
F. corde.'^'Law L. cardan a thin rope; the 
same as L. chorda ; see above. Der. cord' 
-age (F. cordage) \ cord-on (F. cordon)*, 
cord-elier (F. cordelier, a twist of rope, also 
a Gray Friar, who used such a twist, from 
cofileUr, to twist ropes.) 

XQonochord, a musical instrument with 
one string. (Gk.) Gk. fu>p6-s, single ; x^'P^* 

Chorus. (L.«-Gk). L. chorus, a band 
of singers. •- Gk. x^** ^ dance, a band of 
dancers or singers. Der. chor-al, chor-v- 

choir. (F^-L.-.Gk.) The choir of a 
church is the part where the choir sit 
Also spelt quire; M. E. queir, quer,^ 
O. F. choeur, 'the quire of a church, a 
troop of singers;' Cot — L. chorum, ace. 
of chorus (above.) 

Chough, a bird. (E.) M. E. chough. 
A. %,ce6. Named from cawing \ see Gaw. 
«h I^u. kaauw, Dan. kaa, Swed. kaja^ a 

Chouse, to cheat (Turk.) To act as a 
chouse or cheat. Ben Jonson has chiaus in 
the sense of *a Turk,' with the implied 
sense of 'cheat;* Alchemist, i. i. The 
allusion is to a Turkish chiaus or inter- 
preter, who committed a notorious fraud 
in 1609. —Turk, chd ^ush, a sergeant, mace- 
bearer. Palmer's Pers. Diet.; chdush, a 
sergeant, herald, messenger^ Rich. Diet. p. 



Chrism; see below. 

Christ, the anointed one. (L. ^ Gk.) 
A. S. Crist, — L. Christus, — Gk. xP^ords, 
anointed. — Gk. XP^ I ^^» anoint Allied 
to L. fricare, Skt. ghrish, to rub, grind. 
(-/ Guar.) dot. Christ-ian, Christ-en- 
dom, &C.; Christ-mas (seelCass); an/i^ 
Christ, opponent of Christ (from Gk. dm-i, 
against ; see i John, ii. 18). 

chrism, holy imction. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
Also spelt chrisome, whence chrisofne-chi/d, 
a child wearing a chrisome-c/oth, or cloth 
which a child wore after holy unction. — 
O. F. cresme, ' the crisome, or oyle,* Cot. 
M Low L. chrisma, holy oil. •■ Gk. xt^oiui, 
an unguent * Gk. xP^ (as above). 

Chromatic, relating to colours. (Gk.) 
Gk. xp^f^'''^''^** adj. — Gk. xP^/«^'''~* stem 
of XP^A<A« colour ; allied to XP*^* ^^^ 

achromatic, colourless. (Gk.) Gk. 
ixp^f^o^'^f colourless. •- Gk. d-^ not ; xp^ 
ftar- (as above). 

chrome, chromium. (Gk.) A metal ; 
its compounds exhibit beautiful colours. — 
Gk. xp^M^ colour. 

Chronicle. (F.-Low L.-Gk.) M. E. 
cronicUy with inserted /; also cronike, 
cronique. — O. F. cronique\ pL croniqucs, 
chronicles, annals. — Low L. chronica, fern. 
sing. ; put for neut pi. — Gk. xpo»'*«i pl-» 
annals. — Gk. xp^^^^ ^4i- ^T^ovti XP^^^** 
time. Der. chron^ic ( <« xpovnc^*)' 
anachroniBm, error in chronology. 

Gk.) Gk. dvaxpoy(0'/i<5t. — Gk. dyaxpo^'^' 

cty, to refer to a wrong time. — Gk. di^d, 
up, back (wrong) ; xP^voi, time. 

chronology, science of dates. (Gk.) 
From xP^yo-i, time; x6y-o5, discourse; 
see IiOffie. 

chronometer, time-measurer. (Gk.) 
From XP^^^* time; lUrpov, measure; see 

synchronism, concurrence in time. 
(Gk.) Gk. ovyxpoviff/i^f. — Gk. oifTx/wyos, 
contemporaneous. — Gk. CV7-, for ^vr, 


toTCther ; xP^ro?, time. 

lis, the form taken by some 
insects. (Gk.) Gk. x/^^ro^Afc, the gold- 
coloured sheath of butterflies, chrysalis. — 
Gk. x/w<r-^s, gold ; see Gold. 

chrysolite, a yellow stone. (L.— Gk.) 
L. chrysolithus, Rev. xxi. ao. — Gk. xfwdw- 
\i$os. — Gk. xpv<^<^*^ gold ; \iOoi, stone. 

chrysoprase. (L-Gk.) L. chryso- 
prasus, Rev. xxi. 20. •- Gk. x/'v<r^pa<7of . a 
yellow-green stone. — Gk. xp^^^-^t gold; 
irpaffov, a (green) leek. 

CHUB. ' 


Ghiib, a 6sh. (Scand.) Named from its 
fatDcas ; cf. Daa. kobbt, a seal, prov. Swed. 
kMmg^ chubby, fat, from Swed. kubb, a 
block, log. -7 Prov. .Swed. kubba^ to lop, 
chop; allied to £. chop\ and see Chump, 
under Chap (i). 

chubby, fat (Scand.) Prov. Swed. 
hmbbug (above). 

Chook (I), to strike gently, toss. (F. - 
Teat) Fonnerly written chock (Turber- 
Tille).i^F. choqtur^ to give a shock, jolt — 
Do. schMcn, to jolt, shake ; allied to £. 
shock and skake, 

Chudk (a), to chuck as a hen. (£.) An 
imitative word; Ch. has chuk to express 
the noise made by a cock; C. T. 15180. 
Ct cluck, 3>er. cJuick-lc, in the sense ' to 

Chudk (3), a chicken. A variety of 
chick, for chicken. See above. 

Chuckle. (£.) To chuckle is to laugh 
in a suppressed way; prob. related to 
choke rather than to Chuck (3). 

Chump, a log; see Chap (i). 

Church. (Gk.) M. £. chirche, chtreche. 
A. S. cyrice^ cirice^ later circe (whence £. 
kirk),^Q\u icvptiaic6y, a church, neiit. of 
MvpuueSt, belonging to the Lord. --Gk. icipiot, 
a lord, orig. mighty.— Gk. inJpos. strength. 
(V'KU.) The feel, kirkja, G. kinhe, &c 
are borrowed from A. S. 

Churl. (E.) M. £. cherl, cheorl, A. S. 
ceorlf a man. 4* ^^ kanl, Dan. Sw. Icel. 

Chum; see Com (i). 

Chyle, milky fluid. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. 
chjli. - L. chylus, - Gk. yvKbi, juice. - 
Gk. x^, I pour. (VGHU.) 

chyme, liquid pulp. (L.— Gk.) For- 
merly chymus,^!*. chymus.^G\u XV/^* 
juice. - Gk. x^-« ; as above. 

ChymiBt; see Alchemist. 

doatrice, scar. (F.-L.) F. cicalrice, 
mm'L, cicaiticcm, ace. of cicatrix, a scar. 

Cicerone. (Ital.-L.) Ital. cicerone, a 
guide; orig. a Cicero. -L. ace. Ciccronem, 
proper name. 

O&er. (F.-L. - Gk. - Heb.) It merely 
means strong drink. M. E. sicer, cyder, ^ 
F. cidre,^la, sicera,''Gli, oUtfta, strong 
dfink.->Heb. shikdr, strong drink. -Heb. 
jhJkar, to be intoxicated. 

Cielixig ; see Ceil. 

Cigar, Sc^sar. (Span.) Span, cigarro; 
orig. a kind of tobacco frvm Cuba. 

Cinchona, Peruvian bark. (Span.) 
learned after the countess of Chinchon, 



wife of the governor of Peru, cured by it 
A.D. 1638. 

Cincture. (L.) L. cinclum, a girdle. — 
L. cinctus, pp. of cingere, to gird. 

enceinte, pregnant (F.— L.) F. en- 
ceinie. — L. incincta, lit girt in, said of a 
pregnant woman, fem. of pp. of in^ngere, 
to gird in. 

prednct. (L.) Low L. pracinctum, 
a boundary. — L. prcecinctus, pp. of /n9- 
cingere, to gird about 

shingles, an eruptive disease. (F.— L.) 
Called %ona in Latin, frx>m its encircling 
the body like a belt-O. F. cengle (F. 
^^gl/)» ft girth. — L. cingulum, a belt — 
L. cingere, to gird. 

succinct, concise. (L.) L. succinctus, 
pp. of stsccingere, to gird up, tuck up short 

— L. suC" (sub), up ; cingere, to giri 

Cinder. (£.) Misspelt for simier (by 
confusion with F. cendre « L. cifurem ; 
see Cinerary). A. S. sinder, scoria, slag.-^ 
IceLxiWr; %itt!^, sinder \ G, sinter, dross ; 
Du. sintels, cinders. % The A. S. sinder 
occurs in the 8th oentuiy. 

Cinerary, relating to the ashes of the 
dead. (L.) li cinerarius, — L. ciner^, stem 
of cinis, dust, ashes of the dead, -f* Gk. 
k6vis, dust ; Skt. kana, a grain. 

Cinnabar, Cinoper. cGk.-Per8.) Gk. 
mrv&fiapt, vermilion. From Pers. tinjarf, 
zinmfr, red lead, vennilion, cinnabar. 

CtTinanion, a spice. (Heb.) Heb. ^>h 
ndmdn ; allied to gdnek, a reed, cane. 

Cipher. (F. - Arab.) O. F. cifre (F. 
chiffre), a cipher, zero. — Arab, sifr, a 
cipher. Per. de-cipher (L. de, in the ver- 
bal sense of un-; and cipher); c£ O. F. 
dechiffrer, * to decypher,' Cot 

aero< (Ital. — Low L. — Arab.) Ital. 
zero, short for zejiro.^ljivr L. uphyrum 
(Devic). — Arab, sifr (above). 

Circle. (L.) A. S. circuL^l^ eirculus, 

dimin. of circus, a ring, circle ; see Bing. 

Der. en-circle, semi-circle ; and see circum^, 

circus, a ring. (L.) L. circus (above). 

research. (F.— L.) Compounded of 

re-, again, and search (below). 

search, to explore. (F. — L.) M. £. 
serchen, cerchen, — O. F. circher (F. cher^ 
cher). — L. circare, to go round ; hence, to 
explore. — L. circus, a ring (above). 

Circuit ; see Itinerant 

Circum-, prefix, round. (L.) L, circum, 
around, round; orig. ace. of circus, a 
circle; see Circle. Der. circum-ambieni 
^see Amble) ; -cise (see OflMura) ; -ferenct 



(see Fertile); -JUx (see Flexible); 
'jacent (see Jet (i)) ; -locution (see Iioqaa- 
oiona); -scribe (see Boribe); '^pect (see 
Species) ; 'Stance (see State) ; -valUuion 
(see Wall) ; -vohe (see Voluble). Also 
circum'Jluent, circum-navigate, 

CircuB ; see Oirole. 

Cimis, a fleecy cloud, tendril. (L.) L. 
cirrus, a curl, cofied hair. Allied to 

Cist ; see Cheat. 

Cit, Citadel ; see Oiyil. 

Cite, to summon, quote. (F. — L.) F. 
citer, -• L. citare, frequent, of cicrt, to 
rouse, excite, call, -f Gk. iclcay I go. 
i^^Kl,) See Hie. Per. ex<ite, in-citCt 

reeuflcitate, to revive. (L.) L. resus- 
citcUus, pp. of resuscitare, to revive. *L. 
re-, sus-, and citare, to rouse. 

Cithern, Cittern, a kind of guitar. 
(L. — Gk.) Also M. E. giterm ; from O. 
Du. ghitemCf a guitar. The n is excres- 
cent, as in bitter-n ; the true form is cither 
or citer, A. S. cytere^^h. cithara,^G\i, 
KiBdpa, a kind of lyre or lute. 

guitar. (F. « L. - Gk.) F. guitare, - 
L. cithara ; as above. 

Citizen ; see Civil. 

Citron. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. citron,^ 
Low L. ace. citronem. — L. citrus^ orange- 
tree. •- Gk. iclTpoy, a citron ; lUTpia, citron- 

City; see Civil. 

Civet. (F. — Arab.) F. civette, civet ; 
also the civet-cat ; borrowed from medieval 
Gk. (avinov (Brachet). •■ Arab, saddd, 

Civil. rL.) L. ciuilis, belonging to 
citizens. •- L. ciuis, a citizen. Allied to £. 
Hive. (VKI.) Dor. civil-ise, civil-i-an, 
oit ; short for oitiBen (below). 
dtadel. (F. - Ital. - L.) F. citadcile. - 
Ital. ciiadeUa, a small town, fort ; dimin. 
of cittade «• cittate (cittd), a city. •- L. 
ciuitatem, ace of ciuitas, a city. •- L. ciuis, 
a citizen (above). 

citizen. (F.*L.) M.E.r//^«^i», where 
t is corruptly written for 5 (y) ; Chaucer has 
citizen ('^citiyen), tr. of Boethius, p. 14.— 
O. F. citeain (F. citoyen) ; formed from 
O. F. cite {citi) by help of the suffix -ain = 
L. -anus ; see below. 

dty. (F. - L.) M. E. cite, citee. - O. F. 
cite (F. at/).^L, citatem^ short for ciuita- 
tem, ace. of ciuitas ; see (dtadel. 

Clack. (£.) 'b/L.E. clacAen. Allied tp 


Crack, -f Icel. kUika, to chatter ; Du. 
klcAken, to clack, crack : Irish dag, to din ; 
Gk. K\Aiu¥, allied to Kp&i€iv, to mtdce a din. 

dang', to resound. (L.) L. clangere, to 
resound ; whence clangor, a loud noise. + 
Gk. KXafffi, a clang; allied to icX&itiv 
(above). Der. clang-or, 

dank. (£.) Nasalised form of Claok. 

click. (E.) Weakened form of Clack. 

clinch, dench, to rivet. (E.) M. E. 
clenchen, klenken, to strike smartly, to make 
to clink ; causal of klinken, to clink. 

clink. (E.) Nasalised form of Click. 

clinker, a hard cinder. (Du.) Du. 
klinker, a clinker, named from the tinkling 
sound which they make when they strike 
each other. -• Du. klinken, to cUok.; cognate 
with E. clink, 

clique, a gang. (F.-Du.) F. clique, a 
gang, noisy set.— O. F. cliquer, to elide, 
make a noise. — Du. klikken, to click, 
dash ; also to inform, tell ; cf. Du. klikker, 
a tell-tale. 

cloak, doke. (F.— C.) Hi.'E, cloke.^ 
O. F. cloqtu, cloche. ^Ijovf L. cloca, a bell ; 
also a horseman's cape, which resembled 
a bell in shape ; see below. 

dock. (C.) The orig. sense was • bell ;' 
bells preceded clocks for notifying times.— 
Irish clog, a bell, dock ; clogaim, I ring or 
sound as a bell. — Irish clagcUm, I clack, 
make a noise'; clag, clapper of a mill. So 
also Gael, clog, a bell, clock ; W. clock, a 
bell, &a The Irish clag is cognate with E. 
Claok. The G. glocke is a borrowed word ; 
so also Du. klok, &c. 

duck. (E.) M. £. clokken, to duck as 
a hen ; a mere variant of Clack. + Du. 
klokken, Dan. klukke, G. gltuken ; L. 

Claim, to demand, call out for. (F.— L.) 
O. F. claimer, damer.^L.. clamare, to call 
out ; from O. L. calare, to proclaim ; cf. Gk. 
iraXco', to summon. (^KAR.) Der. ac- 
claim, de-claim, ex-claim, pro-claim, re- 
claim ; also (from pp. clamatus) ac-clamat- 
ion, de-clamcU-ion, ex-clamai-ion, pro- 
clamat-ion, re-clamat-ion, 

damour. (F.— L.) M. E. clamour,^ 
F. clamour.^h. ace. clamorem, an outcry. 
— L. clamare (above). Der. clamor-ous. 
Clamber ; see Clamp. 
Clammy, viscous. (E.) From A. S. 
cldm, clay ; which prob. stands for geldm =» 
Idm, loam ; see Iioam. Cf. Du. klam, 
dammy, moist. 
Clamour ; see Claim. 


damp. (Dq.) XVI cent. -Da. JkAtm- 
/en, to clamp, griDpIe, also to board a 
ship; klamPt a holdfast -f Dan. klam/e, 
to ^unp, klamm€t a cramp-ixon ; Swed. 
klam/, the same; Icel. klombr, a smith's 
Tice; G. klampt^ a clamp. (Tent base 
KLAMP; M. H. G. klimpfen, to press 
tightly together ; allied to Oramp.) 

oUunber, to climb by grasping tightly. 
(Scand.) M. K clanuren^ clamberen. — 
IceL klambra, to pinch closely together ; 
Dan. k/amre, to grip firmly; see above. 
Allied to Climb. 

olasp, Tb. (£.) M. E. clas/en, cla/sen. 
The base is KLAPS, extended from 
KLAP, whence KLAMP ; see Olamp. 

elub (i), a heavy stick. (Scand.) M. K 
ehMe. •- Icel. klubba, klumba, a dub ; 
Swed. klubbf a dab, log, lump ; Dan. klub^ 
dub, klump, lamp. A mere variant of 
olmnp below. 

dlub (a), an association. (Scand.) XVII 
cent. Lit. ' a damp of people.* — Swed. dial. 
klMt, a dump^ lump, also a knot of 
people (Rietz). See above. 

dunip, a mass, block. (Scand.) XVI 
cent. Not inA. S.— Dan. klump^ Swed. 
Hump. + Da. khmp, G. klump, a damp, 
lamp, log ; led. klumba, a dub. All from 
klump-, base of pp. of M. H. G. klimpfen^ 
tojpress tightly together. 

Clan. (Gael.) Gael, clann, of&pring, 
childroi ; Irish eland, cUmh, descendants, a 

Clandeetiiie. (F.— L.) F. clandestine 
—L. clandistintu, secret, dose. Allied to 
elam, secretly. 

dang, dazik ; see Olaok. 

dap. (E.) M. E. clappen, [We only 
find /L S. clappetung, a pulsation ; Wright's 
Voc. L 45.] The orig. sense is to make a 
noise by striking. + Icel. klappa, Swed. 
klaM^a, Dan. khppe, Du. klappen, M. H. G. 
klaffen, to pat, dap, prate, make a noise. 
Alned to Olaok, Clatter. 

daret, darify, darion ; see Clear. 

daah. (E.) A variant of Claok ; cf. crash. 

daap. (E.) See Clamp. 

daas. (F.— L.) F. clcuse, a rank.— L. 
ace. classemt a dass, assembly, fleet. 

Clatter. (E.) A frequentative of clot, 
which is a form of Claok. A. S. clot- 
rung, a dattering. -^ Du. klaUrtn, to 

dlutter (i), a noise, din. (E.) A mere 
Tariant of Clatter. 



dauae. (F.-L.) F. rZsKi^.-L. clausa, 
as in cloMsa arattc^ an eloquent period ; 
hence clausa, a period, a clause. — L. 
clausus, pp. of claudcrt, to shut. (V 

dloiatar. (F.-L.) M. E. cloisUr,^ 
O.F. cloisin (F. cloUn),^!., claustrum, 
lit endosure. — L. claus-us (above). 

dloae (I), to shut in. (F.-L.) M.E. 
clasen, — O. F. clos, pp. of O. F. clortt to 
shut in. — L. clausus^ pp. of claudcrt (as 
itbove). 3>er. dis-closc^ tn-closc^ in-close. 

oloee (a), shut up. (F.— L.) M.E. 
clos^ cloos.^O, F. clos (as above). 

dloset. (F.-L.) O. F. closet, dimin. of 
clos, an endosed space.— O.F. clos\ see 
close (x). 

conclude. (L.) L. concludere, to shut 
up, dose, end. — L. con-{cum), togetiier ; and 
'Cludere^ claudcrt t to shut. Per. conclus^ 
ion. Similarly tx-cludt^ in-clude, pre-cludc, 
se-cludt't whence in-clus-ivct pre-clus-ion, 
st-clttsion (from pp. -clusus^ clausus). 

reduse. (F.— jL.) M.E. recluse, orig. 
fem.— O. F. recluse, fem. of rectus, pp. of 
reclorre, to shut up.- L. recludert, to lan- 
dose ; bat in late Lat. to shut up. 

Bliiice» a floodgate. (F.-L.) O.F. 
tscluse, ' a sluce, floadgate ; * Cot — Low 
L* txclusa, a flood-gate ; lit. shut off 
(water); pp. ol tx^ludert, to shut out.- 
L. tx, out ; claudtre, to shut. 

Clavicle, the collar-bone. (F.-L.) F. 
clavicuU, the collar-bone.— L. clauicula, 
lit. a sniall key ; dimin. of clauis, a key. 
Allied to claudtrt ; see Claaae. 

dlef^ a key, in music. (F.-L.) F. clef. 
— L. ace. clautm, a key. 

conclave. (F.-L.) F. conclave, a 
small room (to meet in).— L. conclaue, a 
room ; later, a place of assembly of car- 
dinals, assembly. Orig. a locked up place. 
— L. con- {cum) ; clauis, a key. 
Claw. (£.) M. E. clau, dee, A. S. 
cldwu ; also eld, cled, a daw.+Du. klaauw, 
Icel. kl6, Dan. Uo, Sw. klo, G. klauc. 
Allied to Cleave (?) ; cf. M. E. diver, a 
Clay. (E.) M. K clai, cley. A. S. dag. 
-f Du. and G. klei, Dan. klag. Prob. 
allied to Cleave (a). 

clog, a hindrance. (E.) Allied to Lowl. 
Sc. clag^ to bedaub with day, hinder, ob- 
struct ; Dan. kUeg, kleg^ loam, also as adj., 
loamy. Perhaps a Scand. form. 
Claymore ; see Gladiator, 
dean. (E.) M.E. dent. A.S. clJtne, 



clear, pnFe.-f>Irish and Gael, gfan, "W.^in, 
gian, clear, bright 

cleanse. (R^ A. S. clansian, to make 
dean. — A. S. c/ofu, clean. 
Clear. (F. -L.) M. K deer, cler, - O. F. 
cUr, cldir,^'L, clarus, bright, clear, loud. 

claret. (F.— L.) Orig. a clarified wine. 
M. E. claret, — O. F. claret, clairet. — Low L. 
claretum, wine clarified with honey. --L. 
claruSf clear. 

darify. (F.-L.) O. F. clariJUr,^ 
L. clarificarti to make dear.^L. clari-, for 
claro-^ cmde form of clarus \ and -JU't for 
facere, to make. 

clarioiL (F.-L.) M. £. clarioun,^ 
O. F, clarion*, claron (F. clairan), a dear- 
sounding horn.— L. dart' (as above). 

declare. (F.-L.) O.F. declarer,^ 
L. declarare, to make clear, declare.— L. 
<i^, fully, claruSf clear. 

glair, the white of an egg. (F.-L.) 
M. E. gleyre, — O. F. glaire, — LT rAznx, fem. 
of dams, bright; Low L. dara out, the 
white of an egg. 
Cleave (i), to split. (E.) Strong verb. 
A. S. cledfan, pt t. dtdf, pp. dofen (■■ 
E.r/wtf«).+Du, klovm, IceL kljya (pt. t. 
klauf), Swed. klyfva, Dan. i/d^, G. kluben, 
(Teut base KLIJB; cC Gk. y\i/<t>€ty, to 
hollow out) 

deft, dift (Scand.) The old spelling 
is <:/«//. -led. klu/t, Swed. Jily/t, Dan. it/^, 
a cldft chink, cave.— Icel. k/u/u, pi. of pt t 
of klj$l/a (above) ; c£ Swed. klyfva^ to 

clove (a), a bulb or tuber ; a weight (E.) 
A.S. duff in cluf-wyrt, butter- cup (bulb- 
wort).- A. S. duf'on, pt t pi. oicteSfan, to 

Cleave (2), to stick. (E.) Weak verb. 
The correct pt t is cleaved, not clave, 
which belongs to the verb above. A. S. 
difian, cUofian, pt. t. ^/j)^^.+Du. kleven^ 
Swed. ^//^A3 xt^, Dan. klabe, G. klebcn, to 
adhere, cleave to. (Teut base KLIB.) 

diff, a steep rock, headland. (E.) A. S. 
r/i/arock,clifr.+Du.andIcel.iJ///. Cf.G. 
and Dan. klippe, Swed. klippa, a crag. 
Orig. sense prob. 'a cHmbing-place,' a 
steep ; see Olimb, Olip. % It cannot be 
allied to cleave (i). 
Clef; see CUviole. 
Cleft ; see Cleave (i). 
Clematis, a plant (Gk.) Gk. ivXi7/iar{$, 
brush- wood, creeping-plant. — Gk. xAi^/iar-, 
stem of Kkriyxi, a shoot, twig. — Gk. irXactv, 
to break off, prune. 


Clement. (F.— L.) F. eUmmt. - L. 
dementemt ace pf clemens^ mild. 

Clendi.; see Claok. 

Clerk. (F.-L.-Gk.) A. S. and O. F. 
derc.^lj^ clericus. ^Gk. icKripiK67, one of 
the dergy.r Gk. kk^^t, a lot; in late Gk., 
the derpy, whose portion is the Lord, 
Deut. xviiL a, i Pet. .v. 3. 

dergy. (F.-L.) M.E. cUrgU, often 
•learning.'— O. F. clergie, as if from L. 
derUta*i mod. F. clergi, from Low L. 
dericatusg derkship.— L^w L. dericus, a 

Clever. (F.-L.; confused with E.) In 
Butler's Hudibras (1663). It took the place 
of M. E. deliver, quick, nimble, Ch. prol. 
84. •• O. F. delivre, free, prompt, alert ; 
compounded from L. de, prefix, and liber, 
free ; see Deliver. But apparently confused 
with M. E. diver, a claw, also as adj. ready 
to seize, allied to Climb, Cleave (a), ^f Not 
from A. S. gledw, M. £. gleu, skilful ; still 
less from G. klug ! ! 

Clew, due, a ball of thread. (E.) M. E. 
clewe, A. S. cliwe, short form of cliwen, 
a dew. 'i^Du. kluwen; whence J^luwenctr, 
to wind on clews (E. dew up a sail) ; 
M. H. G. kluwen. Allied to L. glo-mus, a 

Click ; see Claok. 

Client. (F.-L.) F. client, a suitor.— 
L. dientem, ace. m»cliens^cluens, orig. a 
hearer, one who listens to advice ; pres. pt. 
of f /«^r^, to hear. (VKRU.) 

Cliff; see Cleave (2). 

Climiate. (F.-Gk.) M. E. climate 
F. climat, — Gk. KXiimr-, stem of teXifia, 
a slope, zone, region of the earth, di- 
mate. » Gk. scXlvtiy, to lean, slope ; see 

dimacter, a critical time of life. (F. — 
Gk.) F. dimactere, adj. ; whence Pan 
dimcutere, * the dimatericall {sic) year ; 
every 7th, or 9th, or the 63 yeare of a man's 
life, all very dangerous, but the last most ; ' 
Cot. — Gk. KkifitucTTip, a step of a ladder, a 
dangerous period of life. — Gk. Kkijia^, a 
ladder, climax ; see below. 

dimaz, the highest degree. (Gk.) Gk. 
nXTfta^, a ladder, staircase, highest pitch of 
expression (in rhetoric).- Gk. M\iy€iy, to 
slope. Der. anti-climax, 

dime. (L. — Gk.) L. clima, a dimate. 
— Gk. ic\//ia; see Climate. 

Climb. (E.) M. E. dimben, pt. t. domb. 
A. S. climban, pt t clamb, pi. clumbon.'\r 
Du. klimmen, M. H. G. klimmcn. (Teut. 




KLAHB); allied to dip. €Srwmp. 
And see GUabar. 
Clime; seedimata. 
Clineh ; see Claok. 
Cling. (£.) M. £. W/jr^m, to become 
stifi^ be matted together. A.S. eHm^cm 
(pL t. eloMf^^ pp. cluHgtH), to diy up, shnvel 
npi.4>DaiL kijmge, to dnster; cC klum^, 
to dot. 
CUiiieaL (F. - L. - Gk.) F. rZiirt^. 
'one that is bedrid;* Cot— L. climkus, the 
same.— Gk. Mkanmis^ belonging to a bed, 
aphjstdan; 4«Ai*^f hisart— Gk.«Alr^ 
a bed.— Gk. gXiMftv, to lean ; see Iiean. 
CUnk, dinker; see Clank. 
Clip. (Scand.) M. £. Jk/i/fem. - Icel. 
Hi/!^ SwwL JUi/>fia, Dan. Jkti/pe, to dip, 
shear hair. The orig. sense was * to draw 
tightly together/ hence ' to draw together 
the edges of shears ;' cfl A. S. clyppan^ to 
embrace. Allied to damp, deave (a). 
Clique ; see daok. 
Cloaks Clock; see daok. 
Clod ; see dot. 
Clog; see day. 

CloiBter, Close, Closet; see danae. 
Clot. (£.) M. £. iUt, chtU, a ball, esp. 
of earth, allied to cloie, a burdock. A. S. 
cldtt^ a burdock, orig. a bur.-f Du. kluitt a 
dod, klcot, a ball ; Icel. kUt, Swed. klot, 
Dan. khdi, a ball, globe, G. kUss, a dot, 
dod. Allied to L. M^msy gh-mus. 

dlod. (Scand.) I)an. klodc ; Dan. form 
of IceL klSt, Swed. klot (above). 

clatter (j), to coagulate. (£.) M.E. 
cleteren, to form clots, frequent form of a 
▼erb from the sb. clot. 

Cloth. (£.) M.E. cloth, cloth. A.S. 
W^9.-f-Dn. kleed, IceL klahi, Dan. klad€, 
Swed. klade ; G. kleid^ a dress. Per. clothes, 
A. S.cldSas, pi of cldii. 

clothe, to coTer with a doth. (£.) M.E. 
clothm, clathin, pt t. clothedt or dadtU, 
pp. clothed or clad. Formed from A. S. 
r/iiS.+Du. kleeden^ from kited \ so also led. 
kh^da, Dan. klade, Sw. kldda, G. kleidcn. 

Cloud. (£.) M.E. cloude, orig. a mass 
of yapours ; the same word as M. £. elude, 
a mass of rock. A. S. cliid, a round mass, 
mass of rock, hill. Allied to clew, q. ▼., 
and to Ij^gh-mus (whence £. con-gto-nur- 

Cloagh, a hoUow in a hill-side. (E.) 

M.£. clew, clew, clench. Allied to IceL 

kkl/i, a rift in a hill-side, frrom kljiifa, to 

dcsTe; see deave (i). 

Clonic a petch. (C) lIL'E.fhut. A.S. 

r/ji!/,a patdi.- W. rAr/. Cora. dW, a patch, 
dout ; Ir. and GaeL clmd, the same. 
Clove (i), a kmd of spice. (F. — L.) 
M.E. clow (the change to chce, in the 
XVIth cent., may have been due to coo* 
fusion with Span, rititv.)— F. clou, a nail ; 
clou de girofie, 'a dove,' Cot. ; from the 
resemblance to a nail. Cf. Span, clavo, a 
nail, also a dove. — L. claumm, ace of 
ckutus, a naiL 

doy. (F. — L.) Orig. to stop up, hence, 
sate. O. F. cleyer, * to cloy, slop up,* Cot ; 
a by-form of F. chuer (O. F. cloer), to nail, 
fristen up. [A horse pricked wiO^ a naiU 
in shoeing, was said to be r/^^</.]*O.F. 
do, F. clou, a naiL as above. 
Clove (a), a bdb ; see deave (i). 
Clover. (E.) M.E. r/otvr. A.S.clafn, 
trefoil.+Du. klarer, Swed. klo/ver, Dan. 
klover, G.klee. ^ The supposed connection 
with cleazfe (i) is very douotfuL 
ClowzL (Scand.) led. klunni, a dumsy, 
boorish fellow; Swed. dial, klunn, a log* 
klutu, a downish fellow; Dan. klunt, a 
log; cL Dan. kluntet, clumsy. Allied to 
dump. The orig. sense is ' a log.' See 

Cloy ; see dove (i). 
Club (i), a stick ; see damp. 
Club (3), an association ; see Clamp. 
Cluck. (E.) See daok. 
Clue ; see Glow, 
dump ; see damp. 
Clumsy. (Scand.) Yiom 'bIL.'E.clumsed, 
clomsed, benumbed ; benumbed fingers are 
dumsy. This is the pp. of cbmscn, to be* 
numb, or to fed benumbed. * Swed. dial. 
klummsen, benumbed (Rietz) ; cf. Icel. 
klumsa, lock-jaw. From the Teut. base 
KLAM, KRAM, to pinch, whence also 
damp, Oramp. Cf. Du. klemmen, to 
pinch, kleumen, to be benumbed, kletimsch, 
numb with cold. 
Cluster, a bunch. (E.) A. S. cluster, 
clyster, a bunch. Allied to Icel. klastr, a 
bunch, klcLsi, a cluster; Dan. and Swed. 
klase, a cluster. We also find Swed. dial. 
klysse, the same as klifsa, a cluster, from 
klibba, to cleave, stick to. This links it to 
deave (a). , 

Clutoh ; see Latch. 
Clutter (i), a din ; see datter. 
Clutter (a), to dot ; see dot. 
Clutter (3), a confused heap; to heap 
up. (W.) W. cludcdr, a heap, pile; cltid' 
eirio, to heap up. 
Clyster. (U-Gk.) I* clystir^ an injeo- 



tion into the bowels. -• Gk. itXvar^p, a 
clyster, syringe. --Gk. K\i6(tiy, to wash. 4- 
L. cluere, to wash. (^ KLU.) 

Co-, prefix. (L.) L. co-, together; used 
for con- {^cum), together, bek>re a vowel. 
Hence co-efficient, co-equal, co-operate, eo- 
ordinate. See others below ; and see 

Coach. (F.-Hung.; or F.-L.-Gk.) 
F. eoche, 'a coach;* Cot. Etym. disputed ; 
it was said, as early as a.d. 1553, to be a 
Hungarian word ; from Hung, kocsi, a 
coach, so called because first made at a 
Hung, village called Kotsi ; see Littrf, and 
Beckmann, Hist, of Inventions. Still, it 
seems to have been confused with F. coche, 
a kind of boat (£. cock-boat), see Littr^. 
This is derived from L. concha, a shell, 
conch ; see Conch. 

Coadjutor ; see Aid. 

Coagulate ; see Agent. 

CoaL (E.) M. E. coL A. S. r^/.+Du. 
kool, Icel. Swed. kol, Dan. kul, G. kokle, 
Qt Slut j'val, to blaze. 

collier. (E.) M. E. co/ier; from M. E. 
col, coal. Cf. bow-yer, saw-yer. 

Coalesce ; see Aliment. 

Coarse ; see Current. 

Coast. (F. - L.) M. E. coste. - O. F. 
coste (F. cdie), a rib, slope of a hill, shore. 
» L. costa, a rib. 

accost, to address. (F. — L.) O.F. 

accoster, to come to the side of. --Low L. 

accostare, » L. ac- {ad) ; and costa, rib, side. 

costal, relating to the ribs. (L.) From 

L. costa, a rib. 

cutlet. (F.-L.) F. cotelette, a cutlet; 
formerly costcUtte, a little rib; dimin. of 
coste, rib (above). 

Coat ; see Cot. 

Coax. (C?) Y ormtxXy cokes, vb., from 
cokes, sb., a simpleton, dupe. Perhaps from 
W. coeg, vain, foolish, coegyn, a conceited 
fellow; Com. coc, vain, foolish, O. Gael. 
coca, void, goigean, a coxcomb. See 
Cocker, Cog (2). 

Cob (i), a round lump, knob. (C.) As 
applied to a pony, it means short and stout. 
M. El cob, a head, a person. » W. cob, a 
tuft, a spider, cop, a tuft, top ; copa, crovtn 
of the head. 

cobble (2), a small round lump. (C.) 
M. E. cobylstom, a cobble-stone, pimin. 
of W. cob, a tuft (above). 

cobweb. (C. and E.) From W. cob, a 
spider ; or short for M. E. attercop-web, 
where attercop, a spider, means 'poison- 


bunch,' from A S. dtor, poison, and coppa, 
a head, tuft, borrowed from W. cob, cop, as 
Cob (3), to beat (C.) W. cobio, to 
thump ; dt, cob, a buncn. 

Cobalt, a mineral. (G.-Gk.) G. kobalt, 
cobalt ; a nickname given by the miners, 
because considered poisonous ; better spelt 
koboldj meaning (i) a demon, (a) cobalt -• 
Low L. cobalus, a mountain-sprite, demon. 
-• Gk. tc6fia\os, a rogue, goblin. 

goblin. (F.-L.- Gk.) O.F. gobelin, 
-•Low L. gobelinus, dimin. of Low L. 
cobalus (above). 

Cobble (i), to patch up; see Couple. 
Cobweb; see Cob (i). 
CochineaL (Span. — L. — Gk.) Span. 
cochinilla, cochineal (made from insects 
which look like berries). — L. coccinus, of 
a scarlet colour. — L. coccum, a berry ; 
also cochineal, supposed to be a berry. 
— Gk. mSmkos, a berry, cochineaL 
Cock (i), a male bird. (E.) M. E. cok. 
A.S. cocc; from the birds cry. 'Cryde 
anon cokl cokl* Ch. C. T. Nun's Priest's 
Tale, 456. Cf. Gk. ie6KKv, the cry of the 
cuckoo ; W. cog, a cuckoo. 

coc^ the stop-cock of a barrel, is the 
same word. So also G. Aahn, (i) a cock, 
(2) a stop-cock. 

cockade, a knot of ribbon on a hat. 
(F.) F. coquarde, fem. of coquard, saucy ; 
also coquarde, bonnet d la coquarde, 'any 
bonnet or cap worn proudly,* Cot. Formed 
with suffix -ard from F. coq, a cock (from 
the bird's cry). 

cockatoo, a kind of parrot. (Malay.) 
Malay Jfuikattia, a cockatoo ; from the bird's 
cry; cL Malay kukuk, crowing of cocks, 
kakak, cackling of hens. Skt kukkuXa, a 

cockloft, upper loft. (E. and Scand.) 
From cock and loft. So also G. hahnbcUken, 
a roost, cockloft ; Dan. loftkammer, a loft- 
chamber, room up in the rafters. 

coquette. (F.) F. coquette, 'a pratling 
or proud gossip,* Cot. ; fem. of coquet, a 
little code, dimm. of coq, a cock. Cf. prov. 
£. cocky, i.e. strutting as a cock. 

coxcomb. (E.) A fool, named from 
his cocl^s comb, or fool's cap, cap with a 
cock*s crest 

cuckold. (F. — L.) M. E. kokeivold, 
kukeweld, cokold; but the final ^ is excres- 
cent, perhaps by confusion with the A. S. 
suflix 'Weald (M. E. -wold) seen in thresh- 
wold, a threshold, &c.— O.F. coucoul, a 


cuckold (Roquefort) ; later eomou ; orig. a 
cuckoo, secondly, a man whose wife is un- 
faithful* (There are endless allusions to 
the comparison between a cuckoo and a 
cuckold ; see Shak. L. L. L. y. a. 930, &c) 
-• L. cuculum, ace of cuculus, a cuckoo 

cuckoo. (F. — L.) F. coucou. ^ L. 
euculum, ace. of cumulus, a cuckoo; from 
the bird's cry. + Cxk. ic6iciev^, a cuckoo ; 
it6icicvt its cry ; Skt. kokila, a cuckoo. Cf. 
cock, cockatoo. And see Coo. 

Cock (2), a pile of hay. (Scand.) Dan. 
kok, a heap ; Icel. kokkr, lump, ball ; Swed. 
koiui, clod of earth. 

Cock (3), to stick up abrupdy. (C.) 
GaeL coc, to cock; as in cocdo bhotneid, cock 
your bonnet ; coc-skrofuuk, cock-nosed. 

Cock (4), part of the lock of a gun. 
(ItaL) Ital. cocca^ the notch of an arrow ; 
whence coccare, to 6t an arrow on the bow- 
string (E. cock a gun, by the transference 
to guns of the old archery term) ; cf. Ital. 
scoccare, to let fly, let off an arrow. The 
Ital. cocca was confused with F. coq, a cock, 
whence the G. phrase den Hahn spannen, 
to cock a gun. Origin of Ital. cocca (^F. 
coche) unknown ; but seewCk>g. 

Cock (5), a boat ; see Conch. 

Cockade, Cockatoo ; see Cock (i). 

Cockatrice ; see Crocodile. 

Cocker, to pamper. (C. ?) M. E. 
cokeren, — W, cocri, to fondle, indul^ ; 
cocr, a coaxing, fondling. Perhaps allied 
to W. coeg. Com. coc, vain, foolish. 

Cookie (i), a sort of bivalve. (C.) 
M. £. eokel, dimin. of cock, a cockle (P. 
Plowman, C. x. 95). A. S. s^'Cocca; 
(where si = sea), -• W. cocs, cockles ; cf. 
Gael, comn, a husk, small bowl, Gael. 
eoehull, Irish cochcU, a husk, shell of a nut, 
hood. The orig. sense was probably 
* shell ;' cf. L. cochlea, a snail, allied to 
concka, a shell; see Conoh« And see 

Cockle (2), a weed among com. (C.) 
A. S. coccel, tares. — GaeL cogail, tares, 
husks, cockle; cogull, com-cockle; cogan, 
a loose husk ; Irish cogall, com-cockle, 
beards of barley. The orig. sense was prob. 
'husk.* See above. 

C'ockle (3), to be uneven, shake up and 
down. (C.) The same as prov. £. coggU, 
to shake. --W. gogi, to shake; gog, a toss 
of the head ; Irish gog, a nod, gogach, reel- 
ii^ wavering. 

Codkney, an effeminate person. (Un- 



known.) M. £. cokenay, a foolish person, 
Ch. C. T. 4206. Etym. much disputed ; 
results not worth giving. 

Cocoa (i), the cocoa-nut palm-tree ; see 

Cocoa (2) ; corrapt form of Cacao. 

Cocoon ; see Conch. 

Cod (i), a fish. (£. 9) Spelt codde in 
Palsgrave. Perhaps named from its rounded 
shape ; cf. O. Du. kodde, a club (Hexham) ; 
and see below. Der. cod-ling, a young 
cod ; M. £. codlyng. 

Cod (2), a hu^, bag, bolster. (£.) 
Hence /eas'cod, husk of a pea. A. S. codd, 
a bag. 4-IceL koddi, pillow ; ko'^ri, scrotum : 
Swed. kudde, a cusliion. 

coddle, to pamper, render effeminate. 
(E.) Orig. to castrate; from the word 

codling^, codlin, a kind of apple. (E.) 
Cf. prov. E. codlings, green peas, properly 
'young pods ;* also A. S. eod-ceppel, a cod- 
apple, a quince. 

Code, a digest of laws. (F. — L.) F. 
code, -• L. codieem, ace. of codex, a tablet, 

codidL (L.) L. codicillus, a codicil 
to a will ; dimin. of codex (stem codic-). 

Codling; see Cod (I ), Cod (2). 

Coerce. (L.) L. coercere, to compel, -i 
L. co-{cum), tc^ether: arcere, to enclose, 
confine, allied to area, a chest ; see Ark. 

Coffee. (Turk. -Arab.) Turk, qakveh. 
-•Arab, qahwek, coffee. 

Coffer. (F.-.L.-Gk.) M.E. r^.- 
O. F. cofre, also cofin, a chest —ll ace. 
copkinum, >- Gk. ir^vof , a basket. 

cof^. (F.>-L.>-Gk.) Orig. a case, 
chest. —O. F. cofin, as above. (Doublet oJ: 

Cog (i), a tooth on a wheel-rim. (C.) 
M. E. cog. -• GaeL and Irish cog, a mill-cog ; 
W. cocos, cocs, cogs of a wheel. 

Cog (2), to trick. (C.) W. coegio, to 
make void, trick, -i W. coeg, empty, vain ; 
see Coax. 

Cogent, Cog^itate ; see Agent. 

Cognate ; see NataL 

Cognisance, Cogpiomen ; see Noble. 

Cohabit ; see Habit. 

Cohere; seeHeaitate. 

Cohort ; see Court. 

Coif, Quoif; a cap. (F.-M. H. G.) 
O. F. coif, coiffe; Low L. cofia, a cap.— 
M. H. G. kuffe, kupfe, a cap worn under 
the helmet Allied to Cuff (a) and Cup. 

Coign ; see Coin. 



Oodl (i), to gather together i see 

Coil (a), a noise, bustle. (C.) Gad. 
goil, rage, battle ; Irish goill, war, fight ; 
Gael. coiUid, stir, noise. — Irish goilt to 
boil, rage. 

Coin. (F.-L.) M,E.c(nn,'»O.F,c(nn, 
a wedge, stamp on a coin, a coin (stamped 
by means of a wedge). --L. cuneum, ace. 
of cuncus, a wedge. Allied to Cone. 

ooigpi. (F.-X.) F. coin^, coin, a 
corner ; lit. a wedge (as above). 

cuneate, wedge-shaped. <L.) L. cu- 
neus, a wedge ; with suffix -aie. 

quoin, a wedge. (F.«-L.) The same 
as F. coin ; see Coin (above). 

Coincide ; see Cadeno& 

Coit ; see Quoit. 

Coke, charred coal. (Unknown.) • Coke, 
pit-coal or sea-coal diarred ; * Coles, 
1684. Stym. unknown. 

Colander, Cullender, a strainer. 
(L.) Coined from L. colant-, stem of 
pres. part, of colare, to strain. » L. colum, a 

culvert, an arched drain. (F.-L.) 
Fonned, with added /, from O. F. couleuin, 
* a channel, gutter,' Cot. — F. coulcr^ 
to trickle. —L. colare, to strain, drain 

percolate, (L.) From pp. of L. per- 
colare, to filter through. 

Cold ; see Cool. 

Cole, Colewort, cabbage. (L.) For 
•^mort, see "Wort. M. E. col, caul, A. S. 
€cud, cattfcl.^h, caulis, a stalk, cabbage. 
-^ Gk. Kav\6s, a stalk : kocXap, hollow. 

cauliflower. (F.-L.) Formerly ^//y- 
Jlory, From M. E. col (O. F. col), a cab- 
bage ; and j^oryi from O. F. ^ori, fleuri, 
pp. oi JUurir, to flourish, from h,Jlorere; 
see Flourish. The O. F. col^L, ace. 
caulem, from caulis (above). 

kail, kale, cabbage. (C) Northern £. 
— Gael, and Ir. cal, Manx kail, W. cawl. 
Cognate with L. caulis. 

Coleoptera^ sheath-winged insects. — 
Gk. icoK€6-s, a sheath ; irrc^y, a wing. 

Colic ; see Colon. 

Coliseum ; see Colossus. 

Collapse ; see Lapse. 

Collar. (F. - L.) M. B. coler. - O. F. 
colier, a collar. — L. collare, a band for the 
neck.-L. coUum^ tlie Deck.+A.S. heals, 
G.Ao/x, the neck. 

ooUet, the part of the xing in which 


the stone is set (F.— L.) F. ^tf/2f/, a collar. 
— F. col, neck. — L. collum, neck. 

colporteur. (F.-L.) F. colporleur, 
one who carries things on his neck and 
shoulders. — F. col, neck ; and porteur, a 
carrier; see Port (i). 

decollation, a beheading. (F.-L.) 
O. F. decollation, 'm'Lovi L. ace decolla- 
tionem. From pp. of decollare, to behead. 
— L. de, off; collum^ the neck. 

Collateral; see LateraL 

Collation ; see Tolerate. 

Colleague ; see LegaL 

Collect ; see Legend. 

College ; see Legal. , 

Collet; see Collar. 

Collide; see Lesion. 

Collier ; see Coal. 

Collocate; seeLoous. 

Collodion, a solution of gun-cotton. 
(Gk.) Gk. tcoXXitb'Tit, glue-like. - Gk. 
ir^AX-ct, glue; '<lhp, like, from clSos, ap> 

Collop, a slice of meat (E. ?) M. E, 
coloppe, CC Swed. kalops, O. Swed. kollops, 
slices of beef stewed ; G. khopps, a dish of 
meat made tender by beating. From the 
verb seen in E. clop ^ clap, to make a noise ; 
Du. kloppen, G. klopfcn, to beat. Allied 
to Clap. 

Colloquy ; see Loquacious. 

Colltision ; see Ludicrous. 

Colocynth, Coloquintida, pith of the 
fruit of a kind of cucumber. (Gk.) From 
the nom. and ace. cases of Gk. KoKoiwvBvi 
(ace. KoXoxw^iSa), a round gourd, or 

Colon (i), a mark (:) in writing and 
printing. (Gk.) Gk. ifSiKov, a clause ; 
hence a stop marking off a clause. 

Colon (a), part of the intestines, (Gk.; 
Gk. ico»Kx}v, the same. 

coUc. (F.-L.-Gk.) Short for colu 
pain.'m'P, colique, adj. — L. colicus,^Q\i. 
KwKiK^, suffering in the colon. — Gk. 

Colonel, Colonnade ; see Column. 

Colony. (F. — L.) F.: colonic. — L. 
colonia, a colony, band of husbandmen. 
— L. colanus, a husbandman.— L. colere, to 

agriculture. (L.) L. ^igri<uUura, 
culture of a field ; see Aore. 

cultivate. (L.) L. cultiuatus, pp. of 
cultiuare, to till.— Low L. cuUiuus, nt for 
tilling.— L. cultus, pp. of colere, to tilL 

omture. (F,-L.) F. culture, - L. 


euUura, orig. fern, of fat. part, of coUre, to 

Colophon, an inscription at the end of 
a book, with name and date. (Gk.) Late 
L. colophon. >- Gk. Koko^pinf, a summit ; 
hence, a finishing stroke. Allied to 

Coloqtiintida ; see ColocTnth. 

C0I088UB. (L. — Gk.) L. colossus. — Gk. 
»akwja69, a large statue. Der. coloss-al, 
Le large. 

ooliaeum, the same as colosseum^ a large 
amphitheatre at Rome, in which stood a 
colossal statue of Nero. The Ital. word is 

Colour. (F. - L.) M. E. colour, - O. F. 
colour (F. couleur), — L ace colorem, from 
color, 9^ \mi, (^ KAL.) 

Colporteur ; see Collar. 

CoH. (E.) A. S. colt, a young camel, 
young ass, &c. + Swed. dial, kullt^ a boy, 
kull, a brood. Perhaps allied to child. 

Columbine, a plant (F.-L.) O. F. 
colotnbin, » Low L. columbina^ a columbine ; 
L. columbinus, dove-like ; from a supposed 
resemblance. "- L. columba^ a dove. See 

Column, a pillar, body of troops. 
(F. -• L.) L. columnar a pillar; cf. 
columen, culmen, a summit, collis, a hill, 
tfrZfKj, high. (VKAL.) 

colonel. (F. — Ital. — L.) Sometimes 
coronel, which is the Span, spelling ; 
whence perhaps the pronunciation as 
kurtuL •- F. colonel, colonneU — Hal. 
colomllOf a colonel; lit. a little column. 
The colonel was he who led the company 
at the head of the regiment. Dimin. of 
Ital. colonna, a colunm. >- L. columna 

colonnade. (F.-Ital.-L.) T, colon- 
HcuU. » Ital. colonnata, a range of columns. 
>- Ital. colonna, a column (above). 

Coliire, one of two great circles on the 
celestial sphere. (L. -• Gk.) So called 
because a part of them is always beneath 
the horizon. The word means docked, 
clipped. ■- L. colurus, curtailed ; a colure. >- 
Gk. iK^Aovpof, dock-tailed, truncated ; a 
colure. » Gk. mhK'Os, docked, clipped ; and 
oSipa, a tail. 

Com-, prefix. (L.) Put for cum, with, 
together ; when followed by b, f, «, p. 
See Con-. Der. corn-mix, where mix is £. ; 
and see below. 

Coma ; see Cemetery. 

Comb. (£.) A. S. camb, a comb, crest. 



ridge. + Du. kam, Icel. kambr, Dan. Swed. 
kam\ G. kamm^ 

cam. (Scand.) Dan. kam, comb, also a 
ridge on a wheel, cam, or cog. 

oakum, tow from old ropes. (E.) 
A. S. dcumba, tow. (For the letter- 
change, cf. El. oak=K,S. dc.) Lit. 'that 
which is combed out.*>-A. S. d-, prefix 
(Goth, us, out) ; ccmban, to comb, camb, a 
comb ; see A- (4). Cf. O. H. G. dcambi, 
tow ; of like origin. 

unkempt, i. e. uncombed ; for un- 
hcmb*d.'mA.S. ccmban, to comb; formed 
(by vowel-change of a to e) from camb, a 

Comb, Coomb, a dry measure. (L.— 
Gk.) A. S. cumb, a cup. >- Low L. cumba, 
— Gk. ieifti0rj, a bowl, hollow vessel. 

Combat; see Batter (i). 

Combe, a hollow in a hill-side. (C.) 
W. cwm, Corn, cum, a hollow, dale ; Irish 
cumar, a valley. (^ KU.) 

Combine ; see Binary. 

Combustion. (F.-L.) T. combustion. 
-•L. ace. combustionem, a burning up. ■- 
L. combust'US, pp. of comb-urere, to bum 
up. — L. comb-, lor cum, together ; urere, to 
bum. (VUS.) 

Come. (E.) A. S. cuman, pt. t. cam, 
pp. cumen.^iyoi. komcn, Icel. %oma, Dan. 
kommc, Sw. komma, Goth, kwiman, G. 
kommen, L. uen-ire (guen-ire*), Gk. 0<Uv' 
Hv (jpwalvuv*) ; Skt. gam, to go, gd, to go. 

become. (E.) A. S. bccuman, to arrive, 
happen, turn out, befall. •!■ Goth, bi-kwim- 
an \ cf. G. bc-quem, suitable, becoming. 

comely. (E.) A. S. cymllc, comely. — 
A. S. cyme, suitable, from cuman, to come ; 
and lie, like. 

income, gain, revenue. (E.) Properly 
that which comes in ; from in and come. 
So also out-come, i. e. result. 

welcome. (Scand.) Icel. velkominn, 
welcome, in greeting, properly a pp. — Icel. 
vel, the same as E. well ; and kominn, pp. 
aikoma, to come ; so also Dan. vel-kommen, 
Swed. vdl-kommen. 

Comedy. (F.-L.-Gk.) K^.Y.comedie, 
'a play;* Cot.-»L. comcedia.^QV. icwit^' 
Ua^ a comedy. >- Gk. Kufio-s, a banquet, 
festal procession ; <u6^, ode, lyric song ; a 
comedy was a festive spectacle, with sing- 
ing, &c. The Gk. fewfwi meant a banquet 
at which guests reclined; fiom Kot/taw, I 
lull to rest; cf. Koirtj, a bed. And see 



comio. (L. — Gk.) L. comictts.'mGk, 
Kw/uM&s, belonging to a itSffios, as above. 

enoomimn, commendation. (L. -• Gk.) 
Latinised from Gk. lyidfiuoy, nent. of 
kyicdf/uos, laudatory, lull of revelry. -^Gk. 
•I', in ; Kw/ios, revelry. 

Comely ; see Come. 

Comet. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. comete.^ 
L. cometa.^Qr\i, leofi'ffTffs, long-haired; a 
tailed star, comet. — Gk. kS/uj, hair.4*L. 
coma, hair. ^ Also A. S. cometa « L. 

Comfit ; see Fact. 

Comfort ; see Force (i). 

Comic ; see Comedy. 

Comity, urbanity. (L.) L. comitatem, 
ace. of comitast urbanity. -• L. comis, 

Comma. (L.— Gk.) L. comma, 'mQV, 
ic6fXfM, that which is struck, a stamp, a 
clause of a sentence, a comma (that marks 
the clause). » Gk. K^rrccK, to hew, strike. 

Command; seeHandate. 

Commem.orate ; see Memory. 

Commence ; see Itinerant. 

Commend ; see Mandate. 

Commensurate ; see Measure. 

Comment ; see Mental. 

Commerce ; see Merit. 

Comml nation ; see Menace. 

Commingle. (L. and £.) From Com- 
and Mingle. 

Comminution ; see Minor. 

Commiserate ; see Miser. 

Commissary, Commit ; see Missile. 

Commodious ; see Mode. 

Commodore ; see Mandate. 

Common. (F. » L.) M. £. commun, 
comoun, » O. F. commun. >- L. communis, 
common, general. » L. com- (cum), together 
with ; and munis, obliging, bindmg by 
obligation (Plautus). (^MU, to bind.) 
Der. commun-ion, commun-ity, 

eommime, verb. (F. — L.) M. £. 
comunen, O. F. communier, to communi- 
cate, talk with. » L. communicare, » L. 
communis, common. 

communioate. (L.) L. communica- 
ius, pp. of communicare (above). Der. ex- 

Commotion ; see Move. 

Commute ; see Mutable. 

Compact ; see Fact. 

Company. (F.-L.) fA."E,, companye, 
O. F. companie (cf. also O. F. compain, a 
companion, O. F. companion (F. compagnon\ 


a companion). » Low L. companiem, ace. of 
companies, a taking of meals together.— 
L. com- (cum), togeUier ; and pants, bread ; 
see Fantry. Der. companion =■ O. F. com- 
panion, • Also cucompany, O. F. accom- 
paignier, from F. a (s=L. ac[) and cotn- 
paignier, to associate with, from compaignie, 

Compare ; see Fare. 

Compartment ; see Fart. 

Compass ; see Fatent. 

Compassion, Compatible; see Fa- 

Compeer; see Far. 

Compel ; see Fulsate. 

Compendioius ; see Fendant. 

Compensate; see Fendant. 

Compete; seeFetition. 

Compile ; see Fill (2). 

Complacent ; see Flease. 

Complain ; see Flague. 

Complaisant ; see Flease. 

Complement, Complete; see Fle- 

Complex, Complexion ; see Fly. 

Complicate, Complicity ; see Fly. 

Compliment, Compline; seeFlenary. 

Comply ; see Flenary. 

Component; see Fosition. 

Comi>ort ; see Fort (i). 

Compose ; see Fose. 

Composition, Comi>o8t, Com- 
pound; see Fosition. 

Comprehend; see Frehensile. 

Compress ; see Fress. 

Comprise ; see Frehensile. 

Compromise ; see Missile. 

Comptroller; see Rotary. 

Compulsion; see Fulsate. 

Compunction ; see Fungent. 

Compute ; see Futative. 

Comrade ; sed Chamber. 

Con (i), to scan; see Can (i). 

Con (2), short for contra, against. (L.) 
In the phrase * pro and con* 

QoTL', prefix, (L.) Put for com- (cum), 
with, when the following letter is c, d, g, j, 
n, q, s, t, or v. Before b, f, m, p, it is 
com- ; before /, col' ; before r, cor-. 

Concatenate ; see Chain. 

Concave ; see Cave. 

Conceal ; see CeU. 

Concede ; see Cede. 

Conceit ; see Capacious. 

Conceive, Conception; see Capa- 

Concentre; see Centre. 


Conoem,Tb. (F— L.) T.concemer.^l^, 
€4mcemere, to mix ; in late Lat^ to belong 
to, regard. --L. con- {cum), with; and cer- 
nerif to separate, decree, observe. 4- Gk. 
iefiiv€iy, to separate, decide; Skt M, to 
pour out (VSKAR.) 

decree. (F. - L.) M. E. decree, — O. F. 
decree, ^h, decrefum,^!,, decretus, pp. of 
de-cemere, to decree, lit to separate. 

decretal. (L.) Low L. decretale, a 
pope's decree ; neut of decretalis, contain- 
ing a decree. —L. decretum (above). 

discern. (F.— L.) O.F. discemer.'^ 
L. dis-cemere, to distinguish. 

discreet, prudent (F,— L.) O. F. dis- 
cret, — h,dgscre/us, i^p,oi dis-cemere (above). 
l}0r, discret'Um. 

discriminate. (L.) 'L,discrimina(us, 
pp. of discriminare, to separate. ■• L. dis- 
crimift; stem of discrimen, a separation. * 
L*. dis-cemirc (pt. t discre-ui), to dis- 

excrement. (L.) L. excrementum, 
refuse, ordure. «i L. excre-tum, supine of 
eX'Cemere, to separate. 

excretion. (F.— L.) 0,¥, excretion; 
formed from L. excretus, pp. of ex-cemere 

secret. (F.mL.) VL,'Ss, secre, secree,^ 
O. F. secret (fem. secreie), -• L. secretus, 
secret, set apart ; pp. of se-eerrure, to sepa- 
rate. Der. secrete, verb, from L. secretus; 

secretary. (F.— L.) F. secretaire,'* 
Low L. secretarium, ace. of secretarius, a 
confidential officer. «i L. secret-us, secret 

Concert, to plan with others, arrange. 
(F.«iL.) (Quite distinct from consort.) 
See Series. 

Concession ; see Ce'de. 
Conch, a marine shell. (L. -• Gk.) L. 
concha,^G\i. k&ymj (also k^kos), a cockle- 
shell. 4" Skt eaoMha, a conch. Der. concho- 
logy (from xirfKo^), 

Cf>f^ (5)» oo(^-boat, a small boat. 
(F. - L. - Gk.) O.F. coque, a kind of 
boat, orig. a shell. «i L. concha (above). 
We also find Du. Dan. kog, Icel. kuggr, 
prob. borrowed from Com. coc, W. cwch, 
a boat, which are allied to L. concha, "Der. 
cox-swain {coci-swain), 

cocoa, coco, cocoa-nut palm. (Port) 
Port and Span, coco, a bugbear, an ugly 
mask to frighten children; hence applied 
to the cocoa-nut on account of the 
monkey-like face at the base of the nut. 



The orig. sense of coco was skull, head; 
allied to F. coque, shell,"!,, concha (above). 
cocoon, case of a chrysalis. (F.-*L.~ 
Gk.) F. cocon, a cocoon ; from coque, a 
shell -• L. concha (above). And see Ctoaoh. 

Conciliate ; see Calenda. 

Concise ; see Ooanra. 

Conclave ; see GOlaTiole. 

Conclude ; see Olanse. 

Concoct ; see Cook. 

Concomitant ; see Itinerant 

Concord; see Cordial. 

Concourse ; see Current. 

Concrete; seeCreaoent. 

Concubine ; see Covey. 

Concupiscence; see Cupid. 

Concur ; see Cnxrent. 

Concussion ; see Quaah. 

Condemn ; see Damn. 

Condense ; see Dense. 

Condescend ; see Scan. 

Condign ; see Dignity. 

Condiment. (L.) L. condimtnium, 
seasoning, sauce. — L. condire, to season, 
spice. (Orig. unknown.) 

Condition; see Diction. 

Condole ; see Doleful. 

Condone ; see Date (i). 

Condor, a large bird. (Span. — Peruvian.) 
Span, condor, >- Peruv. cuntur, a condor. 

Conduce, Conduct, Condiiit; lee 

Cone. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. con4, - L. 
conus.'mG\i, KSwcftt a cone, peak, peg. 4* 
L. cuneus, a wedge ; A. S. hdn, a hone. 

canopy. (F.-Ital.-L.«iGk.) Should 
be conopy\ but we find F. canopi, borrowed 
from Ital. canopt, (Also Y.conopie^^\^ 
conopeum, Judith, xiii. 9. >- Gk. Kotwwwuw, 
an Egyptian bed with mosquito curtains 
(hence, any sort of hangings). -• Gk. 
Kojvont-^ stem of tcwpoaff, a mosquito, gnat; 
lit. ' cone-faced * or ' cone-headed,* from the 
shape of its head.MGk. itutvo-s, a cone; 
and d^, face, appearance, from Gk. base 
on, to see (see Optics). 

Coney; see Cony. 

Confabulate ; see Fate. 

Confection ; see Fact. 

Confederate; see Federal. 

Confer; see Fertile. 

Confess; see Fame. 

Confide ; see Faith. 

Configuration ; see Figure. 

Confine ; see Final. 

Confirm; see Firm. 



Confiscate ; see Fisoal. 

Conflagration ; see Flagrant. 

Conflict ; see AfELiot. 

Confluent ; see Fluent. 

Conform ; see Form. 

Confound ; see Foae (i). 

Confraternity; see Fraternal. 

Confront ; see Front. 
. Conftise. Confute; see Fuse (i). 

Conge, Cong^ee ; see Permeate. 

Congeal ; see Qelid. 

Congenial, Congenital ; see Genus. 

Conger, a sea-eel. (L.) L. conger^ a sea- 
eel. + Gk. yiyypoSf the same. 

Congeries, Congestion; see Gerund. 

Conglobe, Conglomerate ; see Globe. 

Conglutinate ; see Glue. 

Congratulate ; see Grace. 

Congregate ; see Gregarious. 

Congress ; see Grade. 

Congrue, to agree, suit. (L.) L. con- 
gruerct to suit. (Root uncertain.) Der. 
congru-ent, from the pres. pt. ; congru-ous, 
L. congruuSt suitable ; congru-i-ty. 

Conjecture; see Jet (i). 

Conjoin, Coxijugal, dosjugate; see 

Conjure ; see Jury. 

Connect ; see Annex. 

Connive. (F. - L.) F. conniver. — L. 
conniuere, to close the eyes at, overlook. >- 
L. con- {cum), together ; and the base wV-, 
to wink; cf. nic-tare, to wink. (^NIK.) 

Connoisseur ; see Noble. 

Connubial; seeNuptiaL 

Conquer ; see Query. 

Consanguineous ; see Sanguine. 

Conscience ; see Soience. 

Conscionable, Conscious ; see 

Conscript; see Scribe. 

Consecrate ; sec Sacred. 

Consecutive ; see Sequence. 

Conserve ; see Serve. 

Consider ; see Sidereal. 

Consign ; see Sign. 

Consist ; see State. 

Console ; see Solace. 

Consolidate ; see Solid 

Consonant'; see Sound (3). 

Consort ; see Sort. 

Conspicuous ; see Species. 

Conspire ; see Spirit. 

Constable ; see Itinerant. 

Constant ; see State. 

Constellation ; see Stellar. 

Consternation ; see Stratum. 


Constipate ; see Stipulate. 1 

Constitute ; see State. 

Constrain ; see Stringent. 

Construe ; see Structure. 

Consul. (L.) L. consul^ a consul. Etym. 
doubtful ; perhaps from consulere^ to con- 
sult ; see below. 

Consult. (F. — L.) F. comuUer. — L. 
consultare, to consult; frequent form of 
conmlere, to consult. Root uncertain. 

counsel. (F. — L.) M. E. conseil,^ 
O. F. conseil.'m'L. consilium, deliberation. 
>- L. consulere, to consult. 

Consume; see Exempt. 

Consummate ; see Sub-. 

Consumption; see Exempt. 

Contact, Contagion; see Tangent. 

Contain ; see Tenable. 

Contaminate ; see Tangent. 

Contemn. (F. — L.) F. contemner. ^^1^ 
contemnere, to despise. — L. con- {cum), 
with, wholly ; iemnere, to despise. 

contempt. (F. — L.) O. F. contempt, ^m 
L. contemptus, scorn. — L. pp. contemptus. 

Contemplate ; see Temple (i). 

Contemporaneous ; see Temporal. 

Contend ; see Tend (i). 

Content ; see Tenable. 

Contest ; see Testament. 

Context ; see Text. 

Contiguous; see Tangent. 

Continent ; see Tenable. 

Contingent; see Tangent. 

Continue ; see Tenable. 

Contort ; see Torture. 

Contour ; see Turn. 

Contra-, prefix, (L.) L. contra, against. 
Compounded of con-, for cum, with ; and 
'tra, related to trans, beyond. Der. contra- 
distinguish, &c.; and see Contrary. 

counter-, /r^. (F. — L.) Y, contre, 
against. — L. contra (above). 

encounter. (F.-L.) O.Y.encontrcr, 
to meet in combat. — F. en, in ; contre, 
against. — L. in, in ; contra, against. 

rencounter, rencontre. (F. — L.) 
F. rencontre, a meeting. — F. rencontrer, to 
meet. — F. re-, again; encontrer, to meet 

Contraband ; see Ban. 

Contract ; see Trace (i). 

Contradict ; see Diction. 

Contralto ; see Altitude. 

Contrary. (F. — L.) F. contraire.^^l,, 
contrarius, contrary; formed (with suffix 
-arius) from contra, against ; see Contra*. 

Contrast; see State. 


Contravene ; see Venture. 

Contribute ; see Tribe. 

Contrite ; see Trite. 

Contrive ; see Trover. 

Control; seeBotary. 

Controversy; see Verse. 

Contumacy. (L.) Englished from L. 
lon/umada, obstinacy. >- L. contumact-, 
crude fonn of contumax, stubborn; sup- 
posed to be allied to contemnere ; see 

Contumely. (F. - L.) F. contumelU, 
w L. tontumelia, insult, reproach ; prob. 
allied to cotUumacia ; see Gontumacy. 

Contuse, to bruise severely. (L.) L. 
eontusus, pp. of corUundtrtf to bruise 
severely. -• L. coH' {cum\ with, much ; and 
tundere, to strike. 4- Skt. tud^ to strike; 
Goth, stautan, to strike. ( V STUD. ) 

obtuse, blunt (F.-L.) O. F. obtus, 
'dull;* Cot -• L. obtusus, blunted, pp. of 
cb'tundertt to beat against And see 

Convalesce; see Valid. 

Convene, Convent ; see Venture. 

Converge ; see Verge (i). 

Converse, Convert ; see Verse. 

Convex; seeVehiole. 

Convey; see Viaduct. 

Convince ; see Victor. 

Convivial; see Victuals. 

Convoke ; see VocaL 

Convolve; see Voluble. 

Convoy ; see Viaduct. 

Convulse, to agitate violently. (L.) L. 
conuulsuSf pp. of conuelUrtt to pluck up, 
convulse. — L. con- (cum), with, severely; 
uelUre, to pluck (of uncertain origin). 

revulsion. (F. — L.) F. revulsion^ * a 
plucking away ; also the drawing of 
humours from one part of the body to the 
other ;' Cot » L. reuulsiomm, ace. of re- 
uuhio, a plucking back. — L. reuulsus, pp. 
of ri'UelUre, 

Cony, Coney, a rabbit (E. ; <?rF.-L.) 
M. £. coni ; also conyng. Most likely an 
£. word ; cf. Du. konijn, Dan. kanin, 
Swed. kaninhane (cock-rabbit), G. kanin- 
chcn, a rabbit, p. Otherwise, from O. F. 
connil « L. cuniculus, a rabbit (^ 
SK AN ?) 

Coo. (E) A purely imitative word; 
also spell croo, Cff. cuckoo, cock. 

Cook. (L.) M. E coken, to cook ; A. S. 
c6c, a cook. — L. coquere, to cook ; coquus, 
a coolc-fGlc wiwTuv, SktfacA, to cook. 
(VKWAK,orig. KAK.) 



biscuit, a kind of cake. (F.-L.) F. 
biscuit, lit. twice cooked.— F. bis (L. bi£), 
twice ; and cuit, cooked, from L. coctus, 
pp. of coquere, to cook. 

cake. (Scand. -L.) M.E. r^z^^.-Icel. 
and Swed. kaka ; Dan. kage ; so also Du. 
koek, G. kuchcn, a cake, clearly allied to 
G. kiiche, cooking, kochen, to cook. All 
from L. coquere^ to cook. 

concoct. (L.) h. concoctus, -p^. of con- 
coquere, to cook together, boil together, 

decoct. (L.) L. dccoctus, pp. of de* 
coquere, to boil down. 

kitchen. (L.) M.E. kichene, A.S. 
cicen (put for cycen). — L. coquina, a kitchen. 
-•L. coquere, to cook; see Cook (above). 

precocious. (L.) Coined from L. 
pracoci; crude form oiprcuox, prematurely 
ripe. —L. prce, before ; coquere, to cook, to 

Cool. (E.) A. S. cSl, cool. +Du. koel\ 
Dan koU G. kuhl, AUied to Oelid. 

chilblain. (£.) A blain caused by chill. 

chill, cold. (E.) Properly a sb. A. S. 
cyle, die, chilliness. » A. S. cilan, to cool. 
— A. S. c6l, C00I.4-DU. kiU, a chill ; Swed. 
kyla, to chill ; L. gelu, frost 

cold. (E) M. E. cold, kald, adj., A.S. 
ceald, adj.+lcel. kaldr, Swed. kall^ Dan. 
kold, Du. koud, Goth, kalds, G. kalt, Cf. 
L. gelidus, cold. 

Keel (2), to cooL (E.) To keel a pot 
is to keep it from boiling over, lit to 
cool it. — A.S. cilan, to cool; see Chill 

Coolie, Cooly, an East Indian porter. 
(Hind. -■ Tamil.) Hind, kiili, a labourer, 
porter, cooley (Forbes). —Tamil >b//i, daily 
hire or wages ; a day-labourer (Wilson). 
Coomb ; see Comb. 
Coop. (L.) M. E. cupe, a basket 
A. S. cipa, » L. cupa, a tub ; whence also 
Du. kutp, IceL kiipa, tub, bowl, G. kufe, 
tub, vat, coop. Cf. Skt kiipa, a pit, 
hollow. (^ KU.) Der. coop-er, tub- 

cowl (3), a vessel carried on a pole. 
(F. - L.) M. E. couL - O. F. cuvel 
Icuveau), a little tub; dimiu. of cuve, a 
vat, tub. — L. cupa (above). 

goblet. (F.-L.) Y,gobelet, 'a goblet;' 
Cot Dimin. of O. F, gobel, a cup. —Low 
L. cupellum, ace of cupellus, a cup ; dimin« 
of L. cupa, a vat 

Co-operate, Co-ordinate; see Ope- 
rate, Order. 



Coot* (C.) M. E. cote, coote, a water- 
fo\iC^ ; A. S. cyta, a kind of bird ; Da. koet, 
a coot. Prob. Celtic » W. cwtiar, a coo^ 
lit. a bob-tailed hen, from cwta, short, bob- 
tailed, and tar, a hen ; cwtictd, cwtyn, a 
plover. Gael, cut, a bob-tail. --W. cwtau, 
to shorten, dock , see Cut. 

Ck>pal. (Span.— Mexican.) Span.A7/a/. 

— Mex. copalli, resin. 

Cope (i), a cape ; see Cape (i). 
Cope (2), to Tie with ; see Cheap. 
Copious ; see Optative. 
Copper, a metal. (Cjrprus.) M. E. coper. 

— Low L. cuper, L. cuprum, a contraction 
for Cuprium ces, Cyprian brass. — Gk. 
KWptos, Cyprian; Kvir/>o;, Cypms, whence 
the Romans got copper. 

copperas, sulphate of iron. (F.— L.) 
M. E, coperose. 'mO, F. coperose {coupcrose) ; 
cf. ItaL copparosa, — L. atpri rosa, rose of 
copper, a translation of Gk. x^'^'^'^^^^t 
brass-flower, copperas. 

oupreous, coppery. (L.) L. cupreus, 
adj. oi cuprum. 

Coppice^ Coppy, Copse, a small 
wood. (F. — L. — Gk.) C?/^ is short for 
coppice, and copse is contracted. — O. F. 
copeiz\ Low L. copecia, underwood fre- 
quently cut, brushwood. -• O. F. coper (F. 
couper), to cut. — O. F. cop (F. coup), a 
stroke. » Low L. colpus, L. colaphus, stroke, 
blow. — Gk. if<jAcw^off, a blow. 

recoup, to diminish a loss. (F. — L. and 
Gk.) Lit to secure a piece or shred.— 
F. recoupe, a shred. —F. recouper, to cut 
again. — L, rc; again ; and F, couper, to 
cut (above). 

Copiilate ; see Couple. 

Copy; see Optative. 

Coquette ; see Cook (i). 

Coracle, a light wicker boat (W.) W. 
corwgl, cwrwgl, coracle ; dimin. of corwg, 
a trunk, cwrwg, a boat, frame. So Crael. 
curachan, coracle; from curach, boat of 
wicker-work, Ir. corrach, 

CoraL (F.-L. - Gk.) O. F. coral, - 
L. coraUum, corallium, — Gk. Kop&KXiov, 

Corban, a gift. (Heb.) Heb. qorb&n, 
an ofifering to God, in fulfilment of a vow. 
Arab, qurbdn, a sacrifice. 

CorbeL (F.-L.) O.F. corbel, a little 
basket, a corbel (in architecture). [Dis- 
tinct from O. F. corbel, a raven.] — Low L. 
corbella, little basket — L. corbis, basket 

corvette, a small frigate. (F. — Port.- 
L.) F. corvette. — Port corv€ta\ Span. 


corbeta, a corvette. ■■ I#. corbtta, a slow- 
sailing ship of burden.— L. corbis, basket. 
Cora ; see Chord. 

CordiaL (F. - L.) F. cordial, hearty. 
— L. cordi; crude form of cor, heart ; with 
suffix -alis ; see Heart. 

accord. (F. — L.) O. F. acorder, to 
agree.— Low L. ac-cordare, to agree; used 
for L. coH'Cordare (below). Der. cucord- 
ing, accord'ing-ly, &c. ; accord-ion, from 
its sweet sound. 

concord. (F. — L.) F. eoncorde, — L. 
Concordia, agreement — L. concord-, stem 
of con-cors, agreeing.— L. con- (cum); cor 
(stem cord-), the heart 

concordant. (F.-L.) F. concordant, 
pres. pt of concorder, to agree.— L. con- 
cordare, to agree. 

concordat. (F. - ItaL - L.) F. con- 
cordat, an agreement. — ItaL concordato, a 
convention, thing agreed on, esp. between 
the pope and F. kings ; pp. of concordare, 
to agree. — L. concordare (above). 

core. (F. — L.) M. E. core, heart (of 
fruit). — O. F. cor, coer, .heart — L. cor, 

courage. (F.-L.) F. courage, O.F. 
corage ; formed with sufiix -age (L. -aticuvi) 
from O. F. cor, heart (above). Der. en- 

discord. (F.— L.) O.F. descord, dis- 
cord, variance. — L. dis-cordia, variance; cf. 
concord (above). 

quarry (2), a heap of slaughtered 
game. (F. — L.) M. E. auerre, — O. F. 
coree, curee, the intestines 01 a slain animal, 
the part given to hounds. — Low L. corata, 
the intestines; so called from containing 
the heart. — L. cor, the heart (Cf, O. F. 
quer, the heart) 

record. (F. — L.) M. E. recorden. - 
O. F. recorder. — L. recordare, recordari, to 
recall to mind^- L. re- again; cord-, stem 
of cor, heart. 

Cordwainer, shoemaker. (F. — Span.) 
M. E. cordwaner, a worker in cordcwane, 
Le. leather of Cordova. — O. F. cordouan. 
Cordovan leather.— Low L. Cordoa^ Cor- 
dova in Spain (L. Corduba). 
Core ; see CordiaL 

Coriander. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. cori- 
andrc'^h, coriandrum, — Gk. Kopuun^ov, 
K6piov, coriander. The leaves are said to 
have a strong bug-like smell; from Gk. 
itbpii, a bug. 
Cork. (Span.— L.) Span, corcho, cork. 
— L. corticem, ace oi cortex, bark. 


Cormorant, a bird. (F.-L.) The / is 
excrescent. >- F. eormoran ; the same as 
Port, corvomarinho (sea-crow), cormorant. 
■•L. caruus marinus, sea-crow. Perhaps 
confused with L. coruus, a crow, and Bret. 
irufrzmin, a cormorant (from m4fr, sea, and 
drun, a crow). 

Com (i), grain. (E.) A. S. com.'^'DvL, 
kcren, G. IceL Dan. Swed. kom, Goth. 
kaurtij L. granum, Russ. temo ; see 
Grain. (V GAR.) 

ohnm. (Scand.) Icel. jkima, Swed. 
kdma, Dan. kieme, a chum ; from O. 
Swed. kfrna, Swed. kdma, Dan. kieme, to 
chum; cf. Du. and G. kemen, to chum. 
Grig, to curdle, turn to a curd or ' kemel ; * 
cf. Icel. kjama, Swed. kdma, Dan. kieme, 
kemel, pith, core, Du. and G. kern, grain, 
kemel ; closely allied to Com. 

kernel. (£.) A.S. cymel, a grain; 
dimin. of A.S. com, a grain (with the 
usual change from o to y). And see 
dram above. 

Com (2), a hard excrescence on the 
foot. (F.«-L.) F. come, a horn, homy 
swelling. (Cot)— Low L. coma ; L. comu, 
a horn ; see Horn. 

cornea, homy membrane in the eye. 
(L.) L. cornea, fem. of comeus, homy. — L. 
camu, a hom. 

oomel, a shrub. (F.— L.) F. comille, 
a comel*berry ; comillier, comel-tree. >- 
Low L. comiola, comel-berry; comolium, 
comel-tree. — L. comus, a comel-tree; 
from the hard, homy nature of the wood. — 
L. comu, a horn. 

cornelian, a kind of chalcedony. (F. — 
L.) Formerly comaline, — F. comaiine, 
* the comix or comaiine, a flesh-coloured 
stone;' Cot Cf. Port comeiina; Ital. 
comiola.^lt. comu, hom; in allusion to 
the semi-transparent appearance. ^ Altered 
to camelian in £., and cameol in G., from 
a popular etymology which connected it 
with L. cam-, stem of caro, flesh. Cf. onyx 
MGk.5n;f, finger-naiL 

comer. (F.— L.) O. F. comiere, — 
Low L. conuria, comer, angle. -• Low L. 
coma, angle. "-L. comu, hom, projection. 

cornet. (F.—L.) M. £.^^^^71^/, ahom; 
also a troop of horse (accompanied by a 
comet or bugle) ; also an officer of such a 
troop. — F. comet, cometie, dimin. of F. 
tome, a hom ; see Com. 

cornucopia. (L.) For, comu-copiee, 
hom of plenty. 

tuaioomy one-homed animal. (F.mL.) 



F. unieome. ■■ L. im t«, for unus, one ; 
comu, horn. 

Cornice, Corolla^ Corollary; see 

Coronation, Coroner, Coronet; see 

Corporal (i) ; see Capital. 

Corporal (2), belonging to the body. (L.) 
L. corporalis, bodily. .*L. corpor-, stem of 
corpus, the body. Der, (from L. corpor-) 
corpor-ate, corpor-e-cU (L. corpore-us), &c. 

corps, corpse, corse, a body. (F.— 
L.) Here corps is mod. F. ; corse is from 
corpse by loss of p, M. E. cofps^^O.F. 
corps, cors, the body. — L. corpus, 

■corpulent. (F.-L.) F. corpulent, - 
L. corpU'lentus, fat » L. corpus, 

corpnsde. (L.) L. corpus-cu-lum, 
double dimin. of corpus, 

corset. (F. — L.) F. corset, a pair of 

stays ; dimin. of O. F. cors, body; see corps. 

corslet. (F.-L.) F. corselet, 'a little 

body,' Cot. ; hence body-armour. Double 

dimin. of O. F. cors, body ; see corps. 

incorporate.. (L.) L. incorporatus, 
pp. of in-corporarCt to furnish with a body ; 
hence to form into a body. 

Correct; see Begent. 

Correlate ; see Tolerate. 

Correspond ; see Sponsor. 

Corridor ; see Current. 

Corroborate ; see Bobuat. 

Corrode ; see Bodent. 

Corrugate ; see Bugose. 

Corrupt; seeBupture. 

Corsair ; see Current. 

Corset, Corslet ; see Corporal (a). . 

Cortege ; see Court. 

Cortex, bark. (L.) See Cork. 

Coruscate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
coruscare, to glitter. 

Corvette ; see CorbeL 

Cosmic, relating to the world. (Gk.) 
Gk. KoafunSs, adj., from it6a/ioi, order, also 
the world, universe. 

cosmetic, that which beautifies. (Gk.) 
Gk. tcoafjirjriK6s, skilled in adoming; 
whence also F. cosmJtique.^G)/L ttocfiiw, 
I adom. — Gk. k6ciios, order, omament. 
Also cosmo-gony, cosmo-graphy, cosmo-logy, 
cosmo-polite (citizen of the world, Gk. 
woXlrrjs, a citizen). 

Cossack, a light-armed S. Russian 
soldier. (Russ. — Tatar.) Russ. kozake, 
kazake ; said to be of Tatar (Tartar) origin. 

Cost ; see State. 

Costal; see Coast. 



Co8termoii£:er. {Y.and'E.) Formerly 
costerd-monger or costard-monger, a seller 
of costards or apples. [The suffix -monger 
is £. ; see Monger.} M. E. costard^ an 
apple, where the snrax -ard is F. ; prob. 
from O. F. coste, cost, also spice ; cf. G. 
kostt which means ' food * as well as * cost/ 
[Etym. doubtful.] 

€k>Btive ; see Stipulate. 

Costume ; see Oustom. 

Cot, a small dwelling; Cote, an en- 
closure. (E.) M. E. cote, A. S. cote, a cot, 
den ; Northumbrian cot. 4- Du. kot, Icel. 
kot, cot, hut ; prov.G.^^M, cot. Der. cott-age 
(withF.suflBix) ; cott-arorcott-er*, sheep^ote. 

coat. (F. - G.) M. E. cote. - O. F. cote 
(F. cotte) ; Low L. cota, a coat, also a cot. 
— M. H. G. kotte, kutte, a coarse mantle, 
lit. * covering ; * allied to A. S. cote, a cot, 
orig. ' covering.' 

coterie, a set of people. (F.— Teut) 

F. coterie, a set of people, company; 
allied to O. F. coterie, servile tenure 
(Littr^) ; Low L. coteria, a tenure by 
cottars who clubbed together. » Low L. 
cota^ a cot.— Du. kot (above). 

cotillon, cotillion, a dance for 8 
persons. (F. — M. H.G.) F. cotillon, lit. 
a petticoat ; see Cotgrave. Formed, with 
suffix 'ill'on, from O. F. cote, a coat, frock ; 
see coat (above). 

Cotton (i), a downy substance. (F. — 
Span. — Arab.) M. E. cotoun.'^Y, colon, 
—Span, colon, algodon, cotton (where al is 
the Arab. art.). —Arab. £s^» qutun, cotton. 
cudweed, a plant (F. — Span. — Arab. ; 
and E.) Also called cotton-weed, of which 
cudweed is a contraction. 

Cotton (3), to agree. (W.) W. cytuno, 
to agree. 

Cotyledon, seed-lobe. (Gk.) Gk. 
KorvT^qUav, a cup-shaped hollow. — Gk. 
Kor^Kfl, a hollow vessel, cup. (^ KAT ?) 

Couch ; see Loous. 

Cough. (O. Low G.) M. E. coughen, 
cowhen. \Thit A. S. word is hwSstan^ Cf. 
Du. kugchen^ to cough ; M. H. G. kuchen^ 

G, keichen, keuchen, to gasp. From an 
imitative base KUK, to gasp; see Chin- 

Could; see Oan (i). 

Coulter, part of a plough. (L.) M. E. 
colter, A. S. culler,*^, culler, a coulter, 
knife, lit. a cutter.+Skt. karttari, scissors, 
from krit, to cut. (V KART.) 

cutlass. (F. — L.) F. coutelas, ' a cutte- 
las, or courtelas, or short sword ; * Cot. 


(Perhaps borrowed from Ital. coltellaccio, 
* a curtleax,* Florio ; which is, at any rate, 
the same word.)— O.F. ^coutel, cultel (F. 
couteau), a knife; cf. Ital. coltello, knife. 

— L. ace. cultellum^ a knife ; dimin. of 
culler (above), if The F. -as, Ital. '<u:cio = 
L. -aceus', but F. coutelcuvtzs actually turned 
into E. curtleaxe I Yet a curtlecuce was a 
sort of swordX 

cutler. (F. - L.) M. E. coteler, - O. F. 
cotelier.^'Lovi L. cullellarius, knife-maker. 

— L. cultellus, a knife (above). 
Council ; see Calends. 
Counsel; see Constat. 
Count (i), a title ; see Itinerant. 
Count (a), to compute ; see Putative. 
Countenance ; see Tenable. 
Counter-, prefix ; see Contra-. 
Counteract ; see Agent. 
Counterfeit ; see Fact. 
Countermand ; see Mandate. 
Counterpane (i) ; see Quilt. 
Counterpane (2), counterpart of a 

deed ; see Fane. 

Counterpoint ; see Pungent. 

Counterpoise ; see Pendant. 

Counterscarp, -sign, -tenor; see 
Scarp, Sign, Tenable. 

Countervail; see Valid. 

Country. (F. — L.) M. E. contree. — 
O. F. contree (=Ital. contrada\ ^'Lo'w L. 
contrxida, contrata^ a region, lit. that which 
lies opposite ; a translation of G. gegend, 
country, lit. opposite, from gegen^ opposite. 

— L. contra, opposite ; see Contra-. 
County ; see Itinerant. 

Couple. (F. - L.) O. F. cople, later 
couple. — L. copula, a bond, band, that 
which joins ; short for co-ap-ula^. — L. co- 
(cum), together ; and O. L. aperd*, to join, 
preserved in the pp. aptus ; see Apt. 

cobble (i), to patch up, mend. (F. — 
L.) O. F. cobler, coubler, to join together, 
another form of O. F. copier, the same. — 
O. F, cople^ a band (above). 

copulate. (L.) From pp. of L. copu- 
larct to join.— L. copula, a bsmd (above). 

Courage ; see Cordial. 

Courier, Course; see Current. 

Court (i), a yard ; royal retinue, judicial 
assembly. (F. — L.) M. E. cort, curt. — 
O. F. cort, curt (F. court), a court, a yard, 
also a tribunal. — Low L. cortis, a court- 
yard, court, palace. — L. corti-, crude form of 
cors, also spelt cohors, a hurdle, enclosure, 
cattle-yard, court, also a cohort, or band 
of soldiers. —L. co- {cum), together; and 


Jkori'US, a garden, garth, yard, cogbate 
wilh E. ^fiA and yard. (^GH AR.) 

cohort, a band of soldiers. (F.-L.) 
F. eohorte, 'm'L, ace. cohortem, from cohors 

oortege. (F.-Ital.-L.) F. cortege, a 
train, retinue. » Ital. cortegrio^ a retinue. 
■•ItaL corie, a court. — Low L. cortis; 
see CJourt (i) above. 

court (2), to seek favour. (F.-L.) 
From the sb. court ; bence-to practise arts 
in Togue at court 

courteous, of courtly manners. (F.— 
L.) M. £. corteis, seldom corteous. — O. F. 
cortiis, courteous. — O. F. corit, a court 

courtaBan. (Span. — L.) Span, corte- 
Sana ; fern, of cortesano, one belonging to 
the court «i Span, cortes, courteous; S-om 
corte^ court — Low L. cortis (above). 

courtesy. (F. - L.) M. E. corteisie. - 
O. F. corteisie, courtesy. -• O. F. corteis, 
courteous ; see courteous. 

courtier. (F. - L. ; and £.) From 
court I with £« suffix -ier, as in coll-ier, 
bow-yer, &c 

curtain. (Fj-L.) M. E. cortin.^O. F. 
eortine. «> Low L. cortina, a small court, a 
rampart or ' curtain ' of a castle, a hanging 
curtain round an enclosure.-" Low L. cortis 

curtsey, an obeisance (F.—L.) The 
same word as courtesy, a courtly act. 
Court 'cards; a corruption of coat 
cards, pictured cards, the old name. 
Courteous, &c. ; see Court. 
Cousin. (F.-L.) M. E. cosin.^O,Y, 
eosin (F. cousin). >- Low L. cosinus, contr. 
• form of L. consobrinus, the child of a 
mother*8 sister, a cousin. * L. r^/f- {cum), 
together; sobrinus, for sosbrinus* or sos- 
trinus,* from sostor* (later sosor*, soror,) a 
sister; see Schleicher, Compendium, 3rd 
ed. p. 433. 

coaen. ^F.— L.) To cozen is to act as 
cousin or kmsman, to sponge upon, beguile. 
•-F. cousiner, to call cousin, to sponge, 
live on other people; see Hamilton and 
Cotgrave. — F. cousin, a cousin (above). 

Cove, a nook. (E.) A. S. cS/a, a cham- 
ber, a cave. 4" ^cei* ^CA» ^ ^^^ ; G. /loben, 
a cabin, f Distinct from cave, coop, alcove. 
Covenant : see Venture. 
Cover, to hide. (F.— L.) O. F. covrir 
{couvrir).^\: coiiperire, to cover. — L. co- 
(cum), wholly; operire, to shut, hide. 

coverlet. (F.— L.) M. E. covertite." 
O. F. court/it {couvre-iit), a bed-cover.— 



O. F. covrir, to cover ; lit, a bed ( «L. ace. 
tectum, from lectus, a bed). 

covert. (F.-L.) O. F. covert, pp. of 
covrir, to cover (above). ^ 

curfew. (F. - L.) O. F. covrefeu 
(F. couvrcfeu), a fire-cover, covering of fires, 
time for putting out fires. — O. F. covrir, to 
cover ; feu, fire ( = L. focum, ace ol focus, 
hearth, fire) ; see Foous. 

discover. (F.-L.) "iJl.Y.. discoturen. 

— O. F. descouvrir, to uncover, disclose. — 
O. F. deS' (L, diS'), apart; couvrir, to 
cover (above). 

kerchief. (F. - L.) M. E. curchief, 
couerchef. 'mO. F. covrechef lit a head- 
covering. — O. F. covrir, to cover ; chef, the 
head ; see chief, under Capital. 

Covet ; see Cupid. 

Covey. (F. — L.) O. F. covee, a brood of 

partridges; fem. of pp. of cover (F. couver), 

to hatch, sit. — L. cubare, to lie down, sit. 

+ Gk. /riJiTTfiv, to bend. (v^KUP.) 

concubine. (F.-L.) O. F. conatbine. 

— L. concubina.^h. con- {cum), together; 
cubare, to lie. 

incubate. (L.) From pp. of L. fn- 
cubare, to sit on eggs to hatch them. 
incubus. (L.) L. incubus, a nightmare. 

— L. in-cubare, to lie upon. 
incumbent. (L.) L. incumbent-, stem 

of pres. pt. of in-atmbere, to recline on, 
rest on or in (remain in) ; where cumbere 
is a nasalised form allied to cubare, to lie 
down. So also pro-cumbent, prostrate ; re- 
cumbent, lying back upon ; succumb, to lie 
under, yield to. 

Cow (i), female of the bull. (E.) A. S. 
cil ; pi. cy, whence M. E. ky, and the 
double pi. ky-en^kine. + Du. koe, Icel. 
kyr, Swed. Dan. ko, G. kuh, Irish and 
Gael. bS, L. bos (gen. bou-is), Gk. fiow, 
Skt. go. (VGU.) See Beef. Buck (a). 

cowslip, a flower. (E.) M. E. cousloppe. 
A. S. cd-sloppe, cil-slyppe, lit. cow-slop, i. e. 
a piece of dung. (Other A. S. names of 
plants are of a very homely character.) Cf. 

Wine, cows. (E.) A double pi., made by 
adding -«, short for -en (A. S. -an), to M. E. 
ky, A. S. cy, cows. The A. S. cy, pi. of 
en, a cow, is formed by vowel-change from 
ti to y. 

Cow (2), to dishearten. (Scand.) Icel. 
ktiga, to tyrannise over; Dan. ktu, to 
coerce, subdue. 

Coward ; see CaudaL 

Cower. (Scand.) M. E. couren.^\<cifi\» 




Mfti, Dan. JhufTt to doze, lie quiet ; Swed. 
kura, to doze, roost, settle to rest (as 
birds). Cf. Goth, kwairrus, gentle. 

Cowl (i). a monk's hood. (E.) M. E. 
c^el, cuueL A. S. atflef a cowl. 4* ^^^1* 
hifi, kofi, cowl. Cf. L. cucullus, ( VSKU.) 

Cowl (2), a vessel carried on a pole ; see 

Cowry, a small shell used for money. 
(Hind.) Hind, kauri, a small shell 
\Cypraa monetd) nsed as coin in the lower 
provinces of India ; Bengali kori (Wilson). 

Cowslip ; see Cow. 

Coxcomb ; see Ck>ok (i). 

Coxswain ; see cook (5), imder Conoh. 

Cpy; see Quiet. 

Cozen ; see GoTisin. 

Crab (i). a shell-fish. (E.) A.S. crahha. 
+ led; krabbi, Swed. krabda, Dan. krabbe, 
Du. krab, G. krabbe, Cf. Gk. xipafios, 
prickly crab, beetle, L. scarabaus, beetle. 

crabbed, peevish, cramped. (E.) From 
crab, sb. ; i. e. crab-like, snappish or awk- 
ward. Cf. Du. krabben, to scratch, kribben, 
to be peevish ; Icel. krabba, to scrawl. 

crayfish. (F.-O.H.O A misspel- 
ling of M. E. crevise. — O. F. crevisse, es- 
crevisse (Jcrevisse). — O. H. G. crebiz, G, 
Itrebs, a crab ; allied to G. krabbe (above). 

Crab (2), a kind of apple. (Scand.) 
Swed. krabbdpU, a crab-apple; perhaps 
allied to Crab (i); i.e. pinching, sharp, 

Crabbed; see Crab (i). 

Crack. (£.) A. S. cearcian, to crack, 
gnash noisily.+Du. kraken, to crack, creak; 
G. krachen ; Gael, crac, a fissure, cnae, a 
crack, to crack. Imitative, like crake, 
creaky croak, crash, gncuk, knock, (^ 

craokneL (F.-Du.) Tormtriy crake- 
nel, corruption of F. craquelin, a cracknel. 
Named from its crispness. ~ Du. kraken, to 

crake, corncrake, a bird. (E.) From 
its noise ; M. £. craken, to cry out. Allied 
to crack, croak, 

crash. (Scand.) Swed. krasa, Dan. 
krase, to crackle, Swed. sl& in kras, Dan. 
slaae i kras, to break to shivers. Allied to 
Cracky craze. 

craze. (Scand.) M, E. erased, i.e. 

cr(uked, — Swed. krasa, Dan. krase, as 

above; whence also F. /eraser; see above. 

creak. (E.) M. E. kreken. Allied to 

^rake, crack, Cf. Du. kriek, a cricket, F. 


criqutr, to qeak, allied to craquer, to 

cricket (i), an insect. (F. - Teut.) 
M. E. criket.'mO, F. crequet, criquet, cricket. 
— O. F. criquer, to creak, rattle, chirp.— 
Du. kriek, a cricket ; krikkrakken, to rattle. 
Cf. L. graatluSt jackdaw. 

croak. (E.) A.S. crdcian, to croak; 
allied to crake, crack. And see Crow. 

Cradle. (C.) A.S. cradol. '^In^h. crai- 
dhal, Gael, creathall, a cradle, a grate ; cf. 
W. cryd, cradle, Irish creathcuh, a hurdle ; 
L. crates, a hurdle. See Crate, Hurdle. 

Craft, skill. (E.) A. S. craft. + Du. 
kracht, Icel. kraptr, kraft^ Swed. Dan. G. 
kraft, force. Allied to Cramp. Der. 

Crag. (C.) W. craig, Gael, creag, crag:, 
rock ; W. careg, Gael, carraig, rock, cliti. 
■• Gael, carr, a rock. 

Crake; see Crack. 

Cram. (E.) A. S. crammian, to stuff. 
+Icel. kremja^ Swed. krama, Dan. kramme, 
to squeeze. Allied to Cramp. 

Cramp. (E.) M. E. crampe, a cramp, 
spasm ; cf. A. S. crompeht, crumpled (base 
KRAMP). + Swed. Du. kramp, Dan. 
krampe, G. kramf, cramp ; G. krampfen^ 
to cramp, squeeze. [Lost strong verb 
crimpan *, pt. t. cramp *, pp. c rum pen *.] 
And see C^amp, Cram. 

crimp, to wrinkle. (E.) Weakened 
form of Cramp. + Du. krimpcn, Swed. 
krympa, to shrink, Dan. krympe sigsammen, 
to shrink oneself together ; G, krimpen, to 
crumple. Der. crimp-le, 

crumple. (E.) M. E. cromplcn, to 
wrinkle ; frequentative of Cramp. * 

Crane, a bird. (E.) A.S. rnzw.-fDu. 
kraan, Icel. trani (for krani), Swed. trana, 
Dan. trane, G. kran-ich ; W. garan, Gk. 
yipavos, a crane, also a crane for raising 
weights. Cth.grus, (-^GAR.) 

cranberry. (E.) I. e. crane-berry ; so 
also G. kranbeere; Dan. tranebar (from 
trane ^ krone, as above) ; Swed. tranbdr. 

Cranium. (L. — Gk.) V.. cranium. — 
Gk. tcpavloy, skull ; allied to K&pa, head. 

pericranium, the membrane that sur- 
rounds the skull. (L. — Gk.) "L. pericra- 
mum.'mGk. wtptiepwiov, neut. ofwipiKpayio^, 
surrounding the skull. --Gk. itc/m, round; 
Kpavtcv, skull. 

Crank ( I), abend. (E.) M.'E.cranke. 
(Teut. base KRANK, to twist, parallel to 
Cramp.) Cf. Du. kronkel, a little bend, 
I krmktlen, to wrinkle, turn, wind. 


(a), easily apset, as a boat. (£.) 
L e. easily bent or twisted aside. Cf. Du. 
kren^en, to careen a boat ; Swed. krdnga, 
Dan. krctttgCf to heel over; see cringe 

crank (3\ lively. (E.) The same word, 
£rom the metaphor of an unsteady boat. 

orin^. (£.) A. S. cringan, crincan, to 
sink in battle, fall beneath the foe. Put 
for crink. Weakened fonn of crank, 

orixiJde. (£.) Ui.'E, crinkUd^crencUtf, 
twisted. A frequent, form of crink, which 
is a weakened form of crank. 

Cranny. (F.— L.) M.E.cmny; made 
by adding £. -jf to F. cran, a notch. —L. 
crena, a notch. 

orenate, notched. (L.) From L. crena, 
a notch. 

crenellate. (LowL.— F. — L.) From 

K, of Low L. crenellarCf to furnish with 
ttlements. — O. F. crenel, a battlement; 
dimin. of O. F. cren^ F. cran, a notch (above). 

Grants, a garland. (O. Du.) O. Du. 
knmis, Du. kratts, a garland, wreath. + 
Dan. krandst Sw. krans, G. krantz. 

Crape ; see Crisp. 

Crash; see Craok. 

Crasis ; see Orator. 

Crass. (L.) L. crassus, thick, dense. 
Cn^^ase. (F.-L.) M,'E. grese, ^^ece.^m 
O.Y.gresse, fatness. "-O.F. grcu, fat.>-L. 
erassus (above). 

Cratch ; see Crib. 

Crate. (L.) Iterates, a hurdle; hence 
a wicker case, &c. (-/ KART.) 

grate (i), a framework of iron bars. 
(Low L. — L.) M . E. grate. — Low L. grata, 
a grating ; also crata, a grating. —L. crates, 
a nordle. 

grill, to boil on a gridiron. (F. — L.) 
T.gritler, to hroii.^F. grtt, 'a gridiron,' 
Cot. ; O. F. grei'/, grail. — L. craticulum^ 
for craticulay a small gridiron (whence F. 
grille, a grating). —L. crates (above). 

Crater. (L. — Gk.) L. crater^ a bowl, 
a crater. >- Gk. Kparfip, a large bowl in 
which things were mixed. •» Gk. Ktp6yyvfu, 
I mix (base tcfia-). 

crasis. (Gk.) Gk. npacn, mixing; 
hence, contract ion. — Gk. K€payvvfu (above). 

Cravat. (F. — Austrian.) F. cremate, 
(i) a Croatian, (2) a cravat. CravcUs 
were introduced into France in 1636, as 
worn by the Croaiians, who were called 
in F. Croates or Crovates or Cravates. 
Croatia is a province of Austria. 

Crave. (jL) A.S. crafan, to crave, 



ask. + Icel. krefja, Swed. krafva, Dan. 
krave, to demand ; Icel. krafa^ a demand. 

Craven. (F. - L.) The oldest form is 
M. E. cravanty with the sense of beaten, 
foiled, or overcome. Mr. Nicol has con- 
clusively shown that it is a clipped form of 
O. Y. cravantJt pp. explained by Cotgrave 
by 'oppressed, foiled.' It is the pp. of 
O. F. cravanter, to break, oppress » Low 
L. crefantare*, formed from crcpant-, stem 
of pres. pt. of crepare, to crack, break. 
Cf. Span, quebrantar, to crack, break. 

Craw, crop of fowls. (Scand.) Dan. 
kro, Swed. krafva, Swed. dial, kroe, the 
craw. Allied to Du. kraag, G. kragcn, 
neck, collar. 

Crawfish, the same as Crayfish. 

Crawl. (Scand.) Icel. krafla, to paw, 
crawl ; Swed. krafla, to grope, krdla, to 
crawl ; Dan. kravle^ to crawl. Frequen- 
tative from Teut. base KRAP, to seize, 
grasp, hence, to grope ; see Cramp. 

Crayfish; see Crab (i). 

Crayon ; see Cretaceous. 

Craze, Creak ; see Cradk. 

Cream. (F. - L.) O. F. eresmc {crime) ; 
Low L. crema.^lj, cremor, thick broth, 
thick juice from soaked com. 

Crease (i), a wrinkle. (C?) Bret.^Jr^^, 
a crease, wrinkle; krisa, to crease, fold 
garments ; W. crych, a wrinkle, crychu, to 
rumple. ^ Hardly from Swed. krtis, a 
curl, krusa, to curl ; for which see Goose- 

Crease (3), Creese, a dagger. (Malay.) 
Malay kris, 'a dagger, kris, or creese*; 

Create. (L.) From pp. of L. creare, to 
make.-^Skt. kxi, to make. Der. crecU-ure, 
O. F. creature, L, creatura. And see 

Creole, one bom in the W. Indies, but 
of European blood. (F. — Span.—L.) F. 
f rc^K?/?. — Span, c Hollo, a negro corruption 
oi creadillo, dimin. otcriado, one educated, 
instructed, or brought up ; hence a child 
of European blood. Criacb is pp. oicriare, 
to create, also, to educate. *-L. creare, to 
create, make. 

procreate. (L.) L. procreatus, pp. 
oi procreare^io generate.— L./w, before, 
forth ; creare, to produce. 

recreation. ( F. - L. ) F. recreation. — 
L. recreatiotum, ace. of recreatio, orig. re- 
covery from illness (hence, amusement). 

— L. recreatus, pp. of recreare, to revive, 
refresh. —L. rt; again; creare, to make. 



100 CREED. 

Cread. (L.) M.Z.trvJt; K.S.ntda.- 
L. citde, I beiieve ; the first word of the 
creed. 4- O. Irish trttim, I beliere ; Skt. 
fraddadhimi,l\iKXvt\-t. (^^KRAT.) Dsr. 
cred-itKC (O. F. crtdtnci, L. cridenlia) \ 
ertd-ibU \ credit (L. pp. ertdilus) ; crtd- 
ulaui (L. tredulut), &c. And see Uls- 

grant. (F. — L.) lA.Z. gmunlen. - 
Q.V.graanler, graunlir, later spelling of 
eraanltr, ertanltr, to caution, assure, guai- 
anlee; whence the later senses, to promise. 
yield; \,oyi'L.cria>Uare,pvXiOTcredenlan'. 

— L. crediat; stem of prcs. pt. of crtdtrt, 
to trust. 

reore&nt. (F. - L.) O. F. recreant, 
faiat-hearted : pres. pt. of ncrvin, to be- 
lieve again, also to give up, give back 
(hence, to give in). — Low L. rt-credtre, to 
believe again, tecani, give in. 

Creak. (E.) A.S. erccca, a creelc.+Bn. 
krtck', Icel. kriki, a crack, nook. The 
orig. sense is *> bend,' as in Swed. dial. 
armkrik, bend of the aim. Allied to 
Crook, q.T. 

orick, a spasm oi twist in the neck. <E.1 
M E. cryikt ; also used in the sense of 
'bend.' Merely a variant of oreek (above). 

Croep. (E ) M. E. crepcn ; A. S. cn6pan. 
+Dn, kruipat, Icel. krjiifa, Swed. krypa, 
Dan. krybe, to Crawl. [.Base KRUP.) 
Allied to Cramp. 

orlppla. (E.) M. E. ereptl, crvptl; 
0. Notthuinb. cryptl, Luke, v. 24. Lit. 
'a creeper.' — A.^ crup-, stem of pL of 
pt t. of cndpan (pt. t. cndf) ; with suffiit 
-f/oftheagent. + Da. *«[(/(/, Icel. ircZ/i/, 
Dan. krSbiing (from krybi, to creep), G. 

Grematioii, burning. (L.) L. ercma- 
tiemm, ace. of cnmatio; irom pp. of 
crtmart, to bum. 

Crenate, Crenallate ; see Orumy, 

Craole ; see Crenta. 

Creoaote, a liquid distilled from tar. 
(Gk.) Lit. 'flash.presefver.'-Gk. «pto-t, 
Attic fonn of ■pioc, flesh ; and owr-, short 
for utn-^f, preserver, from vaiftir, to pre- 

CreBoent. (L.) The 'increasing' moon. 

— L. crescent-, stem of pres. pt. afcrescen, 
to grow, increase (pp. cre~lus), inchoative 
form from cn-art, to make ; see Create. 

nocretlon. (L.) L. accrttiimem, ace. 
afaccrelio, an iDcrease. — L. accrttut, pp. of 
tu-etescere. to grow to [(tc- » ad). 

RQorua, to come to bj way of increeie. 


(F.-L.) 0-F. aecreu, pp. o( accivistre 
(aaroUre), to increase. — L. ae-crcsccre 

(wsoreta, formed into one mass. (L.^ 
.. concrel-ut, pp. of con-crescert, to grow 

'clBcreaae. (F.-L.) O.F. Af™*. sb.. 

decrease ; from dtcroistre, vb., to decrease. 
• L. A-firJWJT, to diminish (pp. dtcre-lui). 
decremeiit. (L.) L. dicrtmentum. a 
decrease. — L. dccre-tus, pp. of de-ertsceie. 
wnoo. (F. - L.) O.F. excns- 
txcreaentia, an ontgrowlh. — I., 
stem of pres. pt. olexcracere, to 
grow out. 

Incroaoo. (F. - L.) M. E. incrtscH. 
urruen. - F. en (L. in) ; and O. F. cretjser. 
Norman F. creter, usually cnn'slre (F. 
cmltre), to grow; from L. crescere, 

Inorement. (L.) L. in-cremenlum, 
an increase ; cf. decrement above. 

recruit (F.-L.) F. ncmter. to levy 
troops (Littri). An ill -formed word, 
from reeru/e, mistaken form of rccnic, 
fem. of recri), pp. of rarvSlre. to grow 
again. Recrue, as a sb.. meaoa ' a levy of 
troops,' liL ' new-grown.' — L. rt-eretcere, 
to grow again. 
Creaa. (E.) M. E. cres, also kers (by 
shifting of r). A. S. esrse, terse, cressie. + 
Du. ierj, Sb ed.imj«, Dan. karie, G. kresse. 
Creeaet -, see Cruse. 
Crest ;F.-L.) Q.¥.cretle.--L.crisla, 
a comb or tuft on a bird's head, crest. 

Cretaoaous, chalky. (L.) L. crelaccui, 
adj. from erela, chalk. 

orayon. (F. — L.) F. crayon; extended 
from F. entie. chalk. — L. crela (above). 
CrsTice, Crevaaae. (F. - L) M. E. 

rift.-0. F. crever, to burst asunder.-L. 
crefare, to crackle, burst. 

aecreplt. (L.) L. dccrefilus, noiseless, 
creeping about like an oJd man, aged.— 
L. ac away ; crefitia, noise, orig. pp. of 

cLLBcrepant, differing. (F. — L.) O.F. 
discrefant. •- L. discrepant-, stem of pies, 
pt. of dis-crepare, to differ in sound ; lit to 
crackle apait. 

CtW. (Scand.) Formerly erue. — O. 
Icel. in/, later gri, a swarm ; infa, to 
iwann. Cf Swed. dial. kry. to swarm. 

Crib, a manger. (E.) A.S. crib.-\-0. 
S«z. kribbia. Do. iriA Icel. Swed. krubba. 
Dan. krybii, G. kn'ppc, crib, manger. 
HVt.trib, verb, to put by in a crib, purloin; 




erM-age, where crib is the secret store of 

oratch, a crib, manger. (F.— O. Sax.) 
M. E. creccke.'^O. F. creche {creche) ; Prov. 
rrefcha.'^O, Sax. kribbia (above). 

Orlok ; see Greek. 

Cridket (i), insect ; see Crack. 

Cricket (a), game ; see Crook. 
* Crime. (F. — L.) F. crime.^\u, crimen^ 
an accusation, fault (stem crimin-) Der. 
trimin-al, crimin-ate ; hence re'Criminatc. 

Crimp ; see Cramp. 

Crimson ; see Carmine. 

Cringe, Crinkle ; see Crank. 

Crinoline, a lady's stiff skirt. (F.-L.) 
F. crinoUfte, (i) hair-cloth, (2) crinoline. 
^Y.crin fL. ace. crineni)^ hair; and /i>/, 
flax, hence cloth, from L. linum^ flax. 

Cripple; see Creep. 

CriaiB ; see Critic. 

Crisp, wrinkled, curled. (L.) A. S. 
crisp. mml^ crispus, cxxxltA. 

etape. (F. - L.) F. crSpe, formerly 
crespe, ' frizzled, crisped, crisp ;' Cot. From 
its wrinkled surface. —L. crispus. 

Critic. (Gk.) Gk. /cpirncos, able to dis- 
cern ; of. icpir^s, a judge. — Gk. lepi-yny, to 
judge. Der. crit-ericftt Gk. icptrfipiov, a 
test; dia-critic, from Gk. ^aicpiriKus, fit 
for distinguishing between. 

crisis. (Gk.) Gk. leplais, a discerning, 
a crisis. — Gk. tepi-vuv, to judge. 

Croak ; see Crack. 

Crochet ; see Crook. 

Crock, a pitcher. (C.) A. S crocca.^ 
Gael, crog^ Irish avgan, W. crochan^ a 
pitcher, pot. Cf. Corn, crogen, a shell. 
So also Du kruik, I eel. Jtruhka, Swed. 
kruka, Dan. krukke, G. krug\ prob. all of 
Celtic origin. 

cruoibie. (Low L. — F.— Teut.) Low 
L. cruciboius, a melting-pot, also a cresset 
(sec GruBe). — O. F. cruche, an earthen 
pitcher, crock. Of Teut. origin ; see Icel. 
kmkka, &c., above. 

Crocodile. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y. crocodile, 
■•L. crocodi/us.'^Gk, KpoKultiXos, a lizard, 
a- crocodile. 

cockatrice. (F.— Low L.—L.- Greek.) 
By confusion with cock, it was said to be a 
monster hatched from a cock*s egg ; it is 
merely a perversion of crocodile. — O. F. 
cocatrice, a crocodile. — Low L cocatricem^ 
ace. of coccUrix, a crocodile, also a cocka- 
trice ; a corruption of Low L. cocodrillus, 
which again is a corruption of crocodilus. 
The loss of the r occurs also in Span. 

cocodrilo, Ital. coccodrillo, M. £. cokedrille, 
all meaning ' crocodile.' 

Crocus. (L. — Gk.) L. crocus. — Gk. 
icp6K0f, crocus, saffron. Cf. Arab, karkam^ 
Croft. (E. ? or C. ?) A. S. croft, a 
field. + Du. kroft. Perhaps of Celtic 
origin; cf. Gael, croit, hillock, croft, small 
piece of arable ground, cruach, a hill, 

Cromlech. (W.) Vf. cromlech, a flag- 
stone laid across others. — W. crom, crooked ; 
llech, flat stone. 

Crone, an old woman. (C.) Irish and 
Gael, crion^ withered, dry, old ; Gael. 
criontagt a sorry mean female. — Ir. and 
Gael, crion, "W. crino, to wither. Der, 
cron-y, orig. an old gossip. 
Crook, a hook, bend. (E.) M. E. crok 
(Ancren Riwle) ; prob. E.+0. Du. kroke^ 
Du. kreuk, Icel. krdkr, Swed. krok, Dan. 
krog, hook, bend, angle. Also Gael, crocan, 
a crook, W. crwca, crooked ; W. cnvgf a 
crook. (VSKARK.) See Cross. 

cricket, a game. (E.) The game suc- 
ceeded a kind of hockey, play^ with a 
hooked stick. Dimin. of A. S. cricc, a staff; 
see crutch below. 

crochet. (F.-Teut.) Y. crochet, a little 
hook ; dimin. of croc, a crook. — Icel. krdkr, 
a hook (above). 

crosier. (F. — Teut.) M. E. crocer, 
croser, &c. Formed, with suffix -er, froni 
M. £. crocCf in the same sense of ' bishop*^ 
staff.' — O. F. croce, ' a crosier,* Cot. ; mod. 
F. crosse; Low L. crocia.^O. F. croc, a 
crook ; see crochet above. % Not from 
cross, to which it is only ultimately re- 

cross. (F.— L.) M. E. crois, cros (both 
are used). — O. F. crois, Ftoy, crotz, cros, 
croz, a cross. — L. crucem, ace. of rrf«r. a 
cross, orig. a gibbet (from its • bent * arm) ; 
allied to W. crog, a cross, cnvg, a crook, 
Gael, croich, a gibbet ; W. crogi, Gael. 
croch, to hang. See Crook above. Ber. 

cross, adj. (F. — L.) Orig. transverse, 
from the shape of a cross ; hence peevish. 

crotchet, in music. (F. — Teut.) F. 
crochet, * a small hook, a quaver in music ; * 
Cot. (I suppose the hooked mark now 
called a quaver was once called a crotchet.) 
See crochet above. 

crouch. (£.) M. £. crouchen, allied to 
croken, to bend ; from M. £. crok, a crook. 

crucial. (F.-L.) F. crucial, 'cross- 




like ; ' Cot. — L. cmci-, crnde form of crux ; 
see 0TOS8. 

crucify. (F. - L.) O. F. cruciJUr.^ 
Low L. crucijieart*, put for L. crucifigere 
(pp. crucijfixus\ to fix on a cross.— L, 
cruet-, crude form of crux ; Jigere, to fix ; 
see Fix. Der. crucifix^ -ion. 

cruise. (Du. — F. — L.) Du. kruisen, 
to cruise, cross the sea. — Du. kruis, a cross. 

— O. F. crtfiSf a cross ; see cross, 
crusade. (F. - Prov. — L.) F. croiscuie, 

an expedition in which men bore the 
badge of the cross. — Prov. crozada. — Prov. 
crozy cross. — L. crtuem, ace. of crux. 

crutch. (E.) M. E. crucche ; allied to 
A. S. cricc (better crycc), a crutch, staff; 
orig. a ' hooked ' stick. + Du. kruk, Swed. 
krycka, Dan. krykke, G. kriicke. 

encroach. (F. — L. and Teut.) Lit. 
to hook away, catch in a hook. — F. en^ 
in ; croc, a hook ; cf. F. accrocher, to hook 
up. — L. in, in; and O. Du. kroke, Icel. 
krdkr, &c. ; see Crook. 

excruciate, to torture. (L.) From pp. 
of L. excruciare, to torment greatly. — L. 
ex, very ; cruciare, to torture on a gibbet, 
from cruci; crude form of crux, a cross. 

Crop. (E.) A. S. crofp, the top of a 
plant, the craw of a bird; orig. a bunch. 
LHence the verb to crop, to cut off the 
tops; and hence crop^ a harvest.] + I^u« 
krop, G. kropf, bird's crop ; Icel. kroppr, a 
hunch ; Swed. kropp, Dan. krop, trunk of 
the body. Cf. W. cropa, Gael, and Ir. 
sgroban, bird's crop. [To ctop out is to 
bunch out.] 

croup (2), hinder part of a horse. (F. 

— Teut.) F. croupe, crupper; orig. pro- 
tuberance.— Icel. kroppr, a hunch (above). 

crupper. (F.-Teut.) F. croupUrc.^ 
F. croupe (above). 

g^oup. (F.-ItaL-G.) F. groupe.^ 
Ital. groppo, a knot, heap, group. — G. 
kropf, a crop, wen on the throat, orig. a 
bunch (above). 

Crosier ; see Crook. 

Cross, Crotchet ; see Crook. 

Croton, plant. (Gk.) Gk. /fpoTcwv, a tick, 
which the croton-seed resembles. 

Crouch ; see Crook. 

Croup (I), a disease. (E.) Lowland Sc. 
croupe, crope, to croak, make a harsh noise. 

— A. S. hrdpan, to cry out. 4- Icel. hrdpa, 
Goth, hropjan, Du. roepcn, G. rufen. The 
A. S. form might also be gehrdpan \ the c 
is due to >^ or ge- 

Croup (3) ; see Crop. 

Oroiw, vb. (E.) A. S. crdivan, to crow. + 
Du. kruaijen, G. krdhen ; allied to crake, 
croak, (-^GAR.) Der. cro7v, A.S. crdivc, 
a bird (croaker); crow-bar, bar with a 
crow-like beak. 

Crowd (i), to push, throng. (E.) A. S. 
creSdan, pt. t. credd, to push; whence 
croda, gecrod, a crowd, throng. 

Crowd (2). a fiddle. (VV.) M. E. croude, 
— W. crwth, a trunk, belly, crowd, violin, 
fiddle ; Gael, cruit, harp. 

rote (2), an old musical instrument. (F. 
-G.-C.) O. F. rote, a kind of fiddle; 
answering to O. H. G. hrotd, rotd, a rote ; 
Low L. chrotta. Of Celtic origin. — W. 
crwtk, a violin ; Gael, cruit, a harp. 

Crown. (F.— L.) M. E. corone, corount 
(whence croune), — O. F. corotie (F. cou- 
ronfte). — L. corona, a wreath. 4- Gk. tcopiuvii, 
Kopoivoi, curved ; Gael, cruinn, W. crwn, 
round. Allied to Curve, Circle. 

cornice. (F. - Ital. - L. - Gk.) F. 
comiche, — Ital. cornice, — Low L. comicem, 
ace. of comix, a border, short for coronix, 
a square frame. — Gk. icopojvis, curved; as 
sb., a wreath, cornice. 

corolla. (L. ) L. corolla, dimin. oi corona, 
corollary. (L.) L. corollarium, a pre- 
sent of a garland, a gratuity; also, an 
additional inference. — L. corolla (above). 

coronal, a crown. (F.-L.) Properly 
an adj. — F. coronal, adj. — L. coronalis, 
belonging to a crown. — L. corona. 

coronation. (L.) Late L. ace. corona- 
tionem, from pp. of coronare, to crown.— 
L. corotui, 

coroner. (L.) Also croitmer; both 
forms are translations of Low L. coronator, 
a coroner; lit. one who crowns, also, 
a crown-officer. — L. cofvnare, to crown 

coronet. (F. — L.\ Dimin. of O. F. 
corone, a crown ; see Crown. 

Crucial, Crucify ; see Crook. 

Crucible ; see Crock. 

Crude. (L.) L. crudus, raw. Allied to 

crueL (F. — L.) O. F. cruel. ^1,. cru- 
dclis, cruel ; allied to crudus, raw (above). 

Cruet ; see Cruse. 

Cmise ; see Crook. 

Crumb. (E.) A. S. cruma. (The final 
b is excrescent.) From an old verb ap- 
pearing in prov. E. crim, to crumble bread, 
allied to Crimp, Cramp. + I^u- kruim, 
Dan. kmmme, G. krumc, a crumb ; allied 
to M. H. G. krimmen, to pinch, tear. 


I>0Bi erumihU^ verb; cf. Do. kruimeUn^ 
G. krumeln^ to cnimble. 

Cnunple ; see Oramp. 

CruzM^ (£.) An imitative word. 

Cmpper ; see Orop. 

Orural. (L.) L. cruralis^ belonging to 
the leg. •• L. crur-^ stem of crus^ the leg. 

Crusade ; see Crook. 

Cruae. a small pot. (Scand.) M. £. 
crust. m> led. kr^f a pot; Swed. kruSt 
Dan. kruuSf a mug; Du. krogs^ cup, 
pot, crucible ; M. H. G. h lise, mug. Prob. 
allied to Crook. 

eresset. (F.^Teut.) M. E. cressef, a 
light in a cup at the top of a pole. — O. F. 
crasset, a cresset ; crois€f, creusel, a cruet, 
pot, crucible. *0. Du. kruyse (Du. krocs), 
a cup, pot (above). 

eruet. (F. -Teut.) Allied to F. creuset, 
* a cruet,* Cot Of Teut. origin ; see above. 

Crush. <F. - Teut.) O. F. cruisir, 
croissir, to crack, break.— Swed. krysta^ 
Dan. kryste, to squeeze; Goth, kriusian, 
to gnash with the teeth, krusts^ gnashing 
of teeth. 

Crust. (F.-L.) O. F. cruste (F. croUte). 
—L. cmstOt crust of bread. Cf. Gk. Kfvos, 
irost ; see Crystal. 

custard. (F.— L.) Put for ertistade, by 
shifting of r ; compare buskin (for bruskin). 
Formerly custade^ crustadCy and orig. used 
with the sense of* pasty.* — O. F. croustade, 
a pasty. -• L. crustata, fern. pp. of crustare, 
to encrust. -• L. crusta, a crust. 

Crutch ; see Crook. 

Cry; see Qaemlous. 

Crypt. (L. - Gk.) L. erypta, - Gk. 
Mpwrf, a vault, hidden cave; orig. fern, 
of Kpunrris, hidden. — Gk. tcptlhrruvt to hide. 
apocrypha. (Gk.) Lit. * hidden thifigs.* 
books of the Old Testament not commonly 
read. — Gk. dwuKpwfya, neut. pi. of d«^«rpu^os, 
hidden. — Gk. dvo-tcpvuT€tv, to hide away, 
grot. (F.— L.— Gk.) F. ^w///", a cave. 

— Low L.^ni//a, crupta ; L. crypta (above). 
grotesque. (F.-Ital.-L.-Gk.) F. 

grot€squ€f ludicrous. — ItaL^rtf/^j^iS, curious 
painted work, such as was employed on 
the walls of grottoes. — Ital. grotta (below), 
grotto. (Ital.-L.-Gk.) Better ^rv/Zo. 
ItaL grotta ; the same as F. mtte (above). 
Crystal. (F.-L.-Gk.) Formerly ^w- 
tal. — O. F. cristal, — L. crystallum^ crystal. 

— Gk. «pv0TaAAor, ice, crystal. — Gk. 
icpvcraimy, to freeze.— Gk. irpvos. frost. 

Cub. (C.) Irish cuib, a cub, whelp; 
from cu, a dog. See Hotind. 



Cube. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. fw^r.-L. ace 
cubum. ^Gkf ir<{/3or, A cube, die. 

Cubit. (L.) L. cubitus, an elbow, bend; 
.the length from the elbow to the middle 
finger's end. Allied to L. cubare, to lie 
down, recline ; see Corey. 

Cuckold, Chickoo ; sec Cock (x). 

Cucumber. (L.) The b is excrescent; 
M. E. cucumer. — L. cucumerem, ace. of 
cucumis, a cucumber. Prob. from coquere, 
to ripen ; see Cook. 

Cud. (£.) M. £. cude, code^ guide. That 
which is chewed. Doubtless from the 
same base as A. S. cehvattf to chew ; but 
ff^7/app. chewed, because the verb was 
orig. strong. Cf. suds^ allied to seethe, 

quid, a mouthful of tobacco. (E.) 
Merely another form of cud; M. E. quide 

Cuddle; see Can (1). 

CudgeL (C.) W. cogyl, cogail, a club, 
cudgel, truncheon ; Gael* cuigeal, Ir. cui- 
gealf a distaff. 

Cudweed ; see Cotton (1). 

Cue ; see CaudaL 

Cuff (1), to strike. (Scand.) Swed. 
kuffa, to thrust, push, also to cuff (Ihre). 
Cr Goth, kaupatjan, to strike with the 

Cuff (2), part of the sleeve. (E.) M. E. 
cuffSf coffe. Late A. S. cujpe^ a kind of 
cap (Leo). + M. H. G. kupjc, kuppe, kuffe, 
a coif ; see Oeif. 

Cuirass. (F. - Ital. - L.) Formerly 
curace. — O. F. cuircue (F. cuirasse). — Ital. 
r^msAZ, a cuirass ; 'Lom'L. carotid. Formed 
from coracius*, put for L. coriaceus, 
leathern.— L. eorium, leather (whence F. 
cuir, leather). 4- Lith. shurd, Gk. x^P^^^t 
abide. (V SKAR.) 

excoriate. (L.) Erom pp. of L. ex- 
coriare, io strip off skin. —L. ex, off; eorium, 
hide, skin (above). 

scourge. (F.— L.) O.F. escorgie (F, 
icourgie), a scourge. Cf. Ital. scuricUa, 
O. Ital. scoriata, a scourging, scoriare, to 
whip. The Ital. scoriata answers to L. 
excoriata, lit flayed off, hence a strip of 
leather for a whip, a thong; pp. of ex- 
coriare, to flay off (above). 

Cuisses, pi. (F. — L. ) O. F. cuissaux, 
armour for the thighs. — F. cuisse, thigh. 
— L. coxa, hip. 

Culdee. (C.) Gael, cuilteach, a Culdee ; 
Irish ceilede, a Culdee, a servant of God, 
from Ir. ceile, servant, gillie, cU, gen. of 
dia, God. 



Culinary. (L.) L. culinarius, belong- 
ing to the kitchen. *L. cuiina, kitchen. 

Cull ; see Iiogal. 

Cullender; see Colander. 

Cullion, a wretch. (F.-L.) A coarse 
word. F. couilhn (Ital. coglione). •• L. 

Culm. (L) L. culmus, a stalk; allied 
to calamus^ a stalk. Sae Haulm. 

Culminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
culminare, to come to a top. — L. eulmin-, 
stem of culnun {^columen\ a top. See 

Culpable. (F. - L.) O. F. culpable, 
colpabk (F. coupabU). — L. culpabilis^ blame- 
worthy.— L. culpartt to blame. — L. culpa, 
a fault. 

culprit. (L.) In Dryden. A corrup- 
tion of culpate, i. e. an accused person. — L. 
culfatus, pp. of culpare (above). % The r 
is inserted, as in cart-r-idgc, part-r-idge, 

exculpate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
culpare, to clear of blame. 

inculpate. (L.) From pp. of Low L. 
in-cUlpare, to bring blame upon. 

Culter ; see Coulter. 

Cultivate, Culture ; see Colony. 

Culver. (E.) A. S. culfre, a dove. 

Culverin. (F.— L.) Corrupt form, for 
culevrin *. — O. F. couleuvrine, a culverin ; 
a piece of ordnance named from its long 
shape, like a snake. — O. F. couleuvnn, 
adder-like.— L. colubra, coluber, an adder. 

Culvert ; see Colander. 

Cumber ; see Cumulate. 

Cumin, Cummin, a plant (L.-Gk. 
— Heb.) M. £. comin. A. S. cumin, 
cymen.^'L, cuminum. Matt xxiii. 23.— 
Gk. Kvtitvov. — Heb. kamnidn, cumin. 

Cumulate. (L.) Frompp.ofL.^f//«i//a/v, 
to heap up. — L. cumulus, a heap. (^KU.) 
accumulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
aC'Cumulare, to amass ; {ac-=-cui), 

cumber. (F.-L.) M. E. combren,^ 
O. F. combrer, to hinder. — Low L. cum- 
brus, a heap ; corruption of L. cumulus, a 
heap. Thus cumber « to pi!it a heap in 
the way. Der. en-cumber, from O. F. 
encombrer, to encumber, load. 

Cuneate, wedge-shaped. (L.) With 
suffix -ate, from L. cune-us, a wedge. 
Allied to Cone. Der. cunei-form ; i. e. 
wedge-shaped. See Coin. 

Cimning« sb. and adj. ; see Can (i). 

Cup. (^L.) A. S. cuppe, a cup. — L. cupa, 
a tub; in late L., a drinking-vessel ; 
whence also Du. Dan. kop, F. coupe, &c. 


4- O. Slav, kupa, Gk. m^cXXoy, a cup. 
in/in;, a hollow ; Skt ktipa, a hollow. 

cupboard. (L. and £.) M. E. cup- 
borde, orig. a side-board for holding cups ; 
Allit Poems, B. 1140; Morte Arth. 206. 

cupola. (Ital. — L.) Ital. cupola, a 
dome ; irom its shape. — Low L. cupa, a 

Cupid, god of love. (L.) L. cupido, 
desire. — L. cupere, to desire. + Skt kup, 
to become excited. Der. cupid-i-ty, F. 
cupiditi, from L. cupiditas. 

concupiscence. (F.— L.) F. coftcu 
piscence. — L. concupiscentia, desire. — L. coii- 
cupiscere, to de&ire ; inceptive foim of con- 

covet. (F. — L.) M. E. coueiten, — 
O. F. coueiter (F. convoiter), Cf. Ital. cubi- 
tare (for cupitare\ to covet. Formed, as if 
from L. cupiditare*, from cupidus, desirous 
of. — L. cupere, to desire (above). 
Cupola; see Cup. 
Cupreous ; see Copper. 
Cur. (Scand.) M. E. curre, — Swed. 
dial, kurre, a dog. + O* I^u. korre, a 
house-dog. Named from growling. — Icel. 
kurra, to murmur, grumble. 
Curate ; see Cure. 
Curb ; see Curve. 

Curd. (C.) M.E. curd, rrwt/.- Irish 
cruth, gruth, Gael, gruth, curds. Cf. \V. 
crwd, a round lump. 
Cure. (F.-L.) O.F. cure.^'L. cum, 
attention. % Not allied to care, 

acctirate. (L.) From pp. of L. ac- 
curare, to take pains with ; {ac- ^ad^. 

assure. (F.-L.) M.E. assuren. '^ 
O. F. aseurer, to make secure. — O.F. a 
(eL. ad) ; seiir, sure ; see sure below. 

curate. (L.) Low L. curatus, a priest, 
curate ; curatum benejicium, a benefice 
with cure of souls. — L. cura, cure. 

curious. (F.-L.) O.F. curios. ^l., 
curiosus, attentive. — L. cura, attention. 

ensure, to make sure. (F.-L.) Com- 
pounded of F. en (L. in), in ; and O. F. 
seiir^ sure ; see sure (below). 

proctor. (L.) M. E. proketour ; short 
form of procuratour.^O, F. procurator, — 
L. ace. procuratorem ; see below. 

procurator. (L.) L. procurator, a 
manager, deputy. — L. procurare ; see 

procure. (F.-L.) F. procure r.'^'L, 
pro-curare, to take care of, manage. 

proxy. (Low L. — L.) Short for pro- 
curacy, — Low L. procuratia, used for L. 


procuration' management •- L. proeurare, 
to manage (above). 

SCO or. (F. — L.) O. F. escurery to 
scour. Cf. Span, escurar, O. Ital. scurare, 
tp scour, rub up. — L. excurare, to take 
great care of.— L. ^j:, very; curare, to take 
care, from cura, care. 

Becure. (L.) L. se-curus, free from 
anxiety. — L. sc-, apart from ; curu, 

sicKer, Biker, certain, secure. (L.) 
M. E. siker. Borrowed from L. sccurtts, 
secure ; whence also O. Fries, siker, sikur, 
Du. ttker, G, sicker, O. H. G.sicAur, Swed. 
saker, Dan. sikker, W. sicr. See secure 

sinecure. (L.) For sine curd, without 
cure of souls. 

sure. (F. - L.) O. F. seiir (F. s^r), 
earliest form sepir. «» L. securus ; see se- 
cure above. Doublet, secure. 

Curfew ; see Cover. 

Curious ; see Cure. 

Curl, sb. (O. Low G.) M. E. crul (with 
shifting of r). — O. Du. krul, a curl, 
krullen, to curl ; Dan. krolle, a curl, Swed. 
krulligy curly. Prob. O. Du. krullen is 
short for kreukelcn, to crimp, crumple, 
from krcuk, a crook ; see Crook. 

Curlew, a bird. (F.) O.F. corlieu, *a 
curlue ; * Cot Cf. Ital. chiurlo, a curlew, 
chiurlare^ to howl, Swed. kurla, to coo ; so 
that it is named from its cry. 

Curmudgeon. (E. and F.) Formerly 
conimudgin (Phil. Holland); it means a 
hoarder of com, hence a stingy fellow. 
Aludgin is for mudging, pres. pt. of mtulge, 
to hoard, also spelt mooch (M. £. muchen), 
to skulk; from O.F. mucer, to hide, to 
lurk (of unknown origin). 

Currant. (F. - L. - Gk.) Formerly 
raysyns ofcorouns. — F. raisins dc Corinthe, 
* currants,* Cot. Hence currant is a cor- 
ruption of Corinth (L. CorinthuSf Gk. 

Current, running, flowing. (F. — L.) 
M. E. currant, O. F. curant, pres, pt. of 
currc, corre (F. courir), to run. — L. currere, 
to run. + Skt char, to move. {^ KAR.) 

coarse, rough. (F. — L.) Formerly 
course, an adj. which arose from the phrase 
in course to denote anything of an ordinary 
character; cf. mod. E. it/* course. See 
course (below). 

concourse. (F.— L.) F. concours.^ 
la. concursusy a running together.— L. con- 
cursuSf pp. of con-currere, to lun together. 



concur. (L.) L. con-currere, to run 
together, agree, 
corridor. (F.-Ital.-L.) T, corridor, 

— Ital. corridore, a swift horse; also, a 
long (runnbg along) gallery, — ItaL cor- 
rerCt to run.— L. currere, to run. 

corsair. (F. - Prov. — L.) F. corsaire. 

— Prov. corsari, one who makes the cQurse 
(corsa). — Prov. corsa, a course, cruise. — 
L. cursus, a course ; cursus, pp. of currere, 

courier. (F.-L.) F. r^wnVr, a runner. 

— F. courir, to run. — L. currere^ 
course. (F. — L.) Y, course. ^\,. cur- 
sum, ace. of cursus, a course ; from pp. of 
currere. Der. cours-er, a swift horse. 

curricle. (L.) L. curriculum, a run- 
nin.ij ; also, a Tight car. — L. currere, to run. 

cursive. (L.) Low L. cursivus, flow 
ing ; said of hand- writing. — L. cursus, pp 
of currere, to run. 

cursory. (L.) Low L. cursorius, 
hasty. — L. cursori-, crude form of cursor, 
a runner. — L. cursus (above). 

discourse. (F. — L.) O.F. discours, 
sb. — L. discursus, a running about ; also, 
conversation. — L. discursus, pp. of dis- 
currere, to run about. 

discursive. (L). From pp. discursus. 

excursion. (L.) L. excursionem, ace. 
q{ excursio, a running oxsX.'^'L, excursus, 
pp. of ex-currere, to run out. 

incur. (L.) L. in-currere, to run into, 
run upon, befall. 

incursion. (F. — L.) F. incursion.^ 
L. incursionem, ace. of incursio, an inroad. 

— L. incursus, pp. of in-currere, to run 
into, attack. 

intercourse. (F. — L.) Modified from 
F. entrecours, intercourse, commerce. — 
Low L. inter-cursus, commerce ; lit. a run- . 
ning between or amongst. 

occur. (F. — L.) F. occurrer.^\a, OC' 
currere, to run to meet, occur ; {oc-^ob^ 

precursor. (L.) L.. pra-cursor, a fore- 
runner ; see cursory (above). 

recourse. (F. — L.) F. recours.-'L. 
recursum, ace. of rccursus, a running back ; 
from pp. of re-currere, to run back. 

recur. (L.) L. re-currere, to run back, 

succour. (F.—L.) M. E. socouren.^ 
O. F. sucurre (Burguy). Mod. F. secourir, 

— L. suc-currere, to run under or to, run 
to help, aid {sue- ^ sub). 

Curry (i), to dress leather. («^ 
Teut.) O. F. conroier, conreier (Burguy), 
later conroyer, courroier, to curry, dress 

E 3 



leather, orig. to prepare. — O. F. conrot\ 
gear, preparation. A hybrid word ; made 
by prefixing con- («L. con-t cum) to O. F. 
rtn, order (Ital. ^redo in arredo, array). 
p. Thb O. F. roi is of Scand. origin ; from 
Dan. rede, order, also to set in order, 
Icel. rei^i, tackle. Precisely the same 
O. F. roi helps to form E. ar-ray ; see 
Array. % To curry favour is a corrup- 
tion of M. E. to curry favel, to rub down 
a horse ; Favel was a common old name 
for a horse. 

Curry (a), a seasoned dish. (Pers.) 
From Pers. khur^ meat, flavour, relish ; cf. 
khurdl, juicy meats, khiirdk^ eatables. 

Curse. (£.) A. S. curriaff, verb ; curs, 
sb., an imprecation. Der. ac-cursed, from 
M. £. acorsien, to curse extremely, where 
the prefix a- = A. S. d-^ very ; see A- (4). 

Cursive, Cursory ; see Current. 

Curt. (L.) L. curtus, short, cut short. 
See Short. {^ SKAR.) 

curtail. (F.-L.) It has nothing to 
do with iail; but is a corruption of the 
older form curtal, verb, to dock ; from the 
adj. curtcU, having a docked tail (All^s 
Well, ii. 3. 65). — O. F. courtault, later 
courtaut, * curtail, being curtailed ; ' Cot. 
The same as Ital. cortaldo, 'a curtail, a 
horse sans taile,' Florio. Formed, with 
suffix -ault ( B Ital. -aldo. Low L. -aldus, 
from G. iMild, power), from O. F. courts 
short. --L. curtuSf short (as above). 

Curtain ; see Court. 

Curtleaxe ; see Coulter. 

Curtsey; see Court. 

Curve, a bent line. (L.) L. curuus, 
bent 4- Ck. /cipros, bent. Allied to Circle. 
"DeiT.curv-ai-ure, L. curucUura, from pp. of 
curuare, to bend ; from curuus. 

curb. (F. — L.) M. E. courben, to bend. 
F. courber, to bend, bow. — L. curuare 

curvet. (Ital. — L.) Ital. corvetta, a 
curvet, leap, honxA.^O.YXvX. corvare (now 
curvare), to bend, crook, stoop, bend about. 
— L. curuare, to bend. 

incurvate, to crook. (L.) From pp. 
of L. in-curuare, to bend into a curve. 

kerbstone. (F.— L.; and £.) Here 
kerb is for curb; so called because the 
stone curbs the stone-work or keeps it in 
its place; or from its being, as round a 
well, on a curved edge. 

Cushat, the ring-dove. (£.) A. S. cu- 
sceote, a wild pigeon. 

Cushion ; see Quilt* 


Cusp. (L.) L. cuspis, a point. 

Custard ; see Crust. 

Custody. (L.) L. custodia, a keeping 
guard. — L. custodi-, crude form of custos, 
a guardian ; lit. * hider.* Cf. Gk. KtvOiiv^ 
to hide. See Hide. (^KUDH.) 

Custom. (F. — L.) M. E. custume. — 
O. F. custume, costume ; Low L. costuma. 
The Low L. costuma (as in other cases) is 
due to neut. pi. consuetumina, from a sing. 
consuetumen, a word used in place of L. 
consuetudo, custom (Littr^). — L. consuctus, 
pp. of consuescere, to accustom, inchoative 
form of consuerCt to be accustomed.— L. 
con- {cum)t together, very; suere, to be 
accustomed (Lucretius). Suere is prob. 
from suus, own; so that suere = to make 
one's own, have it one's own way. 

accustom. (F. — L.) O.F. estre acos- 
turn/, to be accustomed. >» F. a (for; 
O. F. costume, custom (above). 

costume. (F.— Ital.-L.) O.F. costume, 
a costume. -"Ital. costume.^ Low L. cos- 
tuma (as above). Doublet of custom. 

desuetude, disuse. (L.) L. dcsuetudo, 
disuse. — L. desuetus, pp. of de-suescere, to 
grow out of use, opposed to con-suescere ; 
see Custom. 

Cut. (C.) M. E. cutten, a weak verb. — 
— W. cwtau, to shorten, dock; compare 
W. cwtws, a lot, with M.E. cut, a lot 
(Ch. C. T. 837). So also Gael, cutaich, to 
shorten, cut short. Cf. also W. cwt, a tail, 
Gael, and Ir. cut, a short tail ; Com. cut, 
short. See Coot. 

Cuticle. (L.) L. cuticula, double 
dimin. of cutis, hide, skin. See Hide. 
(-^KU, SKU.) Der. cut-an-e-ous, from 

Cutlass, Cutler ; see Coulter. 

Cutlet ; see Coast. 

Cuttle, a fi^. (E.) Formerly cudele. 
A. S. cudele, a cuttle-fish. Altered to 
cuttle by the influence of G. kuttelfisch. 

Cycle. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. cycle. - L. 
cyclum, ace. oicyclus. — Gk. urCr/rXos, a circle, 
cycle. + Skt. chakra, a wheel, circle. 
Allied to Curve, Cirole. Der. cyclone « 
Gk. Hvtckoiv, whirling round, pres. pt. of 
KVKkhoi, I whirl round ; epicycle ; bi-cycle. 
Also en-cyclo-pcedia, instruction in the 
circle of sciences ; from Gk. l7«v«Xoinu8€ia, 
put for \'>(K{iKkLtn mxidcia, circular or com- 
plete instruction (see Pedagogue). Also 
encyclical, circular, from Gk. l-yicv/cAi-os, 
circular; used of an epistle which goes 
round to many. 


Cygnet, a young swan (F. — L.) 
Dimin. of O. F. eigne, a swan. Strangely 
enough, this O. F. word is not from L. 
cycnus, a swan ; but the oldest O. F. 
spelling was cisne^ from Low L. acinus, 
a swan. See Diez. 

Cylinder. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. cilindrf, 
later cylimire. • L. cylindrus. — Gk. 
KvXivZpoi, a roller, cylinder. — Gk. kvXiv^uv, 
to roll; from KvXitiv, to roll. Cf. Russ. 
kolo^ a wheel. {^ KAL.) 

calender, a machine for smoothing 
doth. (F. — L.— Gk.) * Calender, xo ^r^%s 
linen ; * Bailey. — F. calendrer, to smooth 
linen ; calandre, sb., a calender. — Low L. 
ceUndra^ a calender ; corruption of L. 
tylindruSf a roller (as above). Der. 
calender, a smoother of linen, a mistaken 
form for calendrer, 

CymbaL (F.-L.-Gk.) M.'E.cimdale, 
—O. F. cimbale. — L. cymbalum. — Gk. 
KVfjLfiaXov, a cymbal ; named from its cup- 
like shape. — Gk. tc^t^fiijt a cup. + Skt. 
kumbhd, a jar. Allied to Oup ; and see 
Comb (a). (-/KUBH.) 

chime, sb. (F. — L. — Gk.) M. E. chimbe, 
of which the orig. sense was cymbal ; 
hence the chime or ringing of a cymbal. 
Shortened from F. chimbale, dialectal form 
of O.F. cimbcUe (above). Der. chime, 

Cynic, lit. dog like. (L. — Gk.) 'L.cyni- 
cus, >» Gk. Kwutus, dog-like, a Cynic. — Gk. 
mvv-, stem of Kvotv, a dog ; see Canine. 

cynosure. (L. — Gk.) L. cynosura^ 
the stars in the tail of the constellation of 
the Lesser Bear ; one of these is the Pole- 
star, or centre of attraction to the magnet. 
— Gk. Kvvucovpa, the Cynosure, tail ol the 



Lesser Bear; lit. 'dog*s taiL*— Gk. «vyot, 
gen. of Kvanf, a dog ; oipd, a tail. 

quinsy. (F.— Gk.) Formerly sguin- 
ancy.^0. F. squinancie (i6th cent.) ; also 
squinattce, * the squinancy or squinzie ; ' 
Cot. Formed with prefixed j ( « O. F. at -, 
L. ex, very) from Gk. icw&>(ie^^ lit a dog- 
throttling, applied to a bad kind of sore 
throat. — Gk. kvv', stem of kw»^ a dog ; 
6rfx-uv, to choke. 

Cypi*e8S (I), a tree. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. E. cipres. — O. F. cypres, later cyprh, — 
L. cyparissus, cupressus. ^Ck, Kinrapiaoos, 

Cypress (a), a kind of crape. (L.?) 
Palsgrave explains F. crespe by * a cypress 
for a woman's neck ; * Cotgrave has 
* crespe, cipres, cobweb lawn.' The origin 
of cypress is not known ; perhaps from L. 
cy perns (as in Cyperus textilis), which was 
certainly spelt cypres in English ; thus 
Cotgrave has : ' Cypere^ cyperus or cypresse, 
galingale, a kind of reed.' % It can 
hardly be corrupted from O. F. crespe, 
which is represented clearly enough by E. 

Cyst, a pouch (in animals) containing 
morbid matter. (L. — Gk.) Formerly 
written cystis. — Late L. cystis. — Gk. tc^ffTu, 
a bag, pouch. « Gk. icv€iv, to contain. 
iV KU.) 

Czar, the emperor of Russia. (Russ. * L ) 
Russ. Isare (with e mute), a king. Cor- 
rupted from L. Casar, ^ This has been 
disputed ; but see Matt.xiii. 24 in Schleicher, 
Indogermanische Chrestomathie, p. 275, 
where O. Slav, cesarstvo occurs for mod. 
Russ. tsarstvo, kingdom. Der. czarowitz, 
from Russ. tsarevich, czar's son. 


Dab (0. to strike gently. (E.) M. E. 
dabben ; also dabbe^ a blow. Not in A. S. 
^ O. Du. dabben^ to pinch, fumble, dabble ; 
G. tappen, to grope, prov. G. tappe, fist, 
blow. Sec Tap. . 

dabble. (E) To keep on dabbiilg^, 
frequent, of dab, 4" O. Du. dabbelen, to 
ihmble, dabble \ frequent of O. Du. dabben 
(above). *. 

I>ab (a), expert (£. ?) Snppose<l to be 
a corruption of cuiept, 

Dabble ; see Dab (i). 

I>ab-chick; sceDidapper. 

Dace ; see Dart. 

Dactyl. (L. - Gk.) L. dactylus, the 
metrical foot marked -wrwr. — Gk. ftUrvXcs, 
a finger, a dactyl. See Toe. 

date (2), fruit of the palm. (F.-L.— 
Gk.) M.E. <&/<?. -O.F. date (F. datte\ 
a date. — L. dtutylum^ ace. of dactylus.^ 
Gk. Sd/rrvXot, a finger ; also a date (some- 
what like a finger) ; a dactyl. 

Dad. (C.) W. tad, Irish daid, Bret, tat, 
tad, father. 4- Gk. rara^ Skt. lata, dad. 

Daffodil ; see Asphodel. 

Dagger. (C.) M. E daggere ; allied to 




daggen, to pierce.— W. dagr^ Irish daigear, 
a dagger; O. Gael, daga^ a dagger, pistol; 
Bret, dag, dager (whence F. dague). 

Daggle ; see Dew. 

Daguerrotype. (F. and Gk.) Formed 
by adding -o-type to F. Daguerre^ a per- 
sonal name, the inventor (a.d. 1838). 

Dahlia. (Swed.) Named after Dahl^ a 
Swedish botanist. 

Dainty ; see Digrnity. 

Dairy ; see Dike. 

Dais ; see Disc. 

Daisy ; see Day. 

Dale, a valley. (Scand.^ M.E. dale,^ 
— Icel. dalr^ Dan. Swed. dal, a dale. 4" Du. 
dal ; Goth, dais ; G. t/iai. 

dell, a dale. (O. Du.) M. E. delU,^ 
O. Du. delU, *a dale,* Hexham. Allied to 
Da. dal^ a dale. 

dollar. (Du. — G.) Du. daalder, a 
dollar. Adapted and borrowed from G. 
thaler^ a dollar. The G. thaler is short 
ioT /oachimsihaler, a coin made from silver 
found in Joachimsthal (Joachim*s dale) in 
Bohemia, ab. a.d. 1518. 

Dally ; see Dwell 

Dam (i), a mound, bank against water. 
(E.) A.S. damm, only in the derived 
vtxh for-demman, to dam up.-f Du. danif 
Icel. dammrf Dan. dam, Swed. damm^ 
M. H. G. tam^ G. damm, a dam, dike. 
Goth, faurdainmjan, to dam up. 

Dam (2), a mother ; see Domain. 

Damage ; see Damn. 

Damask. (Syria.) M. E damaske, 
cloth of Damascus. Heb. dnuseq^ damask, 
Dameseq^ Damascus (Gen. xiv. 15). Der. 
damask-rose ; darnask-ine, to inlay with 
gold (F. damasquiner), 

damson. (Syria.) F. damaisine^ a 
Damascene plum. — F. Damas, Damascus. 

Dame ; see Domain. 

Damn, to condemn. (F.— L.) M. E. 
damnen^ dampnai. — F. damrur. — L. 
damnare^ to condemn, fine. ■- L. damnum^ 
loss, fine, penalty. 

condemn. (L.) L. con-demnare, to 
condemn wholly, pronounce to be guilty. 

damage. (F. * L.) l/L,'E, damage, "^ 
O.F. damage (F. dommage) ; cf. Prov, 
damnatje, answering to Low L. damnatu 
cum*, harm ; we find Low L. damnatiats, 
condemned to the mines. — L. damnatus, 
pp. of damnare (above). 

indemnify, to make damage good. (L.) 
Ill coined. — L. in-demni-s^ unharmed, free 
from loss ; and -fic-ture^ ioxfacere, to make. 

I Indemnity. (F. - L.) F. indemnity, 

-"L. ace. indemnitatem.^'L, in-demni-s, 
unharmed, free from loss {damnum). 

Damp. (£.) Cf. M. E. dampen, to suf- 
focate. Not in A. S. 4" I^u. damp, vapour, 
steam; Dan. damp, G. damp/, vapour; 
Swed. damb, dust. Allied to Gk. tv</>os, 
vapour, Skt dhtipa, incense. (^I^HU.) 
See Dust. 

Damsel ; see Domain. 

Damson ; see Damask. 

Dance. (F. — O. H. G.) M. E. dauncen. 
— O. F. danser.^O. H. G. dansdn, to drag 
along, trail. — O. H. G. dinsen^ to drag, 
draw ; allied to £. Thin. 

Dandelion ; see DentaL 

Dandle. (E.) Cf. prov. E. dander, to 
wander idly; Lowl. Sc. dandill, to go 
about idly. Frequent, form from a low G. 
base DAND, to trifle ; cf. O. Du. danten, 
to trifle, O. F. dandiner, * to look like an 
ass;* Cot. + G. tdn^eln, to toy, trifle, 
play, dandle, lounge ; from O. H. G. Ian/, 
a trifle, G. land, a toy. Cf. O. Ital. dan- 
dolare, *to dandle or play the baby,* 
Florio; dandola, a toy; words of LowG. 

dandy. (F. — O. LowG.) F. dandin, *a 
meacock, noddy, ninny;' Cot. From the 
O. Low G. base above. 

Dandriff. scurf on the head. (CT.) For- 
merly dandruffe, — W. ton, skin, peel; 
whence manvdon ( « marw, dead, ton, 
skin), scurf, dandriff; Bret, tau^ scurf. 
The second syllable may be accounted for 
by W. drwg, Gael, droch, Bret, droug, 
bad ; the guttural becoming/, as in rough, 

Dandy; see Dandle. 

Danger ; see Domain. 

Dangle ; see Ding. 

Dank ; see Dew. 

Dapper. (Du.) Orig. good, valiant; 
hence brave, fine, spruce. XV. cent. — Du. 
dapper, brave. + O. H. G. taphar, weighty, 
valiant, G. tapfer, brave; Goth, gadobs, 
fitting, from gadaban, to befit, to happen, 
befall. Russ. dobrui, good. 

Dapple ; see Deep. 

Dare (i), to venture. (E.) M. E. dar, I 
dare ; pt. t. dorste, durste. A. S. ic dear, 
I dare; he dear, he dare; pt. t. dorste; 
infin. durran, + Goth, dars, I dare, 
daursta, I durst, infin. daursan^; O. H. G. 
tar, I dare, infin. turran. Gk. Oapatty, 
to be bold, Bpaavi, bold; Skt. diish, to 
dare. (VDHARS.) 


Ddre (a), a dnce ; dee Dart. 

Bark. (E.) M. E. derk. A. S. deorc. 
Perhaps allied to Du. donker^ Swed. Dan. 
G. dunkel, Icel. dokkr, dark. Der. dark- 

darkling, in the dark. (E.) Formed 
with adv. suffix -ling, as vaJlat-Hng, M. E. 
Judling (headlong), A. 8. bac-ling, back- 

Darling ; see Dear. 

Dam. CC.) W. damio^ to break in 
pieces, also to piece; dam^ a piece, frag- 
ment, patch; Com. dam^ Bret, dam^ a 
fragment, piece. Frob. from ^DAR, to 

DameL (F.-Teut.) M. E. damtU der- 
ful. From an O. F. word, now only 
preserved In Rouchi </arw^//-f, darnel (Grand- 
gagnage) ; named from its stupefying quali- 
ties. Cf. Rouchi daumise^ damise, tipsy, 
giddy; O. F. dame^ stupefied (Roquefort). 
From a Teut. base seen in O. Du. door^ 
Dan. daare, G. ihor, a fool, Swed. d&ru, to 
infatuate ; see Daze. 

Dart. (F.-O. Low G.) M. E. ^ff.- 
O. F. dart (F. dard). Of O. Low G. 
origin ; A. S. daro^^ a dart, Swed. dart, a 
dagger, Icel. darra^r, a dart. CL A. S. 
derian, to injure. 

dace. (F.— O. LowG.) Formerly darce, 
■• O. F. dars, nom. case of the word also 
spelt dart, meaning (i) a dart, (3) a dace, 
llie fish is also called a dart, from its swift 

dare (2), a dace. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
dard, a dart (as above). 

Dash. (Scand.) M. E. daschen.m.'DvJi, 
daske, to slap, Swed. daska^ to beat; we 
speak of water dashing against rocks. 

Dastard; see Dase. 

Date (i), a given point of time. (F.— L.) 
M. £. ihte, — F. date^ date. — Low L. data, 
a date ; L. data, neut. pi. of datus, given, 
dated. —L. dare, to give, -f Gk. U&»iu,.l 
give; hor6s, given; Skt. daddmi, I give; 
Knss. darite, to give. (-^DA) 

condone (L.) L. condonare^ to remit, 
pardon. — L. con^ {cum), wholly; donare, 
to give ; see donation (below)« 

die (2), a small cube for gaming. (F.— 
L.) Used as sing, of M. E. dys, more usually 
dees, dice. — O. F. dez, dice, pi. of det, a 
die (F. di), Cf. Prov. dat, Ital. dada. Span. 
dado, a die. — Low L. dadtis (orig. datus), a 
die, lit a thing given or shewn, i. e. thrown 
forth. — L. da^,T>p. of dare, to give. 
donation. (F.-L.) F. donation, mmh. 



aoc. donationem, a gift, from pp. of donare, 
to give.— L. donum, a gift. 4" ^^' IStpov, 
a gift. (-^DA, to give.) 

dowager, a widow with a jointure. (F. 
— L.) Coined from daioage, an endowment. 
Again dowage is coined (with suffix -age) 
from F. dou-er, to endow. — L. dotare, to 
endow. — L. dot-, stem of dos, a gift, dowry. 
Allied to dare, to give. Der. en-dow, from 
F. en and doner, 

dower, an endowment. (F. — L). M. E. 
dower, — O. F. doaire, later douaire. — Low 
L. dotarium. — L. dotare, to endow (above). 
Der. dowr-y, short for dower-y. 

edition. (L.) L. editionem, ace. of 
editio, a publishing. — L. editus, pp. of 
edere, to give out, publish. — L. e, out ; 
dare, to give. Der. edit, a coined word. 

pardon, forgiveness. (F.— L.) M. E. 
pardoun,^¥, pardon^ sb. — F. pardonner, 
to forgive. — Low L. per-donare, to remit a 
debt, pardon ; see Donation (above). 

perdition. (F. — L.) Y, perdition. ^"L. 
ace. perditionem, utter los&.^^'L. perditus, 
pp. of perdere, to lose. — L. per, thorough- 
ly ; dare, to give. 

reddition, a restoring. (F. — L.) F. 
reddition. — L. redditionem, ace. of redditio, 
a restoring. — L. reddere, to give back. — L. 
red', back ; dare, to give. 

render. (F.-L.) M. E. rendren.^Y. 
rendre.^'L. reddere (above). 

rendezvous. (F.— L.) F. rendezvous, 
*a reiidevous, place appointed for the 
assemblie of souldiers; Cot. — F. rende% 
vous = L. reddite uos, render yourselves ; 
imperative pi. 

rent (2), annual payment. (F. — L.) 
M. E. rente. — F. rente. Cf. Ital. rendita, 
rent. —Low L. f/»^2/a*, nasalised form of 
L. reddita, fem. of pp. of reddere, to render ; 
see render (above). 

surrender. (F.-L.) F. surrendre, to 
give up. — F. sur ( — L. super), above; 
rendre, to render ; see render (above). 

tradition. (L.) L. traditio, a surren- 
der, a tradition (Col. ii. 8). — L. traditus, 
pp. of tradere, to deliver.— L. tra-, for 
trans, across ; -dere, for dare, to give. 

traitor. (F.-L.) O. F. tra'iteur, trac- 
tor. — L. traditorem, ace. of traditor, a 
betrayer.— L. traditus (above). 

treason. (F. — L.) M. E. traison.^ 
O. F. tra'ison. — L. ace. traditiofum ; see 
tradition (above). 
Date (2), a fruit; see Daotyl. ^ 

Daub. (F.-L.) M. E. dauben,:^0,l^ 



dauhtr, to plaster ; answering to an older 
form dalber*, •- L, dealbare^ to whiten, 
plaster. » L. de, down, very; albare^ to 
whiten, from albus, white ; see Alb. Cf. 
S^VLn,jalbegar {^dealbicare*), to plaster. 
(Not from W. dwb^ Gael, and Ir. deb, 
plaster.) Der. be-daub. 

Daughter. (E.) M. E. doghter, dohter. 
A. S. dShtor. + Du. dochier, Dan. daiter^ 
doUer^ Swed. dotter^ Icel. ddttir, Goth. 
dauhtar, G. tochter, Russ. o^^t^A^, Gk. 
Bvyartipf Skt duhitrt. The Skt. duhitii 
seems to have meant ' milker * of the cows ; 
from duh (^^dhugh\ to milk. 

Daunt. (F.-L.) M. E.diz««/^«.-O.F. 
danter ; also donter. — L. domitare, to tame, 
subdue ; frequent, of doniare, to tame ; see 

indomitable. (L.) Coined from in-, 
not ; domitare^ to subdue (above). 

Dauphin ; see Dolphin. 

Davit, a support for ship*s boats. (F.) 
Corrupted from F. davier^ forceps, pincers, 
iron hook or cramp. Orig. unknown. 

Daw. (E.) From the noise made by the 
liird ; cf. caw, + O. H. G. tdha, a daw ; 
•dimin. tahde (now G. dohle), a daw ; 
■whence Ital. tacca, a daw ^.Florio). Der. 

Dawn ; see Day. 

Day. (E.) M. E. day, dai, dai, A. S. 
dreg, pi. dagas, + Du. Dan. Swed. dag, 
Icel. dagr, G. tag, Goth, dags, % In no 
way allied to L. dies. 

daisy. (E.) M. E. dayHsyl (4 syllables). 
A. S. dages edge, eye of day, i. e. sun, which 
it resembles. 

dawn. (E.) M. E. dawnen ; also dawen, 
•of which daw-n-en is an extension. — A. S. 
dagian, to become day, dawn. — A. S. dag-, 
stem of dag. 

Daze. (Scand.) M. E. dasen, to stupefy. 
-«Swed. dasa, to lie idle; Icel. dasask, to 
'be wearied, lit. to daze oneself, where -sk 
is the reflexive suffix. The orig. sense is to 
be stupid, to doze ; see Doze. 

daertard. (Scand. ; with Scand. suffix,) 
M. E. dastard \ where 'ard is a F. suffix, 
as in dull-ard, sluggard, •- Icel. dastr, 
exhausted, pp. of dasa, to be out of breath ; 
dasaf^r, exhausted, weary, pp. of dcLsask, to 
be weary (above). Cf. Icel. dasi, a lazy 
fellow, O. Du. dasaertt a fooL The orig. 
sense is ' sluggard.' 

dazzle, to confuse. (Scand.) From 
daM\ with frequent, suffix -le, Der, be- 


De- (i), prefix. (L. ; or F.-L.) L. de, 
down, away, from, very; hence sometimes 

F. d^, O. F. dc, 

De- (2), prefix, (F.-L.) F. di-, O. F. 
des' ; from L. du^ ; see Dis*. 

Deacon. "(L.-Gk.) M. E. deken, A. S. 
deacoft.'m'L. diaconus.^Gtk, StdKovos, a ser- 
vant, a deacon. (^DI,) 

diaconal, belonging-' to a deacon. (F. 
— L. — Gk. ) F. diacotml. — Low L. diacon- 
alis, from L. diaconus (above). 

Dead; see Die (i). 

Deaf. (E.) M. E. deef. AS. ded/.-k- 
Du. doof, Dan. dov, Swed. dof, Icel. dau/r, 
Goth, daubs, G. taub, Orig. * obfuscated ;' 
allied to Gk. rwfxa, smoke, darkness, 
stupor. (V DHU.) 

Deal (i), a share, a thin board. (E.) 
M. E. dee I, A. S. dJel, a portion, share ; 
hence, a thin slice, &c.<4-Du. deel, a deal, 
also a plank; Dan. deel, Swed. del, Icel. 
dcim, Goth, dails, G. theil. 

deal (2), to divide, distribute. (E.) M. E. 
delen, A. S. d<hlan.^A.S. da:/, a shae 
(above). 4* L)u. deelen, Dan. dc/e, Swed, 
dc/a, Icel. deila, Goth, dailjan, G. theilcn ; 
all from their respective sbs. (above). 

dole, a portion. (E.) Dialectal variant 
of deal (1). M. E. dole, dale. A. S. ddl^ 
geddl, a portion ; variant of A. S. dM 

ordeal, a severe test, judgment by fire, 
&c. (E.) M. E. ordal. A. S. ord^l, ordd!, 
a dealing out, judgment, decision. — A. S. 
or-, prefix, out; ail, ddl, a dealing; fee 
dole (above). The prefix <?r- = Du. oor-, 

G. ur-, Goth. US; out.+Du. oordeel, Cr. 
urtheil, judgment; similarly compounded. 

Dean ; see Decemvir. 

Dear. (E.) M. E. dere, A. S. deSre, 
dyre, dear, precious. + Dan. and Swed. </j'r, 
dear, costly, Icel. dyrr, dear, precious ; G. 

darling. (E.) M. E. derling, A. S. 
dedrling, a favourite. — A. S. dedr-e, dear ; 
with double dimin. suffix -l-ing. 

dearth, scarcity. (E.) M. E. derthe, 
deamess ; hence, dearth. Not in A. S. ; 
but formed as heal-th, warm-th, &c.4-lcel. 
dyt^, value ; from dyrr (above). 

Death ; see Die. 

Debar ; see Bar. 

Debase ; see Base. 

Debate : see Batter. 

Debauch. (F. - L. and Teut.) O. F. 

desbaucher (F. debaucher\ * to debosh, mar, 

, seduce, mislead ;' Cot. Diez supposes that 


the orig. sense was ' to entice away from a 
workshop ;* it is certainly derived from the 
O. F. prefix des- (Lw dis'\ away, and O. F. 
bauche^ explained by Roquefort as 'a little 
house,' and by Cotgrave as 'a course of 
stones or bricks in building.' Cf. F. em- 
baucher, to use in business, employ, es- 
baucher^ to rough-hew, frame. The orlg. 
sense of bauche was prob. 'balk,* i.e. 
beam, hence frame of a building, course 
in building, small building, &c. ; of Teut 
origin ; see Balk. 

I>ebenture; see Habit. 

Debilitate; see Habit. 

Debonair. (F.) M.E. debonere^ dehonaire\ 
put for de bin aire^ lit of a fi;ood mien. 
■-L. dty of; bon-us, good; znaaire, mien 
( = Ital. aria)f a word of uncertain origin, 
occurring in the E. phr, *to give oneself 
arrs. * 

Debouch. (F. - L.) F. d^botuher, to 
uncork, to emerge from ; hence, to march 
out of a narrow pass. — F. d^ ( = 0. E des- 
= L. dis'\ away ; and bouche^ mouth, open- 
ing, from L. bucca, mouth. 

disembogue, to flow into the sea, as 
a river. (Span. — L.) Span, destmbocar^ 
to disembogue. -• Span, des- (L. dis'\ 
apart; embocar^ to enter the mouth, from 
em- (L. in), into^ and boca (L. buccd)^ 

embouchure. (F. — L.) F. embouchure, 
the mouth or opening (of a river). — F. 
emboucher, to put to the mouth. —L. /», 
in ; bucc€L, the mouth. 

Debris, broken pieces. (F, -■ L. and 
Teut.) F. debris, fragments. » O. F. 
desbriser, to rive asunder. — O. F. des- 
( = L. dis-\ apart ; and M. H. G. bresten, 
to break, cognate with E. Biirst. 

Debt ; see Habit. 

Debut ; see Beat. 

Decade. (F.-Gk.) F. decade, «a de- 
cade,' Cot.; i.e. an aggregate of ten. «Gk. 
ScKddo, ace of liKos, a company of ten. «> 
Gk. S^me, ten ; see Ten. 

decagon. (Gk.) Named from its ten 
angles. — Gk. d^«a, ten; fm^-ia, a comer, 
angle, allied to 7<Syv, knee; see Knee. 
Der. hen-decagon (Iv, one, SfvScira, eleven) ; 
dodecagon {^tb^ica, twelve). 

decaheoron. (Gk.) Named from its 
ten sides or bases. — Gk. d^/ra, ten: It^a, 
a base, lit. ' seat,' from Sfd-os, a seat ; see 
Sit. Der. do-deca-hedron (Gk. 0a;8c«a, 

decalogue. (F. — L. - Gk). F. deca- 



logue.^'L, decalogus.'^G'k, ZtK&Kariot, the 
ten commandments. — Gk. d^ira, ten; A^or, 
a speech, sayine^ ; see Iiogic. 

aecasyllabic, having ten syllables. 
(Gk.) Gk. 8^/ra, ten ; ovAAa/B^, a syllable. 
Der. hen-deccuyilcUnc (Gk. MtKa^ eleven). 
Decamp ; see Camp. 
Decanid ; see Decemvir. 
Decant ; see Cant (2). 
Decapitate ; see Capital 
Decay ; see Cadence. 
Decease ; see Cede. 
Deceive ; see Capacious. 
Decemvir, one of ten magistrates. (L.) 
L. decemuir, one of the decemuiri, or ten 
men joined in a commission. — L. decern, 
ten (see Ten) ; and »i>, a man (see 

dean. (F. - L.) M. E. dene. - O. F. 
deien (F. doyen), — L. decanus, one set 
oven ten soldiers, or over ten monks, a 

decanal. (L.) Belonging to a dean.— 
L. decan-us (above). 

decennial, belonging to ten years. (L.) 
Coined from L. decenn-alis^ of ten years. — 
L. dec-em, ten ; annus, a year. 

decimal. (F. — L.) O. F. decimal, — 
Low L. decimalis, belonging to tithes.- 
L. decima, a tithe ; fem. of decimus, tenth. 
— L. decern, ten. 

decimate. (L.) From pp. of L. deci- 
mare, to select every tenth man, for punish- 
ment. — L. decern, ten. 

dime, the tenth part of a dollar. (F. — 
L.) F. dtvie, O. F. disme, tenth. — L. 
decimus, tenth. — L. decern, 

decussate, to cross at an acute angle. 
(L.) From pp. of L. decussare, to cross, put 
into the form of an X. — L. decussis, a coin 
worth ten asses (as-es).and therefore marked 
with X, i.e. ten. — L. decern, ten; assi-, crude 
form of as, an ace ; see Aoe. 

denary, relating to tens. (L.) L. dena- 
rius, containing ten. — L. <^-«j {=dec-nt), 
pi. ten by ten. — L. dec-em, ten. Hence 
denier, L. denarius, piece of ten (as-es). 
Decent. ^F. — L.) F. decent, — L. de^ 
cent; stem of pres. pt. of decere, to become, 
beBt ; cf. decus, honour. 

decorate. (L.) From pp. of decorare, 
to adorn.— L.^^r-, stem oi decus, honour, 

decorum. (L.) L. decorum, seemli- 
ness ; neut. of decorus, seemly. — L. decor-,, 
stem of decor, seemliness. allied to dicus 
(above). Der. in-decorum. 



Deception; see Oapaoiotts. 

Decide ; see Ossura. 

Deoiduotui; see Cadence. 

Decimal, Decimate ; see DecemTir. 

Decipher; see Cipher. 

Deck, to cover. (O. Du.) Du. dekktn, to 
cover ; dek, a cover, a ship*s deck. Cognate 
with £. Thatch, q. v. 

Declaim ; see Claim. 

Declare ; see Clear. 

DedensioxL, Decline ; see Incline. 

Declivity; see Acolivity. 

Decoct ; see Cook. 

Decollation ; see Collar. 

Decompose; see Pose (i). 

Decorate, Decorum ; see Decent. 

Decoy ; see Qiiiet. 

Decrease ; see Crescent. 

Decree ; see Concern. 

Decrement ; see Crescent. 

Decrepit; see Crevice. 

Decretal ; see Concern. 

Decry; see Queruloas. 

Decussate ; see Decemvir. 

Dedicate ; see Diction. 

Deduce, Deduct ; see Duke. 

Deed; see Do (i). 

Deem; see Do (x). 

Deep, profound. (E.) M. E. deep. A. S. 
de6p.^T>\i, diepf Dan. dyb, Swed. diup^ 
Icel. djtipr, G. tie/, Goth, diups. (Teut. 
base DUP.) 

dapple, a spot on an animal. (Scand.) 
Icel. depilif a spot, dot ; a dog with spots 
over the eyes is also called depilL The 
orig. sense is *a little pool,* from Norweg. 
dapi, a pool. Allied to Dan. dial, duppe, a 
hole where water collects, £. dub^ a pool ; 
and to E. deep, dip, 

depth, deepness. (Scand.) Icel. dyp'(&t 
depth; from djiipr, deep. ^ Da. diepU\ 
Goth, daupitha, 

dibber, dibble, a tool for setting 
plants, (t.) Formed with suffix -er or -U 
of the agent, from prov. E. dib, to dip, 
hence to maJce holes in earth, weakened 
form of dip (above). 

dimple, a small hollow. (Scand.) 
Nasalised form of Norweg. depil, dipel^ a 
pool ; dimin. of dapi, a pool ; see dapple 
above. Cf. Swed. dial, depp, a pool. 

dingle. (Scand.) Formerly dimbU, 
variant of dimple (above). 

dip, to plunge, immerge. (E.) M. E. 
dippen. A. S. dyppan, later dippan ; 
causal form from dypan, to plunge in, 
lonned (by vowel-change iiom i6 to y) 


from deSpy deep (above). + Dan. dyppe, to 
dip. Compare Dive. 

Deer. (E) M. E. deer^ an animal. 
A. S. dedr^ a wild animal. + Du. <//Vr, Dan. 
dyr, Swed. djur^ Icel. dyr, Goth, ditis, G. 
ihier, 'L.fetxt, Gk. ^p, a wild beast. Der. 
wilder-ness, q. v. 

DefiEUie ; see Face. 

Defalcate ; see Falchion. 

Defame ; see Fame. 

Default; see Fail. 

Defeasance, Defeat ; see Fact. 

Defecate ; see Feaces. 

Defect ; see Fact. 

Defend. (F.-L.) M.E. defenden.^ 
O. F. defendre.^\u. defendere^ to defenH, 
lit. strike down or away. — L. de^ down ; 
fendere*, to strike, only in comp. dc-femiere, 
of'/endere, Cf. G. Buvuv, to strike. 
(V DHAN.) 

defence. (F.-L.) M. E. defence.'^ 
O. F. defense, — L. defensa, a defending 
(TertuUian). — L. defensus, pp. of de- 
fendere (above). 

fence. (F.— L.) Short for defence^ i.e. 
a guard. 

fend. (F.-L.) Short for defend, to 
ward off. Der. fend-er, (i) a metal 
guard for a fire, (a) a buffer to deaden a 

offence. (F. — L.) O.T, offence, offense. 
— L. offensa, an offence ; orig. fern, of pp. 
of of-findere, to dash against. 

ofrend. (F.-L.) M.E. offenden.^Y, 
offendre,^\., of fendere, to dash or strike 
against, injure Kof «= ob-). 

Defer (i) and (a) ; see Fertile. 

Deficient; see Fact. 

Defile (i), to pollute. (F.— L. ; confused 
with L. and E.) M. E. dcfouien, to 
trample under foot ; later spelling defoyle ; 
see Foil (i). This word is obsolete, but 
it suggested a hybrid compound made by 
prefixing L. de, down, to the old wordyf/^, 
to defile (Macb. iii. i. 65). = A.S./y/flt», to 
defile, make foul, formed (by vowel-change 
of 1/ to y) from A. S.ftil^ foul ; see Foul. 

Defile (a), to pass along in a file; see 
File (1). 

Define; see Final. 

Deflect ; see Flexible. 

Deflour ; see Floral. 

Defluzion ; see Fluent. 

Deforce ; see Force. 

Defbrm ; see Form. 

Defiraud ; see Fraud. 

Defray; see Fragile. 


3>eftinot ; see Function. 

Defy ; see Faith. 

Degenerate ; see Genns. 

Deglutition ; see Glut. 

Degrade, Degree ; see Grade. 

Dehiscent, gaping. (L.) L. dehiscent-, 
stem of pres. pt of dehiscere, to gape open. 
— L. de, down ; hiscere^ to gape. Allied to 

Dei4r ; see Deity. 

Deign; see Dignity. 

Deity. (F.-L.) M.E. detfe. '^O.F, 
deite.'mh, deitatem, ace. of deitas, deity. 
Godhead. *L. dei; for deus, God j cf. 
diuus, godlike. 4" ^' S. Tiw^ a god 
(whence E. Tues-day\ Icel. tivi, a god, 
O. H. G. Ziut god of war, W. duw^ Gael, 
and Ir. dia, Gk. Zcvs (stem Alf ), Jupiter, 
Skt. deva, a god, daiva, divine. ( ^ DIW.) 
See Tuesday. 

adieu. (F.-L.) F. a dieu, to God, a 
commendation, used as a farewell saying. «> 
L. ad Deum, to God. 

deiiy. (F. - L.) M. E. deifyen, - O. F. 
deifier^ • to deifie,* Cot. — Low L. dei/uart, 
■- L. deificus, accounting as gods. — L. dei-, 
for deus, a god ; and -Jic-^ for facere, to 
make. Der. deificat-ion^ due to pp. of 

deist. (L.) From L. de-us ; with sufiix 

deuce (2), an evil spirit, the devil. (F.) 
M. E. deuSf used interjectionally, like mod. 
E. deuce t (Havelok). - O. F. Deus I O 
God! a common exclamation. «L. Deus, 
O God, voc of deus (above). Similar cor- 
ruptions in sense, esp. from good to bad, 
are common. So also Du. deus. 

Jovial. (F. — L.) O. F. jcviaU san- 
guine, lit. bom under the lucky planet 
Jupiter. — L,/<wm/jj, pertaining to Jupiter. 
■•Lr. loui-y crude form of O. Lat. louis^ 
Jove, whence L. Ju^piter (■■Jove-father). 
Jouis stands for Diuois^ allied to deus, 
god ; cf. Gk. A«if, gen. case of Zcur. And 
see Diurnal. 

Deject ; see Jet (i). 

Delay ; see Tolerate. 

Delectable ; sec Delioate. 

Delegate ; see Legal. 

Delete, to erase. (L.) L. deletus^ pp. of 
delere, to destroy. Root uncertain. 

indelible. (F.-L.) Put for indeleble, 
-O.F. iV«/^/f^//f, • indelible ; * Cot.-L. 
indelebilis, indelible. — L. in, not ; deltbilis, 
destructible, from delere, to destroy. 

Deleterious. (Gk.) Lovil^dekterius\ 



for Gk. hikiitlioLot, noxious.— Gk. ZfiKfyHip, 
a destroyer. — (^k. ZftjXioixai, I harm, injure. 
See Tear. (v'DAR.) 
Delfl (Du.) Earthenware first made at 
Delft, a town in S. Holland, about a. d. 


Deliberate ; see Librate. 

Delioate, dainty, refined. (L.) L. 
delicaius, luxurious ; allied to delicia, 
pleasure, delight. — L. delicere, to amuse, 
allure. — L. de, away; lacere, to entice. 

delectable. (F. - L.) Late M. E. 
delectable, — F. delectable. — L. dclectabilis, 
delightful.— L. delectare^ to delight; fre- 
quent, of de-licere, to allure. 

delicious. (F.-L.) M.E. delicious. 
— O. F. delicieus. — Low L. deliciosus, 
pleasant. — L. delicia, pleasure (above). 

delight. (F.-L.) Misspelt for delite, 
M. E. deliten, verb. — O. F. deliter, 
deleiter. — L. deUctare ; see delectable. 

dilettante, a lover of the fine arts. 
(Ital. - L.) Ital. dilettante, lit. * delighting 
in.* — Ital. dilettare, to delight. — L. 
delectare, to delight ; see delectable. 

elicit, to coax out. (L.) From pp. of 
E e-licere, to draw out by coaxing.— L. e, 
out ; lacere, to entice. And see Lace. 

Delineate ; see Line. 

Delinquent ; see Licence. 

Deliquesce; see Liquid. 

Delirious. (L.) A coined word, from 
L.. delirium, madness, which is also adopted 
into English. — L. delirus, mad ; lit. * going 
out of the furrow.' — L. de, from ; and lira, 
a furrow. 

Deliver; see Liberal. 

Dell ; see Dale. 

Delta. (Gk.) Gk. IkXra, the letter A ; 
answering to Heb. daleth, the name of the 
4th letter of the alphabet ; orig. ' a door of 
a tent.* Der. deltoid. 

Delude ; see Ludicrous. 

Deluge ; see Lave. 

Delve, to dig. (E.) M. E. deluen, A. Sb 
delfan, pt. t. dealf, pp. dolfen, 4- Du. 
delven ; M. H. G. telben. Extension from 
the base DAL, a dale. See Dale. 

Demagogue. (F.-Gk.) Y.dhnagogtu, 
*-Gk. Sijuayeryds, a popular leader. — Gk. 
Bfjft»os, people; d7ar)r<5j, leading, from dfT-fiv, 
to lead. 

Demand ; see Mandate. 

Demarcation ; see Mark (i). 

Demean ; see Menace. 

Demented ; see MentaL 

Demerit ; see Merit. 



Demesne ; see Domain. 

Demi-, half. (F. - L.) O. F. demi, 
half.^L. dimidiust half. ^ L. di- ^ dis-, 
apart ; medius, middle ; see Medium. 

Demise ; see Missile. 

Democracy ; see Aristocracy. 

Demolish: see Mole (3). 

Demon. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. demon, - 
L. damon.'^GV, ^aifmy, a god^ genius, 
spirit. (VDA.) 

jDemonstrate ; see Monition. 

Demoralise ; see Moral. 

Demur. (F.— L.) O.F. deffuurer, de- 
mourer, to tarry; henoe, to hesitate. — L. 
de-fnorari, to delay fully. 

Demure ; see Moral. 

Demy ; a spelling of demi-. 

Den. (E.) M. £. den ; A. S. denn. a 
cave, allied to denu, a valley. +0. Du. 
denntt G. tenne, floor, threshing-floor, cave. 

Denary ; see Decemvir. 

Dendroid. (Gk.) Gk. Uvlpov, a tree; 
-cfSf/r, like, from cidos, form, shape. 

Denizen ; see Interior. 

Denominate, Denote ; see Noble. 

Denouement; see Node. 

Denounce ; see Nuncio. 

Dense. (L.) L. densus, thick. 4" Gk. 
ZaavSf thick. Der. con-dense. 

Dent ; see Dint. 

Dental. (L.) Formed from L. dent-, 
stem oidens, a tooth, cognate with £. Tooth, 
dandelion, a flower. (F. — L.) F. dent 
de lion^ tooth of a lion ; named from the 
jagged leaves. — L. dent-em^ ace. of dens^ 
tooth ; de^ prep. ; leonem^ ace. of leo^ lion. 
dentated, furnished with teeth. (L.) 
L. deniatuSf toothed. — L. dent-^ stem of 

denticle, a little tooth. (L.) L. dcnti- 
cuius, double dimin. of dens. 

dentifrice, tooth-powder. (L.) L. 
dentifricium (Pliny). — L. denii-t crude 
form oi dens \fric-are, to rub. 

dentist. (L.) Coined from L. dent-,, 
stem of dens, 

dentition. (L.) L. dentitionem^ ace. 
of dentitioy cutting of teeth. — L. dentitus, 
pp. of dentire, to cut teeth. — L. denti-, 
crude form of dens, 

indent, to cut into points like teeth. 
(Low L.) A law term. — Low. L. in- 
dentare, to notch. — L. i«, in; dent-, stem 
of dens, a tooth. Der. indenture ; so called 
because duplicate deeds were cut with 
notched edges to fit one another. 

Denude ; see Nude. 


Denunciation ; see Nuncio* 

Deny ; see Negation. 

Depart ; see Fart. 

Depend ; see Pendant. 

Depict ; see Picture. 

Depilatory ; see Pile (3). 

Depletion; see Plenary. 

Deplore. (F.-L. ; ^rL.) O F. deplorer. 
— L. deplorare, to lament over. — \s.dc, fully ; 
phrarCf to wail, weep, make to flow, allied 
Xopluuia, rain. 

explore. (F. — L.) Y.explorer.^'L.ex- 
plorare, to search out, lit. to make to flow 
out. — L. ex, out ; plorare, to make to flow. 

implore. (F. — L.) F. implorer. - L. 
implorare, to implore. — L. im- = in, on, 
upon ; plorare, to wail. 

toeploy ; see Ply. 

Deponent ; see Position. 

Depopulate ; see Popular. 

Deport ; see Port (i). 

Depose ; see Pose. 

Deposit, Depot ; see Position. 

Deprave. (F.— L.) M. E. deprauen.^ 
O. F. depraver, — L. deprauare, to make 
crooked, distort, vitiate. — L. dc, fully ; 
prauus, crooked, depraved. 

Deprecate ; see Precarious. 

Depreciate ; see Precious. 

Depredate ; see Predatory. 

Depress ; see Press. 

Deprive; see Private. 

Depth ; see Deep. 

Depute ; see Putative. 

Derange ; see Bing. 

Dereliction: see Iiicenoe. 

Deride ; see Bidiculous. 

Derive ; see Bivulet. 

Derm, skin. (Gk.) Gk. Scp/ia, skin. — Gk. 
B4p€iv, to flay ; cognate with E. Tear, vb. 
epidemns, cuticle. (L. — Gk.) L. 
epidermis, — Gk. ividipfus, upper skin. — Gk. 
iW, upon ; dipfi-a, skin. 

pachydermatous, thick-skinned. (Gk.) 
Gk. irax^-s, thick ; htpiiar-, stem of S^ppia, 
skin. Uaxvi is allied to irf/yvvfu, I fix ; 
see Pact. And see Taxidermy. 

Derogate : see Bogation. 

Dervis, Dervish, a Persian monk, 
ascetic. (Pers.) Pcrs. darvhh, poor ; a 
dervish, who professed poverty. 

Descant; see Cant (1). 

Descend ; see Scan. 

Describe, Descry ; see Scribe. 

Desecrate ; see Sacred. 

Desert (i), a waste; see Series. 

Desert (2), merit, Deserve ; see Serve. 


Deahabille; see Habit. 
Desicoate ; see Saok (3). 
Desiderate ; see Beaire. 

Design ; see Sign. 

I>e8ire, to lone for. (F.-L.) O.F. de- 
sirer, desirrer, — L. desidtrare, to long for, 
regret, miss. Perhaps (like considerare) 
allied to sidus, a star, as if to torn the eyes 
irom the stars, to regret, miss. 

desiderate. (L.) L. dcsidemtus^ pp. 
of desiderare (above]^ 

Desist ; see State. 

Desk ; see Disc. 

Desolate ; see Sole (3). 

Despair ; see Deiperate. 

Despatch, Dispatch ; see Pedal. 

Desperate, hopeless. (L.> L. despcratus, 
pp. oi desperare^ to lose all hope. — L. d€^ 
from ; j/^r-, from spe-, crude form of spes^ 
hope. (VSPA.) 

despair. (F. — L.) M. E. despeiren^ 
desperen. — O. F. desperer, to despair. — L. 
despcrare (above). 

desperado, a desperate man. (Span. — 
L.) Span, desperado. ^L.. dcsperattu^ pp. 
oidesperare (above). 

prosper. (F.—L.) O.Y, prosperer.^ 
L prosperart^ to be prosperous. — l^.prosper, 
prosperous, according to one's hope. — L. 
pro, for, according to ; sper-, from spes, hope. 
prosperous. (L.) t,. prosperus, another 
form ol prosper t adj. 

Despise, bespite ; see Species. 

Despoil ; see Spoil. 

Despond ; see Sponsor. 

Despot, a t}Tant. (F.-L. - Gk.) O. F. 
dcspote. — Low L. despotus. — Gk. li€ffw6Trjs, 
a master. The syllable wot- is allied to 
Gk. w6ais, husband, Skt. /a/i, lord, and to 
Potent. Origin of dta- unknown. 

Desquamation, a scaling off. (L.) L. 
de. off ; squama, a scale. 

Dessext ; see Ser^e. 

Destine, Destitute ; see State. 

Destroy ; see Structure. 

Desuetfude ; see Custom. 

Desultory ; see Salient. 

Detach ; see Taok. 

Detail ; see Tailor. 

Detain ; see Tenable. 

Detect ; see Tegument. 

Detention ; see Tenable. 

Deter ; see Terror. 

Deterge, to wipe off. (L.) \,. detergere, 
to wipe off. — L. ae^ off; tergere^ to wipe. 

Deteriorate. (L.) L. deierioraius, pp. 
of dtteriorare. to make worse. — L. detenor. 



worse. Formed from de, away, from ; with 
comp. suffixes -ttr-ion (So ako in-ter-ior 
from f».) 

Determine ; see Term. 
Detest ; see Testament. 
Dethrone ; see Throne. 
Detonate, to explode. (L.) L. detotuitus, 
pp. of detonare, to explode.— L. de, fully ; 
tonare, to thunder. (^ STAN. ) 
Detour ; see Turn. 
Detraction; see Trace (i). 
Detriment; see Trite. 
Detrude ; see Intrude. 
Deuce (i), two ; see Dual. 
Deuce 12), a devil ; see Deify. 
Devastate ; see Vast. 
Develop ; see Envelop. 
Deviate ; see Viaduct. 
Device ; see Divide. 
DeviL(L.-Gk.) h,^.deSfuI,de6fol,'-'L. 
diabolus, — Gk. SidfiokoSf the slanderer, the 
devil. — Gk. BuifiaWtiv, to throw across, 
traduce, slander. — Gk. dui, through, across ; 
fidWfiv, {o throw ; see Belemnite. 

diabolical. (L.-Gk.) h. dtado/ic-us, 
devilish. — Gk. Iia0o\ne6s, devilish. — Gk. 
M/3oAor, the devil (above). 
Devious ; see Viaduct. 
Devise : see Divide. 
Devoid; see Void. 
Devoir ; see Habit. 
Devolve ; see Voluble. 
Devote ; see Vote. 
Devour ; see Voracity. 
Devout: see Vote. 

Dew. (£.) M. E. deu, dew. A. S. deJ7a, 
dew.+Du. dauWf Icel dogg (^n. ddggvar), 
Dan. dugt Swed. dagg^ G. thau. Perhaps 
allied to Skt. dhdv, to run, or dh(h\ to wash. 
bedew, to cover with dew. (E.) From 
dew^ with prefix be-. 

dangle, to moisten, wet with dew or 
spray. (Scand.) Frequentative verb from 
Swed. dagg^ Icel. dogg, dew. Cf. Icel. 
dogpja, to bedew. 

dank, moist. (Scand.) M. E. dank, 
wet (esp. with ref. to ^<fw). — Swed. dial. 
dank^ marshy ground; Icel. dokk^ a pool. 
Nasalised form from Swed. dagg, dew, Icel. 
dcigg, dew. 

Dexter. (L.) L. dexter, on the ripht 
hand side, riglit.+Gk. debtor, right, Skt. 
dakshincL, on the right or south, Goth. 
taihswa, right hand, W. deheu^ right, 
southern, Gael, and Irish deas (the same). 
The Skt. dakshina is orig. 'clever;* cf.Skt. 
daksha, clever, daksh, to suit. ^ 




^^Yt a governor of Algiers. (Turk.) 
Turk, ddi, a maternal uncle; afterwards, 
an officer, chieftain. 

Di-, prefix, twice, double. (Gk.) Gk. 
&-, for 8if, twice. + L- ^w» ^i- ; Skt. dvis, 
dvi: Allied to Two. 

Dia-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. «<o, through, 
between, apart ; allied to Di-, and to Two. 
% In nearly all words beginning with dia-^ 
except diamond^ diaper, diary. 

Diabetes, a disease accompanied with 
excessive discharge of urine. (Gk.) Gk. 
diafi^yrrjs. — Gk. hia&alvtiv, to stand with 
the legs apart. — Gk« lia, apart ; fictivity, to 
go ; see Come. 

Diabolical ; see Devil. 

Diaconal ; see Deacon. 

Diaoritio ; see Critic. 

Diadem, a fillet, crown. (F.-L.-Gk.) 
M. £. and O. F. diademe.^'L, diadema." 
Gk. d«i8i;fia, a fillet -» Gk. Sto, apart, round ; 
Zi-Wf I bind, allied to Skt. da, to bind 
(whence ddman, a garland). (^ DA.) 

Diffiresis ; see Heresy. 

Dia^osis ; see Gnome. 

Diagonal. (F.-L.-Gk.) Y,diagmaL 

— L. diagonaliSf running from comer to 
comer. — Gk. ^ay^vtoi (the same). — Gk. 
8((i, through, between, across; yon^ia, an 
anc^le, bend, from y6vv, knee ; see Knee. 

DiagprazQ ; see Qrammar. 

Dial ; see Diary. 

Dialect, Dialogue ; see Iiogio. 

Diameter ; see Metre. 

Diamond ; see Adamant. 

Diapason, a whole octave, harmony. 
(L. — Gk.) L. diapason^ an octave, con> 
cord of a note with its octave. — Gk. dia- 
vaawv, concord of first and last notes of an 
octave, lit. * through all' the notes.— Gk. 8id, 
through ; vaaStv^ gen. pi. fem. of iray, all 
(yopSwy being understood) ; see Fan-, prefix. 

Diaper ; see Jasper. 

Diaphanous ; see Phantom. 

Diaphoretic, causing perspiration. (L. 

— Gk.) L. diaphoreticus^ sudorific. — Gk. 
diaxl>oprjrttc6s (the same). — Gk. dtcuf>6prf<Tiff 
perspiration. — Gk. 9iaxpop€iv, to carry off 
(by perspiration). — Gk. Bid, through ; 
^cpciv, to bear ; see Bear. 

Diaphragm, a dividing membrane. 
(F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. diaphragme, - L. 
diaphragma.^QV, dii<l>payfxa, partition, 
midriff. — Gk. Sui, between ; ^pdyyviUj 
<l>pd(r(TWf I fence in, enclose. (^ 

Diarrhoea; see Bhetun. 

Diary. (L.) L.rf/Vzrri/»j, a daily allowance, 
also a diary. — L. dies, a day. (V DIW.) 

adjourn, to put off till another day. 
(F. — L.) O. F. ajormr, ptoperly to draw 
near to day, to dawn. — O. F. a ( = L. ad), 
to ; Low L. diumare *, from diuntus, 
daily. — L. dies, a day. 

dial. (L.) M.E. dial.^Jjovf L. diaiis, 
relating to a day ; hence a plate for she>v- 
ing the titfie of day. — L. dies, day. 

diurnal. (L.) L. diumalis, daily. — 
L. diurnus, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

Journal. (F. — L.) Properly an adj., 
signifying ^di^JxXj.^^Y, journal, daily. — L. 
diunialis, daily ; see diurnal. 

journey. (F. — L.) M. E. iournee, a 
day's travel. — F. jounUe, a day, orig. a 
day's work ; = Low L. diumata ♦. — L. 
diumus, daily. — L. dies, a day. 

sqjoum, to dwell. (F. — L.) O. F. 
sojomer, sojourner, '^'L, sub, under; diur- 
nare, to stay. 

Diastole ; see Stole. 

Diatonic ; see Tone. 

Diatribe. (L. — Gk.) L. diatriha, a 
place for learned disputations (hence a dis- 
pute, invective) ; an extension of the sense 
of Gk. btaTpi$^, SL wearing away of time, 
waste of time, discussion. — Gk. Siarpi'jS- 
ttv, to waste time, to discuss. — Gk. 5ta, 
thoroughly; rpi^av, to rub, waste away; 
allied to L. terere^ to rub ; see Trite. 

Dibber, Dibble ; see Deep. 

Dice, pi. of die; see Date (i). 

Dicotyledon, a plant with two seed-lobes. 
(Gk.) From Gk. 8<-, double ; icoTv\rjb6jv, a 
cup-shaped hollow, from tcoTv\rj, a cup. 

Dictate ; see Diction. 

Diction, talk. (F.-L.) F. diction.'^ 
L. dictiottem, ace. of dictio, a saying. — L. 
dictus, pp. of dicere, to say, appoint ; allied 
to dicare, to tell, publish. +Gk. hntcvviii, I 
shew ; Skt. dif^ to shew ; Goth, gateihan, 
to announce, G. zeigcn, to accuse, point 
out. (VDIK.) 

abdLicate. (L.) From pp. of L. abJic- 
are, to renounce. — L. ab, from ; dicare, to 

addict. (L.) L. addicttts, pp. of ad- 
dicere, to adjudge, assign to. 

condition. (F. — L.) Y. cottdition. — L. 
conditionem,vsx., oi conditio, a late spelling; 
oi conditio, a covenant, condition. — L. con- 
(for cum\ together; die-are, to proclaim 
(or from the same root). 

contradict. (L.) L. contradictus, pp. 
oi coHtra-dicere, to speak against. 


dedicate, to devote. (L.) L. dtdiccUus^ 
pp. of de-dicarCt to devote. 

dictate. (L.) L. dictatus^ pp. of dictare, 
to dictate, frequentative of diccre, to say. 
Der. dictat-or. 

dictionary. (L.) Low L. dicfiominum, 
formed from diction-, stem of dictio, a say- 
ing, word. See Diction. 

dight, adorned. (L.) Dight as pp. is 
short for dighted, from the obs. verb dight, 
to arrange, prepare, M. E. dihten, to pre- 
pare. A. S. dihtan^ to set in order, arrange ; 
borrowed from L. dictan^ to dictate, pre- 
scribe ; see dictate. 

ditto. (Ital.-L.) Ital. ditto, that which 
has been said.">L. dictum, neut. of pp. of 
dicert, to sav. 

ditty. (F. - L.) M. E. ditce, - O. F. 
dite, a kind of poem. — L. dictatutn, a thing 
dictated ; neut. of dictcUus, pp. of dictate ; 
see dictate. 

edict. (L.) L. edictum, neut. of pp. of 
e-dicerc, to proclaim. 

index. (L.) L. index (stem indic-^, a 
discloser, something that indicates. — L. 
indicare, to point out (below). 

indicate. (L.) From pp. of L. in- 
dicare, to point towards, point out. 

indict. (F.-L.) For indite (which is 
the French spelling), and so pronounced. 

indiction, a cycle of fifteen years. (L.) 
F. indiction^ a cycle of taxes or tributes 
arranged for 6fteen years ; the lit. sense is 
merely 'appointment.* — L. indictionem, 
ace. of indictioy an appointment, esp. of a 
tax. — L. indicttts, pp. of in-dicere, to ap- 
point, impose a tax. 

indite. (F.-L.) O.F. indicter, to in- 
dict, accuse; also spelt inditer.^ljovr L. 
indictare, to point out, frequent, of in- 
dicare, to point out. (Doubtless confused 
with the closely related L. indictus, pp. of 

interdict. (L.) Law L. interdictum^ 
a kind of excommunication; L. interdictum, 
a decree. — L. interdictus, pp. of inter' 
dicere, to pronounce a judgment between 
two parties. 

preach. (F. — L.) M. E. prechen, — 
O. F. precher, prescher {prichet^.^'L, prcB- 
dicare (below). 

predicate. (L.) From pp. of pnt- 
dicare^ to publish, proclaim, declare. 

predicament. (L.) Ij. pradicamentum, 
a term in logic, one of the mo«t general 
classes into which things can be divided.— 
L. prm^icare (above). 



predict. (L.) L. pradieius, pp. of 
prtB'dicere^ to say beforehand, foretell. See 
also Benediction, Benison, Avenge, 
Judge, Malediction. Maliaon, Valedic- 
tion, Verdict, Vindicate. 

Didactic, instructive. (Gk.) Gk. «i«ojrTi- 
kCs, instructive. — Gk. 8i8a(ricciv, to teach 
(= ZtlaK-(TKttv*), + L. docere, to teach. 

Didapper, Divedapper, a bird; see 

Die (I), to lose life. (Scand.) M. E. dien, 
defen,<mlcc\. deyja ; Swed. do, Dan. doe, to 
die. + Goth, diwan, M. H. G. touwett. . 

dead. (E.) M. E. deed. A. S. dedd, 
dead. 4* Du. dood, Dan. diid, Swed. dod, 
Icel. dau^r, Goth, dautks. The Goth. 
dau-ths is formed with weak pp. suffix -ths 
from dau, pt. t. ofstrong verb^/7«««, todie. 
death. (E.) M. E. deeth, A. S. dediS, 
4* Du. dood^ Dan. Swed. dod, Icel. dau^i, 
Goth, dauthus, G. tod. The Goth. datUhus 
is formed with suffix -thus from dau^ pt. t. 
of the strong verb diwan, to die. 

Die (a), a small cube for gaming; see 
Date (i). 

Diet(i), regimen. (F.-L.- Gk.) M. E. 
diete.^O. F. diete, daily fare. — Low L. 
dieta, diata, a ration of food.— Gk. liauia, 
mode of life, diet. 

Diet (2), an assembly. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
O. F. diet, * a diete, parliament,' Cot. — 
Low L. diata, a public assembly; also a 
ration of food, diet. — Gk. liaira, a mode of 
life, diet ; see Diet (i). V The peculiar use 
of the word was due to a popular etymology 
which connected diccta with dies, a day; 
we even find diteta used to mean ' a day's 
journey;' Ducange. 

Dififer ; see Fertile. 

Difficulty ; see Fact. 

Diffident ; see Faith. 

Difilise ; see F\iBe (i). 

Dig; see Dike. 

Digest ; see Qerund. 

Dight ; see Diction. 

Dig^t, a finger, figure. (L.) L. digitus, 
a finger ; hence a figure, from counting on 
the fingers. + Gk. bcucrv\o$, A. S. td ; see 
Dactyl Toe. (-/DAK, to take (Curtius).) 

Difipiity. (F. - L.) M. E. diptUee.^ 
O. F. digniteit. — L. dignitatem, ace. of 
dij^nitcu, worthiness. — L. dignus, worthy; 
allied to decet, it is fitting ; see Decent. 

condign, well-merited. (F. — L.) O. F. 
condigne. — L. condigfius, very worthy.— 
L, con- {cum), very; dignus ^ worthy. 



d&lnty, a delicacy. (F. - L.) M. E. 
deinlu, orig. a Gb..a pleasunUhmg. — O. F. 
daintie (i. e. dainliJ), agreeableness. — L. 
sux.dignilalem:iefDisBit7. f TheO.F. 
dainlii is the true popular O. F. form ; 
dignitiit is a pedantic form ; cf. O. F, dain, 
old spelling of digni, worthy, 

deign. (F.-L.) Hi.'E. dcigneit.-O.Y. 
deipur, dtgncr, lo deign. — L. digtiaH, to 
tieem worthy. — L. digaus, vforthy. 

dlgniiy. (F. - L.) O. F. dignifiir.- 
Low L. dignificart.Xa make wotthj. — L. 
digni; loT dignut, worthy; -ficare, for 
facere, to make. 

disdain, sb. (F.-L.> M. E. dhdtyn. 

— O. F. desdiin, sb.-O. F. disdtgtter, to 
disdain.>-0. F. dts- (L. rfiV-). apart; deg- 
tur (L. dignari), to think worthy, from 
dienus, worthy. 

Digress; seeQrade. 

Dike, a trench, trench and embankment, 
bank. (E.) M. E. dik, also dich (-mod. 
K. diuk). A. S. dU. + Du. diji, Icel. 
dm, Dan. lApie, Swed. ditt, G. ieich, pond, 
lank, Gk, t«ix«, wall, rampart, Skt. dihl, 
rampart. All from ^DHtGH. to Imead, 
form, mould ; as in Goth, digan. 

diiry, (Scand.) M. F, dcytiye, a room 
for a deyc, i. e. a milk-woman, (arm-servant. 

— Icel. deigja, Swed. dija, a maid, dairy- 
maid, who was also the bread-maker ,- the 
orig. tense is 'kneader of dougb,'- Icel. 
dtig, Swed. dtg, dough ; see donsti below. 

dig. (E.) M. E diggati weakened form 
of dikitn. A. S. dlciait, to make a dike. — 
A, S. die, a dike (above). 

ditoh.(E.) ti. E.dicA,dkAt; weakened 
form of M. E. dik, a dike; see Dike 

dough. (E.) M. E. dak. dsgh. A. S. 
dik. + Da. d4ig. Dan. dcig, Swed. deg. 
Icel. dtig, Goth, daigs. a kneaded lump, G. 
teig. The Goth., daigs is from digan, to 
knead ; see Dike above. (And see Iiodr.) 

I}ila«erate ; see Lacerate. 

Dilapidate ; see LapiduT. 

Dilate ; see Tolorkte. 

Dilemma; see Xjemma. 

Dilettante ; see Delloiooi. 

Diligextt ; see Iiegal. 

Dill, a plant. (E.) M. E. dilli. A. S. 
dill. + Uu. dillc, Dan, dild, Swed. dill, 
G. dill. 

Dilute ; see Iiare. 

Dim. (E.) M. E.rf.W. A. S. aim, dark. 
4- leei. dimmr, M, H. G, Hmmtr, dim; 
Swed. dimma, a fog, haze. Cf, O. Sox. 


tkim. dim, G. damiiuni'ig, dimness, L 
tiiubra:, darkness, Skt. latTVii, gloom. 

Dime ; see Deoamvlr. 

Dimension; see Meaiure. 

Diminish ; see Uinor. 

DlmtsBory; see UlMlle. 

Dimity, a white stuff. (L.-Gk.) Low 
L. dimila, silks woven with two threads. 

— Gk. tiiuToi, made with a double thread, 

— Gk. &-, double; iiitot, a thread of the 

Dimple 1 see Deep. 
Din. clamonr, (E.) M. E. diiu, dune. 
A. S. dyn, dyne; dyniian. to resound. + 
Icel. dynr, Swed. din, Dan. din, noise; 
ikt. dhuni, roaring, a torrent, dhvani, a 
iin, dhvan, to resound. 
Dine. (F.) U.K. dinen.-O.Y.diiTur, 
F. diner, to dine; Low L. dimarc. Ci. 
Ital, desiiiare,disinart, to dine. Diei sug- 
gests L. deianare' ; from de, fnlly, tanarc, 
I take supper, from ctena, sapper. 

dinner. (F.) M. E.rfjwj-; from O. F. 
disner, to dine; the inlinitive mood being 
used as a sb. 

ig. to throw violently, beat. (E.) 
M. E. dingin, pt. I. dang, pp. dungen ; a 
true E. strong verb; though not found in 
A. S. + Icel, dengia. Dm, dange, Swed. 
danga. to bang; all weak verbs. 

dangle, to swing about (Scand.) Dan. 
dangle, Swed. dial daagia, to swing about ; 
cf. Swed, and Icel. dingia, Dan. dingle, to 
swing about ; frequentative fonns from ding 
(pC. 1. dang), to throw about. 

dingy, dirty, (E.) Orig. soiled with 
dung. A. S. dingiung, a dunging ; from 
dung, dung ; so also Swed. dyngig, dungy, 
from dyng, dung; see below. 

dung. (E.) A. S. dung; orig, that 
which is thrown away; from the pp. ol 
Dins. + Swed. dynga, dung ; Dan. dyngc, 
a heap, mass; G. dung. 
Dint, a blow, force. (E.) M. E. dim, 
dunt; also deal. A. S. dynl, a blow. •(- 
Icel. dynir, a dint, dynia, to dint; Swed. 
dial, duni, a stroke ; dunta. to strike. 

dent, mark of a blow. (E.) Orig. 'a 
blow ;' M. E. dent, variant of dint (abore). 
Diocese. CF.-L.-Gk.) M. E. diodse. 

— O. F. iioeese. - L. diaieiii. - Gk. ioiioiois, 
administration, a province, diocese. — Gk. 
tiAic^, 1 keep house, govern. — Gk. Si- 
(for tui), throughout: otnt'w, I dwell, from 
oTmjt, a house ; see Wick, a town. 

Dloptrlos; see Optic. 

Diorama, a scene seen through a small 

. DIP. 

opening. — Gk. 8i- (for 8«J). throagh ; opafia, 
a sight, from dpAoj, I see. 

I>ip ; see Deep. 

IMphtheria. (Gk.) From Gk. 8i^/pa, 
leather; from the leathery nature of the 
false membrane formed in the disease.— 
Gk. d4<ptiy^ to prepare leather. 

IMphthong, a nnion of two vowel- 
sounds in one syllable. (F. — Gk.) For- 
merly dipihong (Ben Jonson). — O. F. 
dipthongue. — Gk. 81^^0770?. with two 
somids. — Gk. U- (for 8<s), double ; ip$oyy6s, 
sound, from tpOiyyofmi, I cry out. 

Diploma. (L. - Gk.) L. diploma, a 
document conferring a privilege. — Gk. 
SivAwfux, a thing folded double; also, a 
licence, diploma ^prob. orig. folded double). 
— Gk. 81- (8/r), double ; -vXhw, folded. 
Der. diplomat-ic, from SivAwfuzr-, stem of 

Diptera, two-winged insects. (Gk.) From 
Gk. 8i- (5/r), double ; trrtp^y, a wing, from 
wirofuu, I fly. 

Diptych, a double-folding tablet. (L.- 
Gk.) Low L. pi. diptycha. — Gk. hirmrxp., 
a pair of tablets; neut. pi. of lkirrvx<K, 
folded in two. — Gk. 5i- (8(s), double; 
utrvaauVf to fold. 

Dire. (L.) L. dims, fearful. + Gk. 
dc<V(Jr, dreadful ; allied to him, fear. 

Direct, Dirge ; see Begent. 

Dirk, a dagger. (C.) Irish duirc, a 

Dirt. (Scand.) M. E. drit (with shifted 
r). — Icel. drit, dirt, excrement of birds; 
drita, to void excrement + O. Du. drict, 
sb., drijten, vb. 

Dia-, prefix, (L.) L. dis-, apart ; cf. Gk. 
81 -, apart ; see Di-. Hence O. F. des-, 
which sometimes becomes dis- in £., and 
sometimes de-, as in de-feat. The prefix 
dis' commonly expresses the reversal of an 
act, somewhat like the E. verbal prefix ««-. 
For most words beginning with this prefix, 
see the simpler forms. For example, for 
dis-abuse, see abuse ; and so on. 

Disaster ; see Aster. 

I>i8bur8e ; see Ftirse. 

Disc, Disk, a round plate. (L. — Gk.) 
L. discus, a quoit, a plate. — Gk. hiaicos, a 
quoit. — Gk. hiKuv, to cast, throw. 

dais, a raised floor in a hall. (F.— L.— 
Gk.) Now used of the raised platform on 
which the high table in a hall stands. 
Properly, it was the table itsei/; but was 
also usckI of a canopy over a seat of state, 
or of the seat of state. M. E. deis, deys, — 



O. F. deis, dots, ft high table. — L. discus, 
a quoit, platter; in late Li, a table. — Gk. 
Siaicos (above). 

desk, a sloping table. (L. — Gk.) M. E. 
deske, desk, a variant of dish or disc.'^L. 
discus, a disc (above). 

dish, a platter. (L.-Gk.) M. E. disch. 

A. S. disc, a dish. — L. discus, a quoit, 

platter (above). 

Discern ; see Concern. 

Disciple. (F.-L.) O. F. disciple, -^"L. 

discipulum, ace. of discipulus, a learner. 

— L. discere, to learn ; allied to docere, to 
teach ; see Docile. Der. discipl-ine, O. F. 
disciplinty L. disciplina, learning. 

Disclose ; see Clauae. 

Discomfit. (F. - L.) M. E. discomfit 
(Bruce). — O. F. disconfiz, discomfited, pp. 
of desconfire, * to discomfit, vanquish,' Cot. 

— O. F. des' (L. dis') ; and confire, to pre- 
serve, make ready, from L. conficere^ to 
preserve ; see Fact. 

Disconsolate ; see Solace. 

Discord ; see Cordial. 

Discount ; see Putative. 

Discourse ; see Current. 

Discover ; see Cover. 

Discreet ; see Concern. 

Discrepant ; see Crevice. 

Discriminate ; see Concern. 

Discursive ; see Current. 

Discuss ; see Quaah. 

Disdain; see Dignity. 

Disease ; see Base. 

Disembark; see Bark (i). 

Disembogue ; see Debouch. 

Disgrace ; see Grace. 

Disguise; see 'Wise (a). 

Disgust ; see Oust (a). 

Dish; see Disc. 

Dishevel ; see Capillary. 

Disintereisted ; see Interest (i). 

Disk ; see Disc. 

Dislocate ; see Locus. 

DismaL (F.-L.?) In old books, the 
usual phr. is * dismal days,' which prob. 
refers to tithing-time. — O. F. dismal, adj. 

— L. decimalis, relating to tithes. — L. 
decima (O. F. disme), a tithe. —L. decern, 
ten. % This is the most likely account of 
this difficult word. 

Dismantle ; see Mantle. 
Dismay; see May (i). 
Dismiss ; see Missile. 
Disparage, Disparity ; see Far. 
Dispatch : see Pedal. 
Dispel ; see Pulsate. 



Dispense ; see Ftodant^ 

I>i8perBe ; see Sparse. 

Display; see Fly. 

Dispotrt ; see Fort (i). 

Dispose ; see Fose. 

Dispositioii ; see Fosition. 

Dispute ; see Futative. 

Disqtiisition ; see Query. 

Disruption ; see Buptxire. 

Dissect ; see Secant. 

Dissemble ; see Similar. 

Disseminate ; see SeminaL 

Dissent ; see Sense. 

Dissertation ; see Series. 

Dissident; see Sedentary. 

Dissipate. (L.) From pp. of L. dissip- 
are^ to disperse. •- L. dis-, apart; and 
O. L. supare, to throw; we find also in- 
siparCt to throw into. 

Dissociate ; see Sequence. 

Dissolute, Dissolve ; see SoItc. 

Dissonant ; see Sound (3). 

Dissuade ; see Suasion. . 

Distaff. (E.) A distaff is^ a staff 
bedizened with flax, ready to be spun off. 
* I dysyn a dystaffe^ I put the flaxe upon it 
to spynne ; * Palsgrave. . M. E. distaf, 
dysestaf, A. S. distaf. The A. S. distaf 
stands for dise-staf*, where staf— E. staff, 
and disc * ^"Lovf G. diesse, the bunch of 
ilax on a distaff. See Disen. 

Distain ; see Tinge. 

Distant; see State. 

Distemper ; see Temper. 

Distend ; see Tend. 

Distich^ a couplet. (L. — Gk.) L. 
distichuSt distichon. -• Gk. hiarixov, a coup- 
let (in verse) ; neut. of S/cmxos', having two 
rows. — Gk. 8<- (8/s), double ; arixoSf a row, 
allied to ffrtixfiv, to go. (VSTIGH.) 

Distil ; see StiU (a). 

Distinguish, to mark off. (F. — L.) 
O. F. disiinguer, to distinguish ; the suffix 
'isk has been added by anadogy, and cannot 
be accounted for in the usual way.^L. 
distinguen, to mark with a prick, dis- 
tinguish (pp. distinctus).'^lH di' (for dis-), 
apart; stinguere* Tnot in use), to prick, 
allied to Gk. ffrii^iv, to prick, and E. 
sting, (VSTIG.) See Instigate. 

distinct. (F.-L.) O.F. distinct,^!.. 
distincttiSf distinguished ; pp. oidistinguere. 
extinguish. (L.) Coined, with suffix 
'ish, from L. extinguere, better exstinguere 
(pp. extinctus, exstinctus), to quench. -• L. ex, 
out ; stinguere ♦, to prick, also to extin- 
guish. Per. extinct (from pp. txtinctus)^ 


instinct. (F. — L.; orl..) Y.insHttct, 
sb. — L. instinctunif ace. of instinctus, an 
impulse. »L. instinctus, pp. ofin-stingucre, 
to goad on. 

prestige. (F. — L.) F. prestige, an 
illusion, fascination, influence due to fame. 
^L,. prastigium, a deception, illusion, jug- 
glery.— L. prastig; base of prastinguere, 
to obscure, also to deceive. — L. pra, be- 
fore ; stinguere *, to extinguish. 

Distort ; see Torture. 

Distract ; see Trace. 

Distrain, Distress ; see Stringent. 

District ; see Stringent. 

Disturb ; see Turbid. 

Ditch ; see Dike. 

Dithyramb, a kind of h)Tnn. (L. - Gk.) 
la, dithyrambus.^Gk. diBvpajifios, a hymn 
in honour of Bacchus. 

Dittany, a plant. (F.-L.- Gk) M. E. 
dytane.'-O.Y, dictame, ^ \^, dictamnum^ 
ace. of dictamnus.'mGk. SiKrafivoi, dittany; 
named from Mount Dict^ in Crete, where 
it grew. 

Ditto, Ditty ; see Diction. 

Diuretic ; see Urine. 

Diurnal ; see Diary. • 

Divan, a council-chamber, sofa. (Pers.) 
Pcrs. divdn, a tribunal ; Arab, daywdn, a 
royal court, tribunal, council of state. 

Divaricate ; see Varicose. 

Dive. (E.) M.E. diiten, dttuen (w = v). 
A. S. dyfan, to drive, weak verb ; allied 
to dtifan, strong verb (pt. t. deaf pp. 
dofen), to plunge into.+Icel. dyfa, to dive, 
dip. Allied to Deep. 

dabchick. (E.) For dap-chick \ see 

didapper, a bird. (E.) Short for dive- 
dapper, Cf. A. S. dUfedoppa, a pelican. 
Here dapper ( = A. S. doppa) means a 
dipper or diver ; and dive-dapper = dive- 
diver, a reduplicated word. 

dove, a bird. (E.) A. S. ddfa, lit. a 
diver. — A. S. diifan^ to plunge into. + 
O. Sax. ddva^ Goth. dtd)0, G. taube, a dove, 
lit. diver. So also L. columba, a dove, is 
the same as Gk. Ko\vfifiiif a diver, sea- 
bird. First applied to sea-gulls, &c. 

dovetail, to fasten boards together. 
(E.) From dove and taii; from the shape 
of the fitted ends of the board ( CI )• 

Diverge ; see Verge (2). 

Diverse, Diveirt ; see Verse. 

Divest ; see Vest. 

Divide. (L.) L. diuidere, to divide, 
separate (pp. diuisus), •» L. di- {dis')f apart ; 


and uidere*, a lost verb, prob. meaning 
•to know.' (VWID.) Der. division 
(from the pp.). 

device, a plan. (F. - L.) M. E. 
deuise. -• O. F. devise^ a device, also a 
division. -• Low L. diuisa, a division ; also 
a judgment, device ; orig. fern, of pp. of 
ditiidtre (above). 

devise, to plan. (F. ^ L.) M. E. deuisen, 
— O. F. deviser. — O. F. devise^ sb. (above). 

subdivide. (L.) L. sub^ under; and 
dinidere, to divide. Der. subdivision 
(from the pp.). 

Divine. (F. - L.) O. F. divin. - L. 
diuinus^ divine, god -like ; allied to diuus, 
godlike, deuSf god ; see Deity. 
Divorce; see Verse. 
Divulge ; see Vulgar. 
Dizen, to deck out. (E.) To dizen was 
orig. to furnish a distaff with flax, hence to 
deck out. See "DiataSL Der. be-diun, 
Dizzy ; see Dose. 

Do (I), to perform. (E.) M. E. don. 
A. S. diftf pt. t. dydif pp. ged6n ; the 
orig. sense is * put ' or * place.* + Du. doen, 
O. H. G. ttian, G. thun ; Gk. Ti-Orj-tu, 1 
put, Skt. dA(i, to place. (V DHA.) 

ado, to-do, trouble. (E.) Formerly a/ 
do, i.e. to do. In Northern £., at was 
used (like to) to express the gerund. Thus 
much ado =■ much to do, a great trouble. 
It is a Scand. idiom. 

deed. (E.) M. E. deed, A. S. d<kd, 
lit. * a thing done.* + Du. Dan. daad, 
Swed. dMt Icel. </<iC, Goth, gadeds, G. 
ihatf O. H. G. iat, Der. mis-deed, 

deem. (£.) M. E. demen, A. S. 
dhnaUf to judge, give a doom. ■> A. S. 
dSm, a doom ; see doom (below). 

doff, to put olT clothes. (E.) Short for 
do off, i.e. put off. 

don, to put on. (E.) Short for do on, 
i.e. put on. 

doom, a judgment, decision. (E.) 
M. E. dom, A. S. d6m, ]it. a thing set or 
decided on ; from dSn, to set, do ; see Do 
(above). + Swed. Dan. dom, Icel. d6mr, 
Goth, doms, O. H. G. iuom^ Gk. Oiius, law 
(from Tl$fj/u, I set). Der. deem (above>. 

doomsday. (E.) A. S. dJmes dag, 
day of doom or judgment. 

dout, to extinguish. (E.) Short for do 
out^ i.e. put out. 

dup. (E.) Short for do up, i.e. lift up 
(a latch). 

indeed, in fact, truly. (E.) Put for in 
deed, i. e. in fact ; see deed ^above). 



Do (a), to be worth, be fit, avail. (E.) 
In the phr. ' that will do^ Vtov. E. dow, 
to avail ; M. E. dw^en, A. S. dugan, to 
avail, be worth; + Du. deugen, Dan. due, 
Swed. duga, Icel. duga, Goth, dugan, G. 
tauten, to avail, be worth. (V DHUGH.) 
doughty. (E.) M. E. duhti, valiant. 
A. S. dyhtig, valiant. — A. S. dugan, to be 
worth, be strong (above).+Dan. dygtig, 
Swed. dugtig, Icel. dygHugr, G. tUchtig-, 
similarly formed from the verbs above. 
And see Dog-oheap. 

Docile. (F.-L.) Y , dodle.^l.. docilis. 
teachable. -> L. ^^fv, to leach. Cf. Zen'l 
<^. to know; Gk.8c5aaw, taught. (-/DAK.) 
Allied to Disciple and Didactic. 

doctor. (L.) L. </i9r/0f, a teacher. -• L. 
docere, to teach. 

doctrine. (F:-L.) F. doctrine. - !>. 

doctrina, lore, learning. — L. docere, to teach. 

document. (F. - L.) F. document, 

— L. documentum, a proof. «L. docere, to 

teach, shew. 

Dock (I), to curtail. (C. ?) Perhaps from 

VJ.tocio, to clip, dock ; cf. tocyn, a short piece. 

docket, a label, ticket. (C. ?) Properly 

a brief abstract. From the verb docJd, to 

curtail (make a brief abstract). 

Dock (2), a plant. (C. ?) A. S. docce ; 
but prob. borrowed from Celtic. — Gael. 
dogha, a burdock; Irish mecucmdogha, a 
great burdock, where meacan means a tap- 
rooted plant, as a carrot. Der. bur-dock. 

Dock (3), a basin for ships. (Du.->Low 
L.-»Gk. ?) O. Du. dokke, a harbour (so 
also Dan. dokke, Swed. docka, G. docke),'^ 
Low L. doga^ a ditch, canal ; also a cup. — 
Gk. Sox^* & receptacle. — Gk. hixo^uii, 1 re- 
ceive. % History obscure. 

Docket; see Dock (i). 

Doctor, Doctrine, Document; see 

Dodecagon, Dodecahedron ; see De- 

Dodge, to go hither and thither, to 
quibble. (E.) Orig. to walk unsteadily, 
hence to go from side to side as if to es* 
cape ; allied to prov. E. dcuie^ to walk un- 
steadily, Scotch daddle, doddle, to waddle, 
dod, to jog, dodge, to jog along, dodgel, to 
hobble, North L. dad, to shake, dodder, to 
shake, totter, dadge, dodge, to walk clum- 
sily. Cf. A. S. dydrian, to lead hither and 

Dodo, an extinct bird. (Port.) Port, doudo, 
silly, foolish ; the bird being of a clumsy 
make. Perhaps allied to Dote. Cf. booby^ A 



Doe. (E.) M.E. doo, A.S. df^.+Dfln. 
daa ; Swed. dof-^ in dofhjortf a back« 

Doff. (E.) See Do (i). 

Dog. (E.) M.E. do^. Not in A.S. 
+ Du. dog. Swed. dogg^ a mastifif; Dan. 
dogge^ a bull-dog. Der. </^, verb, to track, 
follow as a dog ; dogg-ed^ sullen. 

Dog-cheap, very cheap. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, dogt very ; as in dog lot, extremely idle. 
— Swed. duga, to be ht (=*A. S. dugan); 
see Do (2). So also Low G. doger, very 
much, from dogen, to avail. 

Doge ; see Duke. 

Doggerel, wretched poetry. (Unknown.) 
M.E. dogerel, Ch. C. T. 13853. Origin 

Dogma, a definite tenet. (Gk.) Gk. 
^oyixa, an opinion (stem boyftar-). — Gk. 
Zoicio), I am of opinion. Allied to Deco- 
Tuxn. Der. dogtnat-ic, dogmat-ise, 

dozology. (L. — Gk. ) L. doxohgia. ■> 
Gk. bo^oXoyia, an ascription of praise.— 
Gk. io^O', for 8<$f a, gloiy, orig. a notion ; 
\4ytiv, to speak. 

Doily, a small napkin. (Personal name.) 
Formerly we read of * doily stuff,* and 
* doiley petticoats.' Said to be named after 
'the famous Doily;* Spectator, no. 283, 
Jan. 24, 1 7 1 2. Otherwise it resembles Du. 
dwaal, a towel, called in Norfolk a dwile. 

Doit, a small coin. (Du.) Du. duii, 
a doit 

Dole ; see Deal (i). 

Doleful, sad. (Hybrid; F.-L.flw//E.) 
The suffix ful is E. M. E. doel, duel, dol 
(Scotch dool')t sorrow, grief — O. F. doel, 
dol (F. deuil), grief; verbal sb. of O. F. 
doioir, to grieve. — L. ^//f/m, in cor-dolium, 
grief of heart. — L. dolere, to grieve. 

condole. (L.) L. con^doUre, to grieve 

doloiir. (F. - L.) M. E. dolour, — 
O. F. doleur, — L. dolorem, ace of dolor, 
grief — L. dolere, to grieve. 

indolence. (L.) From L. indolentia, 
freedom from pain; hence, ease, idleness. 
— L. in, not; dolent-^ stem of pres. pt. of 
dolere^ to grieve. 

Doll. (Du. or Gk.) (i) Perhaps from 
O. Du. doly a whipping-top ; Du. dollen^ to 
sport, be frolicsome. Hence perhaps * a play- 
thing.' See dally, under Dwell. (2) Other- 
wise, from Doll, for Dorothy; a familiar 
name, of Gk. origin. % History obscure. 

Dollar ; see Dale. 

Dolour ; see Dolefal. 

Dolphin, a fish. (F.-.L.-.Gk.) M.E. 


dolphine.'^ O. F. daulphin (now dauphin), 

— 'L.delphinum, ace. oidclphinus, a dolphin. 

— Gk. dcX0iv-, stem of 8cA0/f , a dolphin. 
dauphin: (F.-L.-Gk.) Y. dauphin, 

a dolphin (as above). A title of the eldest 
son of the king of France, who took it from 
the province of Dauphiny; and the pro- 
vince had formerly had several lords named 
Dolt ; see Dtill. 

Domain. (F. — L.) O. F. dofnaine. — L. 
dominium, a lordship. — L. dominus, a lord; 
allied to L. doniare, to tame, subdue ; see 

dam (2\ a mother, applied to animals. 
(F. — L.) The same word as dame (below). 

dame. (F. — L.) M. E. dame. — O. F. 
dame, a lady. — L. domina ; fern, of domi' 
nus (above). 

damsel. (F. — L.) M. E. damosel, — 
O. F. damoisele^ a girl, fem. of damoisel, a 
young man, squire, page. — Low L. domi- 
cellus, a page, short ior dominicellus*, double 
dimin. of dominus^ a lord. (Pages were 
often of high birth.) 

danger. (F. — L.) M. E. daungere, 
power, esp. power to harm. — O. F. dangler 
(F. danger), also do/tgier {XIII cent.), abso- 
lute power, irresponsible authority. This 
answers to a Low L. type domniarium *, 
dominiarium*t not found, but regularly 
formed from Low L. dominium, power, 
authority. — Low L. domnus, L. dominus, 
a lord (as above). 

demesne. (F.— L.) ¥ ormtily demain, 
and merely another spelling of domain 

dominate. (L.) From pp. of domi- 
nari, to be lord over. — L. dominus, a lord. 

domineer. (Du.-F.-L.) 
mineeren, to feast luxuriously ; but merely 
borrowed from O. F. dominer, to govern, 
rule. — L. dominari, to be lord over (above). 

dominical. (F.— L.) O.Y. dominical. 

— Low L. dominicalis, belonging to the 
Lord's day, or to the Lord. — L. dominus, 
a lord. 

dominion. (Low L.) Low L. domi- 
nionem, ace. oidominio, lordship ; allied to 
Low L. dominium^ lordship. — L. dominus. 

domino. (Span. — L.) Span, domino, a 
masquerade-dress; orig. a master's dress. 

— Span, domine^ a master, teacher. — L. 
dominus, Der. dominoes, s. pi., a game. 

don (2), a Spanish title. (Span. — L.) 
Span, don, sir. — L. dominum, ace. of 


donna. (Ital. - L.) Ital. dmna, — L. 
domina, fern, of dominus, . 

duenna. (Span. — L.) Span, due^a^ 
a married lady, duenna. — L. do/nina 

dungeon, donjon. (F. - L.> M. E. 
dongeon. •• O. F. donjon^ the chief tower of 
a castle. -» Low L. domniofum^ ace. of 
domniOf a dungeon- tower, chief -tower, 
shortened from dominio, properly dominion, 
feudal power ; see dominion (above). 

Dome. (F. — Low L. - Gk.) O. F. domi, 
« Low L. doptOf a house ; Prov. xxi. 9 
(Vulgate). — Gk. iw/io, a house ; cf. 9<iftof, 
a building. (-^DAM.) See Timber. 

domestic. (F. — L.) F. donusiique,^ 
L. domesticus, belonging to a household. •« 
L. dom-us, a house. 

domicile. (F.-L.) 0.¥. domiciU.Vi 
mansion.— L. domicUiunty a habitation.— 
L. domi'y for domus, a house ; and -cilium, 
allied to celare, to hide (see Cell). 

Dominate, Domineer ; see Domain. 

Dominical, Dominion ; see Domain. 

Domino, Don (3) ; see Domain. 

Don (i), to put on clothes ; see Do (i). 

Donation ; see Date (i). 

Donjon ; see dungeon, s. v. Domain. 

Donkey; see Dun (i). 

Doom, Doomsday; see Do (i). 

Door, a gate. (E.) M. E. dore. A. S. 
duru,^'Dvi. deur, Dan, dor, Swed. dorr, 
Icel. dyrr, Goth, daur, G. thiir, thcr^ L. 
fores (plural), Gk. ^v/wx, Skt dvdra, dvdr. 

Dormant, sleeping. (F. — L.) Y.dormant^ 
pres. pt. oi dbrmir, to sleep. — L. dormire, 
to sleep. 4* Skt. drd, to sleep. 

dormer-window. (F. and E.) A 
dormer was a sleeping-room ; formed from 
F. dormir (above). 

dormitory. (L.) L. dormitorium, a 
sleeping-chamber ; neut. of dormitoriuSt 
adj., belonging to sleeping. — L. dormitory a 
sleeper. — L. dormire^ to sleep. 

Dormouse. (Scand. and E.) Lit. a 
* doze-mouse.* ^X.'E,, domums. The prefix 
is Prov. £. dor, to sleep, as in dorrer, a 
sleeper (Halliwell). — Icel. ddr, benumbed, 
very sleepy, dtirr, slumber, dtira, to sleep. 
Cf. Icel. diis, a dead calm ; and see Dose. 

Dorsal. (F. — L.) F. dorsal, belonging 
to the back. — Low L. dorsalis, — L. dorsum, 
the back. 

endorse. (F. — L.) Formerly endosse. 
O. F. endosscr, to put on the back of. — 
F. en, on ; dos, the back, from L. dorsum. 

Dose. (F.— Gk.) O. F. dose, a quantity 



of medicine given at once. — Gk. l&at, a 
giving. — Gk. UloayuL ^base do-), I give. 
(V DA.) 

anecdote. (F. — Gk.) F. anecdote,^ 
Gk. iiykKhoro^y unpublished ; hence an un- 
published story, story in private life. — Gk. 
dv-, not ; Ik, out ; and lorda, given, from 
bUojfju, I give. 

antidote. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. antidote. 

— L. aniidotuSy a remedy. — Gk. 6.vrihoToi, a 
remedy ; a thing given as a remedy. — Gk. 
&vri, against ; Horos, given, from bUotfitf I 

Dot. (Du.) Du. dot, a little bundle of 
spoilt wool, &c., good for nothing. Cf. 
Swed. dial, do/t, a little heap, E. Fries, dot, 
a clump. Fries, dodd, a clump. 

Dote. (E) M. E. dotten, doten, to be 
foolish (Layamon).4*0. Du. doten, to dote, 
mope ; Du. dutten, to doze ; Icel. dotta, to 
noa with sleep, M. H. G. ttizen, to mope. 

dotage. (E. ; with F. sujfix.) M. E 
dotage ; from M. E. dot-en ; with F. suffix 
"age (L. 'Oticum), 

dotard. (E. with F.sujix.) From dote, 
with F. suffix -ard (O. H. G. hart). 

Double, Doublet ; see Dual. 

Doubloon, Doubt ; see Dual. 

Douceur ; see Dulcet. 

Douche ; see Duke. 

Dough ; see Dike. 

Doughty ; see Do (2). 

Douse, to immerge. (Scand.) Allied to 
Swed. dunsa, to plump down, fall clumsily, 
Dan. dundse, to thump. — Swed. dial, duns^ 
a din. —Swed. dial, duna^ to make a din; see 
Din. Hence to douse is prob. to fall plump 
in, as in Butler, Hudibras, pt ii. c. i. 502. 

Dout ; see Do (2). 

Dove, Dovetail ; see Dive. 

Dowager, Dower ; see Date (i). 

Down ( I), soft plumage. (Scand.) M.E. 
down. — Icel. dunn, Swed. dutt, Dan. 
duun, down.4'Du. dons, down. Allied to 
Dust. (V DHU.) 

Down (2), a hilL (C.) A. S.diin, a hill. 

— Irish dtin, a fortified hill, fort; Gael. 
dun, W. din, a hill-fort.+A. S. tiin', see 

down (3), prep, and adv. (E. and C.) 
A corruption of adown =■ A. S. ofdtine - oflf 
the hill, downwards. — A. S. of, off ; ddne, 
dat. of dtin, a hill ; see Down (2). 

dune, a low sand-hill. (C.) M.E. 
dune ; the same word as down (above). 
Dovirse (i), to strike in the face. (Scand.) 
M.E. duschcn, to strike.— Norweg. dusa. 



to break, cast down from. Cf. O. Du. 
dotscHy to strike, £. Fries, dbsseity to strike. 
Compare dash. 

Dowse (a) ; see Doase. 

Dowse (3), to extinguish. (£.) A. S. 
dwascan^ to extinguish. 

Dozolog^ ; see Dogma. 

Doxy ; see Back (3). 

Doze. (Scand.) Icel. ddsa^ to doze; 
Swed. dial, dtua^ Dan. dosc^ to doze, mope. 
Allied to A. S. dwiBs^ stupefied ; and prob. 
to E. dor- mouse, 

dizzy. (E.) M.E. dysy, A.S. dyHg, 
dizzy ; allied to A. S. dwas^ slupefied.+O. 
Du. duyzigh, dizzy ; allied to dwaast fool- 
ish ; Dan. dosig, drowsy, dosc^ to doze. 

Dozen ; see Dual. 

Drab (i), a slut. (C.) Irish drabogt 
Gael, drabagj a slut ; Gael, drabach^ dirty. 
-*• Irish draby a spot, stain. 

drivel. (C; with E. suffix.^ M.E. 
driuehn ; earlier form draueien, a frequent, 
form from Irish drab, a spot, stain. (Prob. 
confused with dribble.) 

Drab (a) ; see Drape. 

Drachm ; see Dram. 

Drafif, dregs. (E.) M. E. </ra/(Layamon). 
+ Du. draf, hogswash ; Icel. draf, Swed. 
draf, Dan. drav^ dregs. Cf. Gael, and 
Irish drabhf draff; allied to Drab (i). 

Draft, Drag ; see Draw. 

Dragoman, an interpreter. (Span. -• 

Gk. — Arab.) Span, dragoman. •• Late Gk. 

dpayovnavoi, an interpreter. — Arab, tar- 

jumdn, an interpreter, translator ; see 


Dragon. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragon,'-^ 
L. ace. dracoftentt from nom. draeo.^Gk. 
dp&KojVt a dragon, lit. * seeing ;* from his 
supposed sharp sight; orig. aorist pt. of 
diptcofioi, 1 see. 

dragoon. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. dragon, 
a dragoon ; so called because the dragoons 
orig. had a dragon on their standard (see 
Rob. of Glouc. p. 303 ; &c.). 

tarragon, a plant. (Span. -Pers. -Gk.) 
Span, taragontia (whence F. targon),^ 
Pers. iarkhiin, dragon-wort. — Gk. Zp&Mw^ 
a dragon. 

Drain. (E.) A. S. drehnigean, drenian, 
to drain away, strain off, Matt, xxiii. 24. 

Drake, male of the duck. (E.) A con- 
traction of ened-rake or end-rake, a masc. 
lorm of A. S. ened, a duck. Endrake be- 
came drake by loss of ^«-.+Icel. ond, a 
duck ; O. Icel. andriki, a drake ; Swed. 
and, duck, anddrake^ drake; Dan. and. 


duck, andrik, drake ; G. eftie, duck ; enie- 
rich, drake, p. The A. S. ened is cognate 
with L. anas (stem anai'\ a duck ; the suffix 
is allied to Goth, reiks, ruling, mighty, and 
to -ric in bishop-ric. 

Dram, Drachm. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. 
drame, drachme, *a dram, eighth part of 
an ounce ;* Cot. — L. drachma, — Gk.8paxM^. 
a handful, a drachma, used both as weight 
and coin ; cf. Zp&yfui, as much as one can 
grasp. — Gk. Spdo'cro/Mu, I grasp. 

Drama. (L. — Gk.) L. drama, — Gk. 
ipaita (stem ^pdfmr-), an act, a drama.— 
Gk. bpaw, I perform. (-/DAR.) Der. 
dramatic (from ZpaiiaT-") ; &c. 

drastic, effective. (Gk.) Gk. ipaariK^s, 
effective. — Gk. Sp&oj, I perform. 

Drape, to cover with doth. (F.-Teut.) 

F. draper, to make cloth. — F. drap, cloth ; 
Low L. drappus, Prob. from Icel. drepa, 
to beat (from the fulling process); see 
Drub. Der. drap^er, drap-er-y. 

drab (2), dull brown. (F.-Teut.) The 
colour of undyed cloth. — F. drap (above). 

Drastic; see Drama. 

Draw. (E.) yL,lL,drawen, KS.dragan 
(by change from g to w), + Du. dragen, 
Icel. Swed. draga, "Dsji.dnige, Goth, dragan, 

G. tragcn, to pull along, carry. Allied to 
Skt. dhrdgh, to lengthen, to exert oneself. 

drag. (E.) M. E. draggen ; properly 
the weak or causal form from A. S. dragan. 
So also Swed. dragg, a drag, grapnel ; 
whence dragga, to drag. 

draggle. (E.) Frequentative of drag. 

draught, draft. (E.) Draft is a pho- 
netic spelling. M. E. draught, draht. 
From A.S. drag-an; with suffixed /.+ 
Du. dragt, a load, from dragen, to carry ; 
Dan. dragt', Icel. drditr, a draught of 

drawl. (E.) Frequentative of draw; 
parallel to draggle. 

dray. (E.) A.S. drage, that which is 
drawn ; as in drage-net, a draw-net. + 
Swed. drog, a sledge, dray. 

dredge ( I), a drag-net. iF.—Du.) O.F. 
drege, oyster-net. — Du. dregnet, a drag-net ; 
from dragen, to draw (above). 

dregs, lees. (Scand.) PI. of M. E. 
dreg^ mire ; we also find M. E. drcgges, 
dregs. — Icel. dregg, pl. dreggjar, dregs ; 
Swed. drdgg. — IccCdraga, to draw, extract. 
Dread, vb. (E.) A. S. dr<kdan, on- 
dr<kdan, to dread, fear. 
Dream (i), a vision. (E.) M. E. dreem. 


A. S. dredm^ a sweet sonnd, harmony ; aI.«o 
joy, glee, happiness; hence 'a dream of 
bliss.' + O. Sax. drdm^ joy, dream ; Du. 
droontf Icel. draumr^ Dan. Swed. dronif G. 
traum. Allied to Dram, Drone. 

dream (a), to dream. (E.) A. S. dry- 
man^ driman ; formed from dredm, sb., by 
change of ed toy (as usual). 4* G. trdumen ; 
from traum. 

Dreary, Drear. (E.) Drear is short 
for dreary. M. E. drery, A. S. dredrig^ sad ; 
orig. 'gory;* formed with suffix -;)f from 
A.S. dredr^ gore. — A. S. dredsan, to drip. 
+ Icel. dreytigr^ goryt fro™ drcyri^ gore ; 
G. traurigt sad, orig. gory, from O. H. G. 
/n^r, gore. 

drizzle, to rain slightly. (E.) Fonnerly 
drisel or drisle^ to keep on dripping. Fre- 
quent form of A. S. dreSsan, to drip (above). 
Cf. Dan. drysse, to fall in drops. 

dross, dregs. (E.) M. E. dros, properly 
'sediment* A.S. dros\ also drosn, lit. 
'that which falls down.*— A. S. dreSsan, to 
drip, also to fall down.4*Du. droesem^ dregs, 
G. drusen^ lees. 

drowse, drowze. to be sluggish. (E.) 
Formerly drouse. A.S. dnlsian. to be 
sluggish. — A. S. dreSsaftf to mourn ; also 
to drip, to fall. Dep. drowz-y. 

Dredge (i), drag-net; see Draw. 

Dredge (2), to sprinkle flour on meat. 
(F.-Prov.-Ital.-Gk.) To dredge is to 
sprinkle, as in sowing dredge or mixed 
com.—O. F. dragJe, mixed com; also a 
sweetmeat, sugar-plum. — Prov. dragea. — 
Ital. treggea, a sugar-plum. — Gk. rpdyrffia, 
something nice to eat. — Gk. T/xiryctv (2 aor. 
€rfHiyoy)f to gnaw ; allied to ipvw, I rub. 

Dregs ; see Draw. 

Drench ; see Drink. 

Dress ; see Begent. 

Dribble ; see Drop. 

Drift ; see Drive. 

Drill (i), to pierce, to train soldiers ; see 

Drill (2), to sow com in rows. (E.) 
The same as dn'U, to trickle, which stands 
for /nV/, to trickle, shortened form of 
irickle ; see Trickle. (Prob. confused with 
W. rhilliOf to put into a row, drill, from W. 
rhillf a row, short for rhtgoit a groove, 
trench, dimin. of rhig, a groove.) 

Drilling, a coarse cloth used for trousers. 
(G.— L.) Corrupted from G. drillich, tick- 
ing, huckaback. — L. trilic-, stem of triiix, 
having three threads. — L. tri-, from tres, 
three ; licium, a thread. See Three. 



Drink. (E.) A. S. drincan, pt. t. dram, 
pp. druncen. 4* Du< drinken, Icel. drekka, 
Swed. dricka, Dan. drikke, Goth, drigkan 
{^drinkan), G. trinken, 

drench, verb. (E.) M. E. drenchen. 
A.S. drencan, causal oi driman \ hence 
* to make drink.'4*I^Q' drenkettf Icel. drek- 
kja, Swed. drdnka^ G. trdnken. 

drown. (E.) M. E. drmvnen, druncnen, 
drtmcnien, A.S. drtmcnian, to be drowned, 
to sink. — A.S. druncen, pp. of drincan, ^ 
Swed. drunkna, from drucken^ drunken; 
Dan. drukne. from drukken, dmnken. 

drunkard. (E. ; with F. sttflx.^ From 
A. S. drune-f base of pp. of drincan \ with 
F. suffix -ard (G. hart). 

drunken, drunk. (E.) A. S. druncen, 
pp. of drincan, to drink. 

Drip ; see Drop. 

Drive. (E.) U.'E. driuen. A.S.drt/an 
(pt. t. drd/, pp. drifeh). + Du. drijven ; 
Icel. drifa, Swed. dri/va, Dan. drive, Goth. 
dreiban, G. treiben. (Base DRIB.) 

drift. (E.) M. E. dHft. Formed from 
</n/-, base of pp. oidrifan ; with suffix -/.+ 
Du. dnft, Icel. drift, Swed. drift, G. tHft. 
Her. a'dri/t=on the drift ; see A- (2). 

drove. (E.) M.E. dro/. A.S. drd/, 
a drove. From drd/, pt. t. of dri/an. 

Drivel ; see Drab (i). 

Drizzle ; see Dreary. 

Droll. (F. - Du. - Scand.) F. dro/e, * a 
pleasant wag ;* Cot. — Du. dro/tig, odd, 
strange. — Dan. tro/d, Swed. troit, Icel. trv/i, 
a hobgoblin, merry imp. 

Dromedary. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
dromedarie.'^O. F. dromedaire (older form 
dromedarie*). ^"Low L,. dromadarius, ^L,. 
dromad; stem of dramas, a dromedary.— 
Gk. dpofjux^, stem of ^pofiAs, fast running. 
— Gk. dpafiftv, to ran.4*Skt. dram, to run. 

Drone (i), to hum. (E.) M. E. dronen, 
droumn. Not in A.S. + ^^ dreunen, 
Icel. drynja, Swed. drihta, Dan. drone, to 
drone, roar, &c. Cf. (joth. drunjus, a 
sound, Gk. Opffvos, a dirge ; Skt. dhnm, 
to sound. (V DHRAN.) 

drone (2), a non-working bee. (E.) 
M. E. dran. A. S. drdn. + Dan. drone ; 
Swed. dronare, lit. * hummer ; * Icel. drydni, 
M. H. G. trem, Gk. BpStva^. (From the 
droning sound it makes.) 

Droop ; see below. 

Drop, sb. (E.) M. E. drope, sb. ; hence 
dropien, droppen, verb. — A. S. dropa, sb. ; 
dropian, verb. These are from the pp. 
drop-en of the strong verb ireSpan, to drop. 



drip. + Du. drop, sb., Icel. dropi, Swcd. 
droppe^ Dan. draabe, G. tropfe, 

dribble. (E.) ^vXior dripple, frequent, 
form oi drip, 

drip. (E.) M. E. dryppen. A. S. dryp- 
an, to drip ; weak verb, formed from 
dredpt pt. t. of A. S. dreSpan, strong verb, to 
drip. + Dan. dryppe, 

oroop, to sink, fail. (Scand.) M. E. 
droupen. — Icel. drtlpa, to droop ; weak verb, 
from driiipa, strong verb, to drip. Cf. * I 
am ready to drop,* i. e. I droop. 

Dropsy ; see Hydra. 

Drosky, a kind of carriage. (Rnss.) 
Russ. drojki, a low four-wheeled carriage 
(they sounded as in French). 

Dross ; see Dreary. 

Drought ; see Dry. 

Drove ; see l)rivo. 

Drown ; see Drink. 

Drowse, Drowze ; see Dreary. 

Drub, to beat. (E.) Prov. E. drab, to 
beat. A secondary verb, due to A. S. 
strong vb. drepan (pt. t. drap), to beat. + 
Icel. drepa, to kill, slay ; Swed. drabba, to 
hit, drdpa^ to kill ; Dan. drabe^ to kill, G. 
treffen, to hit. (Base DRAP.) See 

Drudge. (C.) M. E. druggen, vb. ; of 
Celtic origin ; cf. Irish drugaire, a drudger, 
drudge, slave. 

Drug, Drugget ; see Dry. 

Druid, a priest of the ancient Britons. 
(C.) Irish druidh, an augur, Gael, druidh, 
"VV. derwydd, a druid. 

Drum. (E. ?) Prob. E. ; not found ear- 
lier than the XVI cent. + Dan. drum^ a 
booming sound, Icel. "pruma, to rattle; 
Du. Irom, Dan. tromtru, G. trommel, a 
drum. Cf. Drone (i). 

Drunkard, Drunken ; see Drink. 

Drui>e ; see Dryad. 

Dry. (E.) M.E. dru^e. A.S. dryge, 
+ Du. droog, dry ; G. trocken, dry. 

drought. (E.) ^1,Y., drogtc, drougtc, 
better drouhthc (P. Plowman). A. S. drug- 
a'fSe, drought. — A. S. drugian, to dry ; 
^O^g^> dry.+ Du. droogte, drought; from 
droogf dry. (It should rather be droughth.) 
drug. (F. — Du.) Vi.Y.. drogge,drugge, 
mm O. F. drogue, sl drug. — Du. droog,' dry ; 
the pi. droogen, lit. dned roots, was used 
in the special sense of * drugs ; * see Dry. 
Der. drugg'ist, 

drugget. (F. - Du.) O. F. droguet, 
* a kind of stuff that's half silk, half wool ; ' 
Cot. Dimio. of drogue^ a drug (above), also 


used in the sense of rubbish, vile stuff; 
from the coarseness of the material. 
Dryad, a nymph of the woods. (L.— 
Gk.) L. Dryad; stem oi Dryas, a wood- 
nymph. ■> Gk. bptuad; stem of ipv6s, the 
same. — Gk. 8pu-s, a tree ; see Tree. 

drupe, a fleshy fruit containing a stone. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) F. drupe. ^L, drupa, an 
over-ripe olive. — Gk. dpvima, an over-ripe 
olive; allied to Spwrcr^i, meaning either 
(i) ripened on the tree (from vkirruv)^ or 
{2)^ falling from the tree (from mirruv). 

hamaoryad, a wood-nymph. (L.-» 
Gk.) L. hamadryad-^ stem of hamadryas, 

— Gk. dfioJifivas, a wood-nymph; the life 
of each nymph depended on that of the 
tree to which she was attached, — Gk. 
afxa, together with ; 8pv-f , tree. 

Dual, consisting of two. (L.) L. dualis, 
dual. «- L. duo, two ; see Two. 

belligerent, waging war. (L.) L. bel- 
ligerent', stem of belligerens, carrying on 
war. -"L. belli', for bellum, war; gerens, 
pres. pt. oigerere^ to carry (see Jest). Bel- 
lum is for O. L. duellum ; see duel below. 

deuoe (i), a two, at cards. (F. — L.) 
F. deux^ two.—L. duos^ ace. oi duo, two. 

double. (F. - L.) O. F. doble, later 
double. — L. duplus, lit. twice-full. — L. du-o^ 
two ; -plus, alfied to plenus^ full. 

doublet. (F, -L.) M.E. dobbelet,^ 
O. F. doublet, an inner (double) garment. 
•» F. double, double (above). 

doubloon. (F. — Span. - L.) F. doublon, 
-• Span, doblon, a coin, the double of a pistole. 

— Span, doblo, double. --L. duplus (above). 
doubt. (F.-L.) M. E. fl'<7«/^«.-0. F. 

douier, f L. dubitare, to be of two minds ; 
allied to dubius, doubtful; see dubiona 

dozen, twelve. (F.— L.) O. F. dosaine 
(F. douzaine), a dozen. --O. F. doze (F. 
douze), twelve ; with suffix -aine (L. -aneus), 
mm L. duodedm, twelve. — L. dtto, two; 
decern, ten. 

dubious. (L.) L. dubius, doubtful, 
moving in two directions. •- L. du-o, two. 

dU(Hlecinio. (L.) In duodecimo '=\\iih 
13 leaves to the sheet.— L. duodecimo, abl. 
of duodecimus, twelfth. — L. duodedm, 
twelve ; see dozen above. 

dueL (Ital.— L.) Ital. duello, a duel.— 
L. duellum, a fight between two men. — L. 
dU'O, two. 

duet. (Ital.— L.) ItaL duetto, music for 
two.— Ital. due, two.— L. duo, two. 

duodenum, the fiist of the small intes- 


tines. (L.) Late Lat. duodenum, so called 
because about I3 finger-breadths long.— 
L. duodeni, twelve apiece, distributive fonn 
oiduodecim ; see dosen (above). 

duplicate, two-fold. (L.) L. duplicat- 
uSf pp. of duplicare, to double. — L. duplic-, 
stem of duplex, two-fold (below). 

duplicity. (F. — L.) Lit. doubleness. 

— F. dupiicit^.mm'L, ace. duplicitatem.-ml^. 
duplici', crude form of dupUx, twofold.— 
L. du-o, two ; plic-are, to fold. 

indubitable. (F.-L.) Y . indubitable, 

— L. indubitabilis^ not to be doubted. — L. 
x«, not; dubitabilis, doubtful, from dubi- 
tare, to doubt ; see doubt (above). 

rebeL (F.— L.) The verb is from the 
sb., and the sb. was orig. an adj. M. £. 
rebel, adj., rebellious. — F. rebelle, rebellious. 

— L. rebellem, ace. of rebcllis, renewing 
war.- L. re-t again; bellum^ war = 0. L. 
duelluntt war; see duel (above). Der. 
rebel, sb. and verb ; rebell-ion, &c. 

redoubtable. (F.-L.) O. F. redtmbt- 
able, terrible. — O. F. redouler, later re- 
doubter, to fear. See He- and Doubt. 

Dub, to confer knighthood by a stroke. 
(£.) M. £. dubben. A. S. dubban ; A. S. 
Chron. an. 1086. 4* O. Swed. dubba, £. 
Fries, dubben, to strike, beat. % Some- 
times derived from O. F. dober, to dub ; 
but this is of Scand. or Low G. origin. 
Perhaps A. S. dubban was also of Scand. 
origin. Cf. Dab. 

Dubious ; see Dual. 

Ducal, Ducat ; see Didce. 

Duchess, Duchy; see Duke. 

Duck (I), a bird; see Duck (a). 

Duck (2), to dive, bob the head. (E.) 
M. £. duken, douken. Not in A. S. 4* ^Q* 
duiken^ to stoop, dive ; Dan. dukke, Swed. 
dyka, G. tatichen, to plunge, dive. 

duck (1). bird. (E.) M. £. doke, duke. 
Lit. ' diver ; ' the suffix -e represents A. S. 
•a, suffix of the agent. From the verb 
above. -^ Dan. dukand^ lit. diving duck; 
Swed. dyk/dgel, diving fowl. Der. duck- 
I'ing, with double dimin. suffix. 

Duck (3), a pet, darlinc^. (O. Low G.) 
£. Friesic dok, dokke, a doll ; Dan. dukke, 
doll, puppet; Swed. docka\ M. H. G. 
tocki, a. dol), term of endearment. 

dozy. (O. Low G.) Cf. £. Fries, doktje, 
dimin. of dokke, a doll (above). Prob. 
introduced from the Netherlands. 

Duck (4), light canvas. (Du.) A nauti- 
cal word.— Du. dotk^Vaxcn doth, canvas. 
«^Dan. dug^ Swed. duk, IceL diikr^ G^tuch, 



Duct, Ductile ; see Duke. 
Dudgeon (i), resentment. (C.) W. 
dychan, a jeer; dygen, malice, dudgeon. 
Cf. W. dygas^ hatred ; Com. duchan, grief. 
Dudgeon (2), haft of a dagger. (Un- 
known.) Dudgeon-hafied means that the 
haft wtis curiously worked or ornamented ; 
dudgin means covered with waving marksw 
Etym. unknown. 
I)ue ; see Habit. 
Duel ; see Dual. 
Duenna; see Domain. 
Duet ; see Dual. 

Duffel, coarse woollen cloth. (Du.) Du. 
duffel', so called from Duffel, a place near 

Dug, a teat. (Scand.) Allied to Swed. 
<^gR^t Dan. dagge, to suckle. Cf. Skt. duh, 
to milk. 

Dug^ng, a sea-cow. (Malay.) Malay 
ddySng, a sea-cow. 
Duke, a leader. (F.-L.) M. E. duk,^ 
O. F. diu, •• L. ducem, ace. of dux, a 
leader. ->L. ducere, to lead. (^I^UK.) 

abduction. (L.) L. abductioftem, ace. 
of abductio, a leading away. •- L. ab-ducete, 
to lead away (whence also E. abduce). 

adduce. (L.) L. ad'ducere, to lead to; 
hence, to bring forward. 

conduce. (L.) L. eon-ducere, to draw 
together towards, lead to. 

conduct. (L.) Low L. conductus, de- 
fence, protection, guard, escort. «L. con- 
ductus, pp. of con-aucere (above). 

condiiit. (F. — L.) M. E. conduit.^ 
O. F. conduit, a conduit. -• Low L. con- 
ductus, a defence, escort ; also, a canal. 

deduce. (L.) L. de-ducere, to brin^ 
down ; (hence, to infer). 

deduct. (L.) Orig. to derive from.— 
L. de-ducere, to bring down. 

doge, a duke of Venice. (Ital. — L.) 
Ital. doge, prov. form of duca, a duke. — L. 
duc-em, ace. of dux, a leader. 

douche, a shower-bath. (F. — Ital. — L.) 
F. doucht, a shower-bath. — Ital. doccia, a 
conduit, water-pipe. — Ital. docciare, to pour; 
equivalent to Low Lat. ductiare*, deriva- 
tive of L. ductus, a duct ; see duot. 

ducal. (F.-L.) F. ducal, adj. from 
due ; see Duke. 

ducat, a coin. (F. - Ital. - L.) O. F. 
ducat. '^IXzX. ducato, a ducat, also a duchy; 
named from ducatus (duchy of Apulia) in 
the legend upon it ; see duchy below. 

duchess. (F.-L.) F. duchesse, O. F. 
i/nr^x//, iem. of </»r, duke; 9ee Duke. ^ 



duohy. (F.-L.) F. </«rA/.-Low L. 
ducatum, ace. of duccUus^ a dukedom. --L. 
duc-^ stem of dux, a duke. 

duot, a conduit-pipe. (L.) L. ductus, a 
leading (hence, a duct).— L. ductus^ pp. of 
ducerct to lead. 

ductile. (F.-L.) F. ductiU, malleable. 
— L. ductilis, easily led. — L. duct-us, pp. 
of ducerc (above). 

educate. (L.) L. educaius^ pp. of 
educare^ to educate. — L. e-ducere, to bring 

educe. (L.) L. e-ducere, to bring out. 

induce. (L.) L. in-ducere, to lead to. 

induct. (L.) L. tnduei-us, pp. of in- 
ducere, to bring in. 

introduce. (L.) L. intro-ducere, to 
bring in. Der. introduct'ion (from the pp.)* 

produce, vb. (L.) \,\.o bring 
forward. Der. product-ive^ -ion (from the 


product, sb. (L.) L. productus, pro- 
duced ; pp. oi producere (above). 

redouDt, an intrenched place of retreat. 
(Ital.— L.) Ill spelt; through confusion 
w^itk redoubtable. ^\ts\. ridotto^z, place of 
retreat. — Ital. ridotto, ridutto, pp. of ridurre^ 
to bring home. — L. re-ducere^ to bring 

reduce. (L.) Orig. to bring back.— 
L. re-dtuere^ to bring back. Der. reduct- 
ion (from the pp.). 

seduce, to lead astray. (L.) L. se-ducere^ 
to lead aside. Der. seduct-ion (from the 

subdue. (F.-L.) M. £. soduen (after- 
wards altered to subdue for clearness).— 
O. F. souduire, to seduce; but the oric^. 
sense must have been to subdue. — L. si3f- 
ducerCt to bring under. 

sui>erinduce. (L.) L. super, beyond ; 
and in-ducere, to induce. 

traduce, to defame. (L.) L. tra-^ucere^ 

to lead over, transport, also, to defame. 

Here tra- « tranSf across. 

Dulcet, sweet (F.— L.) O. F. doucet 

(Cot.), of which an older spelling must have 

been dolcet* (Ital. dolcetto),^0, F. dulce, 

fern, dels (F. doux), sweet. — L. dulcis, 


douceur. (F. — L.) F. douceur, lit. 
sweetness (hence, pleasant gift). — L. dul- 
corem, ace. oidulcor, sweetness.— L. dulcis, 

dulcimer. (Span. — L.) Roquefort has 
F. douUemer (undated); it must be bor- 
rowed £rom Span, dulcemele, a dulcimer; 


named from its sweet sound. — L. duke 
f/ielos, sweet sound ; see Melody. 

Dull, stupid. (E.) M. E. dul. A. S. dol, 
foolish ; put for dwol* ; cf. gedwol-god, a 
false god, idol. — A. S. dwol-, base of pp. 
of strong vb. dwelan, to err, be stupid. 4* 
Du. dol, mad; Goth, dwals, foolish, G. 
/<?//. mad. (VDHWAR.) See DweU. 

dolt, a stupid fellow. (E.) M. E. dull, 
blunt; extended from M.£.//m/, dull (above). 

Dumb. (E.) M. E. dombe, A. S. dumb, 
mute. + l^w- dom, Icel. dttmbr, Swed. 
dumb, Dan. dum, Goth, dumbs, G. dumm. 
Goth, dumbs is allied to Goth, daubs, deaf; 
see Deaf. Der. dummy {^dumb-y). 

Dump, an ill-shapen piece. (E. ?) Prov. 
E. dump, a clumsy lump, a bit; dumpy, 
short and thick. Lowl. Sc. dump, to beat, 
strike with the feet (whence dump may 
have meant a swelling due to a blow, like 
bump). Cf. Du. dompneus, a gr&at nose ; 
Icel. dumpa, to thump ; and cf. Thump. 

dumpling, a kmd of pudding. (£. ?) 
A small solid ball of pudding ; dump-l-ing 
is a double dimin. of dump (above). 

Dumps, melancholy. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, dumpin, melancholy, orig. pp. of 
dimba, to steam, reek ; Dan. dump, dull. 
low. + Du. domp, damp, hazy, G. dump/, 
damp. Allied to Damp; cf. 'to damp 
one's spirits.* 

Dun (I), brown. (C.) A. S. dunn, dark 
— Irish and Gael, donn, brown ; \V. dtvn, 
dun, dusky. 

donkey. (C.) Double dimin. with suf- 
fix 'k-ey ( « Lowl. Sc. -ick-ie, as in hors- 
ickie, a little-little horse, Banflfsh.) from 
dun, familiar name for a 'horse, from its 
colour (Romeo, i. 4. 41). V So also M. E. 
donek, a hedge-sparrow, from its colour. 

Dun (2), to urge for payment. (Scand.) 
Cf. M. £. dunning, a loud noise; to dun is 
to thunder at one's door. — Icel. duna, to 
thunder ; koma einum dyn fyrir dyrr, to 
make a din before one's door ; Swed. d6,tia, 
to make a noise. Allied to Din. 

Dimce, a stupid person. (Scotland.) 
From the phr. *a Duns man,* i.e. a native 
of Dunse, in Berwickshire. In ridicule of 
the disciples of John Duns Scotus, school- 
man, died A. D. 1308. % Not to be confused 
with John Scotus Erigena, died a. d. 875. 

Dune, a low sand-hill ; see Down (2). 

Dung ; see Ding. 

Dungeon ; see Domain. 

Duodecimo, Duodenum ; see Dual. 

Dup ; see Do (i). 


Dupe, a person easily deceived. (F.) F. 
dupe^ a dupe. The O. F. dupe meant a 
hoopoe ; whence^w/V, a dupe, because thebird 
"was easily caught. ^So also Bret, houptrik^ a 
hoopoe, a dupe.) Perhaps of imitative origin. 

Duplicate, Duplicity; see DuaL 

Durance, Duration ; see Dure. 

Durbar, a hall of audience, levee. (Pers.) 
Pers. darbdr, a princess court, levee; lit. 
' door of admittance.* — Pers. dar^ door 
( = £. door) ; and bdr^ admittance. 

Dure, to last. (L.) L. durare, to last* 
L. durus, hard, lasting. + Irish and Gael. 
duTy firm ; W. dir, sure. Cf. Gk. dvya/ur, 
force. Der. dur-ing, orig. pres. pt. of 
dure; dur-abUj &c. 

durance, captivity. (F.— L.) The orig. 

sense was long endurance of hardship. "^F. 

durer, to last ; with suffix -atue ; see above. 

duration. (L.) A coined word; from 

the pp. of L. durare, to last. 

duress, hardship. (F. — L.) M. E. 
duresse, — O. F. duresce, — L. duritia, harsh- 
ness.— L. durus, hard, severe. 

endure. (F. — L.) M. E. enduren.^ 
F. endurer. — F. en (L. iti) ; and durer (L. 
durare), to last. 

indurate, to harden. (L.) From pp. 
of L. ift'durare, to harden. 

obdurate. (L.) L. oddura/uSf pp. of o^ 
dumre, to harden. — L. od ; And durus, hard. 

Du£^, dim. (£.) Properly an adj. M. £. 
dosi, dark, dim; deosc, the same. Prob. 
allied to A. S. deorc, dark. + Swed. dit^l. 
dusJta, to drizzle; duskug, misty. Der. 
duskj sb. ; whence dusk-y^ adj. 

Dust. (£.) A. S. dust, -f- Du. duist, 

Icel. dustt dust, Dan. dyst^ meal. Cf. G. 

dunst, vapour, fine dust. Allied to L. 

fu-mus, smoke, Skt.</i</-/i, dust. (-^DHU.) 

Dutch, belonging to Holland. (G.) 
Properly applied to the Germans. -• G. 
Deutsche German; lit. belongine; to the 
people; M. H. G. diut-isk, where the 
suffix 'isk^E. 'ish, and diut is cognate 
with A. S. ^Sdt Goth, ihiuda, a people, 
nation. (-^TU.) 

Duty ; see Habit. 

Dwale ; see Dwell. 

Dwarfl (E.) M. E. dwerg, dwergh ; (he 



f represents the guttural. A. S. diverg, 
dweorgf a dwarf. + Du. dwergh IceL 
dverp-f Swed. Dan. dverg, G. zwerg, Cf, 
Vedic Skt. dhvaras, a (female) evil spirit. 

I>well. (E.) M. E. dwellen, to linger. 
A. S. dwellaUf only in the active sense to 
retard, also to seduce. Causal of A. S. 
dwelan (pt. t. dwal, pp. dwolen), to be 
torpid or dull, to err. 4. Icel. dvelja, to 
dwell, delay, orig. to hinder ; Swed. dvdljas, 
to dwell (reflexive) ; Dan. dvale^ to linger ; 
M. H. G. twellen, to hinder, delay. 
(VDHWAR.) And see Dull. 

dally, to trifle. (E.) Prov. K dwallet 
(Exmoor Scolding). M. E. daiten, to play, 
trifle. Allied to A. S. dweligan^ to err, be 
foolish, O. Northumb. duoliga, dwoliga, the 
same, Mark, xii. 27. And see DiQl. 

dwale, deadly nightshade. (E.) Named 
from its soporific effects. A. S. drvala, an 
error, stupefaction. — A. S. dwelan (above). 
4* Dan. ebfole, stupor, ehaiedrik, a sopo- 
rific, ' dwale-drink.' 

Dwindle. (E.) The frequent, form of 
M. E. dwimn, to dwindle, A. S. ditnnan, 
to dwindle, languish. + Icel. dvina, dvina, 
Swed. tvina, to dwindle, pine away. 

Dye, to colour; a colour. (E.) M. E. 
deyen, vb., deh, sb. A. S. dedgian, dedgan^ 
verb, to dye; from dedg^ dedh, sb., dye, 
colour. Perhaps allied to Dew. 

Dyke ; see Dike. 

Dynamic, relating to force. (Gk.) Gk. 
twaiuit6if poweriul. — Gk. S^ya/us, power. -• 
Gk. Svvafuu, 1 am strong; see Dure. 

dynasty, lordship. (Gk.) Gk. Svraorrcf a, 
lordiship. — Gk. Sw6ffTijs, a lord. •« Gk. 
HyaficUf I am strong. 

Dysentery, disease of the entrails. (K 
— Gk.) L. dysenieria. ^Gk, Zv<rwr€pia,m» 
Gk. 8v(r-, prefix, with a bad sense ; ivrtpa, 
pi., the inwards, bowels, from tvrot, witlun, 
\v, in ; see Interior. 

Dysi>epBy, indigestion. (L.-Gk.) L. 
dyspepsia. — Gk. Hvffweffla. ■> Gk. Zvavtwros, 
hard to digest. — Gk. Svcr-, prefix, with a 
bad sense; v^vrciv, to cook, digest; see 
Gook. Der. dyspeptic (from Svcrvcirrot). 


E-, prefix ; see Ex-. 

Each, everv one. (E.) M. E. eche^ elch, 
A. S. ale, eacn. Supposed to stand for €^r, 
short ioxMc oxd-ge-lic, i.e. aye-like (ever- 

like). + Du. elk, each; O. H. G. eSgallk^ 
M. H. G. iegellchj G.jeglich, See Aye* 

Eager ; see Aoid. 

Eagle ; see Aquiline, ^ 



Sagre, tidal wave in a river. (E.) A. S. 
idgor', Jgvr-, in comp. eigorsMam, ocean- 
stream.+Icel, agir, ocean. 

X!<^ (i)p organ of hearing, (E.) M. E. 
tre. A. S. AJf-f. + Du. iwr, Icel. f^m, Swed. 
ira, Dan. Sn, G. ehr, GaCh. hki^, Kuss. 
wi'^, L. auris, Glc. <&. Allied to Skt. mr, 
to be pleased, L. audirt, to hear. <VAW.} 
earaig, an insect. (E,> A.S. ter- 
vricga, lit. 'ear-hoise,' from its being tup- 

Josed to creep into the ear. A. S. wicg, s 
orse, or a runner ; allied to Wag. 

Bar (I), spike of com. <E.) M.E. «r. 
A. S. tar (pf.) ; Northurab. rffr.+Dn. oar, 
Icel. Don. Sved. ax (for a^), Goth, ahs, 
Cdhtt. Allied to Awn. (^AK.) 

Ear (3), to plough. (E.) M. E. trtti. 
A. S. (nan, to plough, + IceL ttja, Goth. 
arian, Irish araim, I plough, L. amri^ 
Gk. ^A», 1 plough. (V AR.) 

Earl (E.) M. E. erl. A. S. terl. + 
Icel.>r7, O. Sax. trl, a nun. 

Barly ; see Ere. 

Earn, (E,) M, E. emim. A. S. rambin. 
^- G. tmlen, to reap, from fm/<', haivest, 
fromO.H.G.HTTtAf, to reap, earn. B. Froin 
the sb. seen in O, H. G. erin, Goth, oxaoj, 
a harvest. (VAS.) 

Earnest (1), seriousness. (E.) Froperiy 
a sb., as in ' in earnest,' M. E, emetl, sb. 
A. S, eomut, Eb.-|-Du. imsl, sb. ; G. ernst. 
{Base ARN.) 

Earoest (a), a pledge. (C.) Tlie / is 
added, M.E./riMj'.-W.fnwi.aneaniest; 
ent, a pledge. + Gael, tarlca, au eamest- 
penny (prov, E. ar/«). 

Earth. (E.) M.E.trlhe. A.S.etriSt. 
4- Du. oan/r, Icel./i'>^, Dan, Swed./wrf, 
Gotb. iiVr^fa, G, erdt. CL Gk. !)», earth. 

Earwig: see Ear (t). 

Ease. (F.) M. E. tie. - O. F. aiie, ease. 
Cf. ItiJ. agia, Poit. OM, ease. Grig, nn- 

diaeass. (F.) O.F. dts-aisi, want of 
ease.-O.F. ofe/- (L, dit-); out, ease. 

East, the quarter of sun-rise. (E,} M. E. 
etf. A. S. tost, adv., in the east ; idttan, 
from the east, -^ Du. 111)//, sb^ Icel. ausir, 
Dan. cW, Swed. tur/an, G. titen, Bsl. Also 
m, dawn, Gk. ^ir, iin, aCwi, dawn, 

in comp.; pX-tdifre, Easter.— A.S. i'itdr, 
aevdden whose festivities were in April. 
Allied to ^af/f ^ont tbc iocreflsiDg Light 

«orf wannth of spring. 


sterling. (E.) M. E, rterling, a ster- 
ling coin ; named from the Esttriingt (i. e. 
easteilingg, men of the east) ; this was a 
name for the Hanse metchants in JjoaAim, 
temp.Henr;III.-M.E.^j/,east, SeeEmt. 

Eat. (E.) U.Z.elen. A.S.^ftm.+Dn. 
tien, IceL tia, Swed. ata, Dan. ade, Golh. 
ilan, O. wnt, L. edtrt, GL IStiP. Skt, oj', 
to eat (VAD.) See Tooth, 

etoh, to cDgiare with acids. (Du, — G.) 
Dn. elsen, to etch. •- G. dlitn, to corrode, 
etch ; a derivative of G. iisen, to eat. 

fret (i), to eat awaj. (E,) A.S./ntan. 
short for for-ttan, to devour entirely. + 
Goth. /m-ifiiB, to devour entirely; Du. 
vnten, G. /nsstH {^vtr-tssen). 

ortB, remnants, leavings, (E.) M. E. 
ortts. From A. S. or-, out (what is left) ; 
etan, to eat. Proved by O. Du. ercit, a 
piece left after eating, Swed. dial, ariilc, 
urdle, refuse fodder. The same prefix er- 
occiotjn or-deal\ for which see Deal. 

EB,VeB, the clipped edge of a thatched 
roof. (E,) M, E. eucsi; pi. luises ( = 
tavests). A, S, e/ese, a clipped edge of 
thatch; whence cftsian, to ^ear. + Icel. 
tifi, Swed, dial, uffs, Golh. ubizwa, a porch, 
from the projection of the eaves ; O, H. G. 
epasa. Orig. sense 'that which projecls 
or is over;' allied to Over. Der. eavts- 
drafiptr, one who stands under droppings 
from the eaves, a secret listener. 

Ebb. (E.) M,E. rifa. A.S. /Ma, ebb 
of the tide. + Du. ib, ebtt, sb., Dan. tbbt, 
sb. and vb., Swed, ebb.ib. Allied to Even. 

Ebony, a hard wood. (F.— L.-Gk.- 
Heb.) Formerly e*«M. — O.F./A'w,ebon)'. 

— L. hebiHus, cbttum.-Ck. {Pivos, ieirji. 

— Ileb, /lobnlm, pL, ebony wood ; from ils 
hardness; from Heb. tben. a stone. 

Ebrie^,dmnkenness.(F, — L,)F.rfrirf/. 

— L. ace ebrUlalcm. — t.. ebritu, drunken. 
I>er. in-iirialt, to make drunken. 

sober. (F.—i,.) M.'E.seire. — T.sebre. 
L, sabritiiit, acc of lobriut, sober.n-L. so- 
•>jv-,apar^hence,not; ^jr7'ui, dnmk. Der. 
sebrUly, F, sobriel/, L. acc. sobrittattm. 

EbtUIitlon; see Bull (t). 

Eooentrio ; see Centre. 

Eceleelaatlo, (L.-Gk,) X.ow L, icck- 

siaiticus. — Gk. jKuX^maoriKii, belonging 
to the lKKki]ala, i.e. assembly, church.— 
Gk. fxiiXijrat, summoned, — Gk. jKcuA/ai, I 
call fbrth.-Gk, 1«, out; j(aAJai,IcaU. 
Echo. CU-Glt.) M. E. lav.-L. ichv. 
—Gk. 4x<^, * toniid, echo; cf. Jx"*' 4x4> 
a lining noise, llw. cot-uMu, q, v. 


Eclat ; see Slit 

lEdectio ; see Iioglo. 

Eclipse. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. eclifs, 
clips. — O. F. eclipse, — L. eclipsis. — Gk. 
«j(Aci^i;, a failure, esp. of light of the son. 
i- Gk. lirXc^ireiv, to leave out, suffer eclipse. 

— Gk. \k^ out ; Xciirccv, to leave, 
ellipse. (L.— Gk.) Foimerly ellipsis. 

mm L. ellipsis, i- Gk. lAAet^is, a defect, an 
ellipse of a word; also, an oval figure, 
because its plane forms with the base of 
the cone a less angle than that of a para- 
bola, i* Gk. ^AActireiv, to leave in, leave 
behind. — Gk. lA-, for Iv, in; Xtivuv, to 
leave. Der. elliptic -al^ adj., Gk. lAAcivriic^;. 

Eclogue ; see Logio. 

Economy. (F. — L. — Gk.) Formerly 
aconomy. — O. F. aconomie. — L. aconomia. — 
Gk. olMovofiia, management of a household. 
M Gk. o{«co-, for ottcof, a house ; and v^/iciv, 
to deal out. See "Wiok (2) and Nomad, 
ecumenical, general. (L. — Gk.) Low 
L,, acumenicus. mm Gk.otirov/cci'uc^s, universal. 

— Gk. olM(Wfi4vrj (sc. yrj), the inhabited 
world, fem. of olxoilffjitvot, pres. pt. pass, of 
clxiw, 1 inhabit. — Gk. oltcos, a house. 

Ecstasy ; see Statics. 

Ecumenical ; see Eoonomy. 

Eddy. (Scand.) Icel. tSa, an eddy, 
whirl-pool ; cf. ifSa, to whirl about ; Swed. 
dial. tSa, idd, Dan. dial, ide, the same. 
Formed from Icel. OS-, A. S. ed-, Goth, id-, 
back ; only found as a prefix. 

Edge. (E.) M. E. eg^. A. S. ^<y, an 
edge, border, -f Da- fgze, Icel. Swed. eg;§', 
Dan. <jf, G. ecke. CfTL. odes, Gk. dxis, a 
point, Skt. ofri, edge, comer. (^ AK.) 

egg (a), to instigate. (Scand.) M. E. 
r^jr». — Icel. e^'a, to goad on. i- Icel. e^, 
an edge (point). 

Edible, eatable. (L.) Low L. edilnlis, 
* L. edere, to eat ; see Eat. 

esculent, eatable. (L.) L. esculentus, 
fit for eating. <« L. escare, to eat ; from esca, 
food. Put for edca^.'mla. edere, to eat. 

obese, fat. (L.) L. obesus, (i) eaten 
away, wasted ; (a) fat, lit. ' that which has 
devoured.* — L. obesus, pp. of obedere^ to eat 
away.— L. ob\ edere, to eat. Der. obes-uty. 

Eoict ; see Diotion. 

Edify. (F. - L.) O. F. edifier. - L. adi- 
Jicaret to build (hence, instruct).— L. cedi-, 
crude form oiades, a building, orig. a hearth ; 
3/J^-, ioifacere, to make. {1/ IDH.) Der. 
edifice^ r. edifice, L. adificium^ a buildmg ; 
ed'tlif L. adtlis, a mag^istmte who had t£e 



Edition; see Date (i). 

Educate, Educe ; see Duke. 

BeL (E.) M. E. eL A. S. M. -f Du. aal, 
Icel. dll, Dan. aal, Swed. d/, G. cuil. Allied 
to L. an^illa^ an eel, anguis, Gk. Ix<'* 
Skt. o^f, a snake. (^ AGH.) 

Efface ; see Face. 

Effect; see Fact. 

Effeminate ; see Feminine. 

Effendi, sir, master. (Turkish - Gk.) 
'YmtV., ifendi, sir. — Mod. Gk. ^(^^vTijr, for 
Gk. aiibivTTis, a despotic master, ruler ; see 

Effervesce ; see Fervent. 

Effete ; see Fetus. 

Efflcicacy, EfBcient ; see Fact. 

Effigy ; see Fig^ire. 

Efflorescence ; see Floral. 

Effluence ;' see Fluent. 

Effort ; see Force. 

Effrontery ; see Front. 

Effulgent ; see Fulgent. 

EffUse; see Fuse (i). 

^SS (0« the oval body whence chickens, 
&c. are hatched. (£.) M. £. eg, also ey ; 
pi. egg-es, eiren. A. S. eeg^ pi. agru. -f* Du. 
ei, Icel. egg, Dan. ag, Swed. agg, G. ei, 
Irish ugh, Gael, ubh, W. tuy, L. ouum, Gk, 
ii6v. Allied to L. auis, a bird. 

^Sfi» (3)f to instigate ; see Edge. • 

Eglantine. (F. - L.) F. Eglantine, 
O. F. aiglarUine, aiglantier, sweet-briar. 
— Low L. aculent-us*, prickly (not found), 
from L. aaileuSf a prickle, dimin. of 
acus, a needle; see aglet, under Acid. 

Egotist, Egoist, a self-opinionated pex^ 
son. (L.) Coined from L. ego, I ; see I. 

Egregfious ; see Gregarioua. 

Egress ; see Grade. 

Eh I interj. (E.) M. E. ey. A. S. i, e&, 
Zi.\>\x.h€l Q.eil 

Eider-duck. (Scand.) The E. duck is 
here added to Icel. a^r, an eider-duck (<? 
pronounced like i in //m^).-f'Dan. ederfugl 
(eider-fowl), Swed. eider, Der. eider-dinvn; 
icel. aSardtln. 

Eight. (E.) M. E. eighl^. A. S. eahla, 
-f Du. acAt, Icel. d/la, Dan. o/le, Swed. d/fa, 
(3oth. cthtau, G. cuhi, Irish ocht, Gael. 
ochd^ W. wyih, L. ocio, Gk. 6ict&, Skt: 
cuhXan, Der. eigh-teen, A. S. eahtatyne; 
ei^-ty, A.S. eahtatig\ eigh-th, A.S. eahid'Sa, 

EUJier. (£.) M. E. either, aither; al86 
auther, other. A. S. ^g^r^ contracted 
form of iigAaMe^r. Como.old-|e-K'ttKie^\ j 
where (i ■ aye, gt Va a -giebx^ wA Kw«Vr« 1 



whether. + Du. ieder, G. jeder, O. H. G. 

or (i), conj., offering an alternative. 
(E.) Short for other^ outher, autker, the 
M. £. forms, which also answer to Mod. 
"E. either. Hence ^fV^r and or are doublets. 

I9aculato, £(je<3t; see Jet (i). 

Eke (i), to augment. (E.) M. E. eken, 
A.S. /ira/i.-|-Icel. auka, Swed. oka, Dan. 
oge, Goth, aukan (neuter), L. augere. 
(V WAG.) 

eke (3), also. (E.) Vi,'E,eek,eke, A.S. 
edc, i- Du. ook^ Icel. auk, Swed. och (and), 
Dan. og (and), G. auch. All from the verb 

xiickname. (E.) Vi.'E, nekename, tXso 
ekenanie ; {a nekename^an ekenanie). See 
Prompt. Parv. ; cf. L. ag-nomen (ag-^ad), 
G. xuname. From eke and iiax«^. ^ Icel. 
auknaffif Swed. oknamn, Dan. dgenavn, an 
eke-name, nickname. 

Elaborate ; see Iiabour. 

Eland, a S. African antelope. (Du.i- 
Slavonic.) Du. eiand, an elk. Of Slav, 
origin ; cf. Russ. olene^ a stag ; see Elk. 

Suapse ; see Lapse. 

Elastic. (Gk.) Formerly elasiick, ie. 
springing back. Coined from Gk. IX&n^ 
i\a6vwt I drive (fut. ikcur-u)» 

Elate ; see Tolerate. 

Elbow, the bend of the arm. (E.) M. E. 
elbowe, A. S. elboga,^\.S, el-, signifying 
* elbow ;• and boga, a bow, a bendmg (see 
Bow). A. S. el' is allied to Goth. aUina, 
a cubit, L. ulnaf Gk. df\ivtj, Skt. aratni^ the 
elbow, (y^ AR and 4/ BHUG.) +Du. elU- 
boog, Icel. aln-bogi, Dan. a/-due, G. el/en- 
bogen. See EU. 

Eld, old age. Elder (i), older; see Old. 

Elder (2), a tree. M. E. eller. A.S. 
elUn, ei/em,-^Ix>vr G. elloom. % Distinct 
from alder. 

Eldest; see Old. 

Elect ; see Legend. 

Electric. (L. - Gk.) Coined from L. 
plectrum, amber, which has electric pro- 
perties. — Gk. ^A.cirr/>ov, amber, also shining 
metal ; allied to f/\4KTojp, gleaming, Skt. 
dirck, to shine. (V ARK.) 

Electuary, a kind of confection. (F.- 
L.) M.E. letuarie.^O.Y, lectuaire, eUc- 
iuaire.^h. elecittarium, a medicine that 
dissolves in the mouth. Perhaps for elincUi- 
rium*, from elingere, to lick awaj, or 
from Gk, ixXflxuy (the same). 
^eemoaynary; see Ainu. 
^Slegant; see Itegend, 


Elegy, a funeral ode. (F.— L.— Gk.) 
O. F. elegt'e.^h. elegf a. '^Gk. IActc/o, fem. 
sine., an elegy ; orig. neut. pi. of iXtyttoy, 
a distich (of lament). « Gk. iXtyoff a 

Element. (F. -» L.) O. F. element, — L. 
eUmentutn, a first principle. 

Mephant. (F.-L.-Gk.»Heb.) M.E. 
olifaunt. — O. F. olifant, elephant. — L. 
elephantem, ace. of elephas.^Gk. kki<f>as, 
an elephant. — Heb. aleph, eleph, an ox. 

Elevate ; see Levity. 

Eleven. (E.) M.E.enleuen. A.S. end- 
lufon. + Du. elft Icel. ellifu, Dan. ellevcy 
Swed. elfva^ Goth, ainlif, G. elf. fi. The 
best form is the Goth, ain-li/, where am = 
one ; and -/i/« Lithuan. -lika (in vinolika, 
eleven). And prob. Lith. Itka «= L. decern, ten. 

Elf. (E.) M. E. elf. A. S. ^i^+Iccl. dl/r, 
Dan. al/, Swed. G. elf. Der. elf-in, adj., 
for el/en *. 

oai a simpleton. (Scand.) Prov. E. 
auf, an elf. -Icel. dl/r, an elf. Chaucer 
uses elinsh in the sense of ' simple.' 

Elicit ; see Delicate. 

Elide ; see Lesion. 

Eligible ; see Legend. 

Eliminate ; see Limit. 

Elision ; see Leaion. 

Elixir. (Arab.) Arab, el tkslr, the 
philosopher s stone; where el is the definite 

Elk, a kmd of deer. (Scand.) Icel. elgr, 
Swed. elgf an elk.+M. H. G. elch, Russ. 
olene, a stag; L. alces, Gk. 6Xjcrj, Skt. 
xishya, a kind of antelope (Vedic rifyd). 

EU. (E.) M.E. elle, elm. A.S. eln, 
a cubit. +Du. elle ; Icel. alin, the arm from 
the elbow to the tip of the middle finger ; 
Swed. aln, Dan. alen, Goth, aleina^ G. 
elU, ell ; L. «/««, elbow, cubit ; Gk. itKivrj, 
elbow. Ell = el' in el-bow. 

Ellipse ; see Eclipae. 

Finn, a tree. (E.) A. S. ^//w.+Du. olm, 
Icel. dlmr, Dan. aim, Swed. aim, G. ulme 
(formerly el/ne), L. ulmus. (V AL.) 

Elocution ; see Loquaoioiis. 

Elongate ; see Long. 

Elope ; see Leap. 

Eloquent ; see Loqaaoiotui. 

Else, otherwise. (E.) A.S. ellest adv.; 
from base el-, signifying * other.* -f Swed. 
eljest, Goth, aljis; allied to L. alias, and 
to Alien. 

EluoidLate; see Lucid. 
. EludiB ; see Ludicrous. 


efysium.^Gk. i}Xi$^iok, short for ijk^ator 
v«8/ov, the Elysian field (Od. 4. 563). 

Emaoiate; see Meagre. 

Emanate. (L.) L. emanatus, pp. of 
emanare, to flow out.i-L. /, out; manare, 
to flow. 

Emanoipate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
emandpare^ to set free.>"L. e, out; matt' 
cipare^ to transfer property. — L. mancip-, 
stem of man-ceps, lit. one who takes pro- 
perty in hand or receives it. •« L. man-us, 
hand ; capert, to take ; see Manual, Oapa- 

Emaaoulate ; see Masouline. 

Bm-, prefix. (F. «- L.) F. em- = L. i»i-, for 
iftf in, before ^ and p. Hence em-balm^ to 
anoint with balm ; em-bank, to enclose with 
a bank, cast up a bank ; em'body^ to invest 
with a body, &c 

Embargo; see Bar. 

Embark ; see park (i). 

Embarrass ; see Bar. 

Embassy ; see Ambassador. 

Embattle ; see Battlement. 

Embellish; see Belle. 

Ember-days. (E.) M. E. ymher, as in 
ymber^weke, A. S. ymbren, ymbrynef a due 
course, circuit, or period; the erober-da3rs 
are davs that recur at each of the four sea- 
sons of the year. The A. S.ymb-rytu is lit. 
'a running round.' — A. S. ymb, round ( 1= G. 
um, L. ambi") ; and fyft€, a run, course 
(see Bon). ^ Quite distinct from G. 
quatember, corrupted from L. quatuor tern- 
pora^ four seasons. 

Embers, ashes. (E.) M. E. emeres. A. S. 
amyrioH, embers. + Icel. eimytja, Dan. 
emmer, M. H. G. etmutya, embers. 

Embessle, to filch. (F.-L.) Formerly 
embesiie, embeseU\ no doubt die same as 
the obsolete verb imb^cill, to weaken, en- 
feeble, diminish, subtract from. A shop- 
boy embezzles or diminishes his master's 
store imperceptibly by repeated filching. 
The verb is from the adj. imbecile, formerly 
imbecile ; see Imbecile. 

Emblem. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.Y.embleme. 
i»L. emblema.'mQi\i, l^fifiXjjfutf a thing put 
on, an ornament. — Gk. ifi- b |v, in, on ; /SoA- 
Affir, to throw, to put. See Beleninite. 
Embolism. (F.»Gk.) O.F, embolisme, 
i"Gk. iftfioXifffi^ an intercalation or in- 
sertion of days, to complete a period. — Gk. 
l/i-BsiK, in ; fiixktiv, to cast. 
Emboss (i), to adorn with bosses or 
raised work. (F. i- L. and G.) From Em-, 
prefix; and Boss. I 



Emboss (3), to enclose or shelter in a 
wood. (F. — L. and Teut.) O. F. embos- 
auer, to shroud in a wood. •• O. F. em- » 
L. in, in ; O. F. besc, a wood ; see bou- 
quet, under Bush (x). 
Embouchure ; see Debouoh. 
Embrace ; see Brace. 
Embrasure. (F.) F. embrcuure, an 
aperture with slant sides. — O. F. embraser, 
to slope the sides of a window. — O. F. em- 
« L. in, in ; O. F. braser, * to skue, or 
chamfret/ Cot (Of unknown origin.) 
Embrocation, a fomenting. (F.i-Low. 
L. «- Gk.) O. F. embrocation. — Low L. em- 
brocatus, pp. of embrocare, to foment. — Gk. 
i/iffpoxVt ft fomentation. — Gk. kftfipixHv, 
to soak in.— Gk. lik-=kv, in; fipix^iy, ta 
wet, soak. 

Embroider ; see Broider. 
Embroil ; see Broil (a). 
Embryo. (F.-Gk.) Formerly embryom. 
— O. F. embryon. — Gk. (fi$pvov, the embryo,, 
foetus.- Gk i/i-elv, within : /Spvov, neut. of 
pres. pt. of fipvtiy, to be full of a thing. 
Emendation. (L.) Coined from the 
pp. of L. emendare, to free from fault— L. 
e, free from ; mendum, a fault. 

amend. (F. — L.) M. £. amenden, » 
F. amender.'^h, emendare (above). 

amends. (F. — L.) M. £. amendes. 
sb. pi. — O. F. amende, reparation. — O. F. 
amender (above). 

mend. (F. — L.) M. E. menden, short 
for M. E. amenden, to amend, by loss of a; 
see amend (above). 

Emerald, a green gem. (F. — L.— Gk.) 
M. £. emeraude. — O. F. esmeraude, — L» 
smaragdum, ace of smaragdus. — Gk. (r^td- 
pay9os, an emerald. Cf. Skt marakata 
(the same). 

smaragdus. (L.— Gk.) "L, smaragdus 

Emerge ; see Merge. 
Emerods ; see Hemorrhoids. 
Emery, a hard mineral. (F.-Ital.-Gk.)* 
Formerly emeril; XVII cent. — O. F^ 
emeril, esmeril. — Ital. smeriglio. — Glc 
aiiripti, atii&pti, emery. — Gk. ayusM, I rub. 
Etnetic. (L.-Gk.) L. emeticus.'-Ok,. 
ifitTttc6s, causing sickness. — Gk. ifiica, I 
vomit ; see Vomit. 
Emigrate ; see Migrate. 
Eminent, excellent. (L.) L. eminent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of e-minere, to project, 
excel. — L. e, out; minere, to project. 

imminent^ near at hand. (L.'\ t^ 
imminent; slem of pi^. v^. o\ im-mmerc« 



to project over, — L. i m- « in, iipoQ ; 
fftifure, to project. 

prominent^ projecting, forward. (L.) 
L. prominent' f stem of pres. pt. of prO' 
mine/r, to project forward. 

XSmir, a commander. (Arab.) Arab.tfm/r, 
a nobleman, prince. — Arab, root amara, 
he commanded. Der. admir'Ol, q. v« 

Emit ; see Missile. 

Emmet, an ant (£.) M. £. amte, 
amote, A. S. anute^ an ant. -|- G. dmcise, 
an ant Doublet, an/, q. v. 

Emollient ; see MoU^. 

Emolument ; see Mole (3). 

Emotion ; see Move. 

Emperor ; see Fare. 

Emphasis; see Phase. 

Empire ; see Fare. 

Empiric, a quack doctor. (F.— L.-^ 
Gk.) O. F. empiriaue.'^L., empiricus.^ 
Gk. ffAVitfuKSs, experienced ; also one of a 
certain set of physicians. •« Gk. l/i- » lv» 
in; vttpa, a trial, allied to ir6poT, a way. 
and to £. Fare. 

Employ; see Fly. 

Emporium, a mart. (L. — Gk.) L. 
emporium, — Gk. ifAir6ptov, a mart ; neat, of 
ifiw6pioSf commercial. i» Gk. ifAvopla, com- 
merce, iftiropoif a traveller, merchant. »i 
Gk. i/i- B li', in ; v6pos, a way ; see Em- 

Empty, void. (E.) U,E.empH, A.S. 
^mtig, lit. full of leisure. — A.S. amia, 
4Bmetta^ leisure. 

Empyrean, Empyreal, pertaining to 
elemental fire. (L. ■> Gk.) Adjectives 
coined from L. empyra-us, Gk. ifxvvp' 
atot, extended from ifi-mipot, exposed to 
fire. — Gk. kii-^lv, in ; vvp, fire ; see Fire. 

Emu, a bird. (Port.) Port. ^/»a, an ostrich. 

Emulate. (L.) From pp. of L. <rx»i^/V , 
to try to equal. — L. amu/us, striving to 

Emulsion, a milk-like mixture. (F.— 
L.) O. F. emulsion ; formed froili L. 
emuU-us, pp. of e-mnlgere, to milk out. — 
L. e, out ; mulgere, to milk, allied to 

En-, prefix. (F.-L.) F. en- = L. in-, 
in ; sometmies used with a causal force, as 
en-case, en-chain, &c. See Em-. 

Enact; see Agent. 

Enamel. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. en- 

amaiU.^F, en {•^Ja. in), on ; amai/e, put 

for O. F. esmaiif enamel (=»Ital. smalto), 

from O. H. G. smal%jan, to smelt. See 

ffmelt, verb, and Smalt, - . 


Enamour; see Amatory. 

Encamp ; see Oamp. 

Encase ; see Capacious. 

Encaustic, burnt in. (F. - Gk.) O. F. 
eneausti^^e, "Gk, iyxavuTucdf, related to 
burning in. — Gk. kv, in ; icaia, I bum. See 

ink. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. enke. - 
O. F. en^ue (F. encre). — L. encausium, the 
purple mk used by the later Roman em- 
perors; neut of encaustus, burnt in. — Gk. 
XyicavaTos, burnt in. — Gk. Jv, in; koio), I 
bum. (Cf. Ital. iruhiostro, ink.) 

Enceinte ; see Oinoture. 

Enchant; see Cant (i). 

Enchase ; see Capacious. 

Encircle ; see Circle. 

Encline ; see Incline. 

Enclitic. (Gk.) Gk. kyKXiriKoi, en- 
clining; used of a word which leans its 
accent upon another. — Gk. iyicKiv€iv, to 
lean upon, encline. — Gk. \v, on ; kKb^uv, to 
lean ; see laean (i). 

Enclose ; see Clause. 

Encomium ; see Comedy. 

Encore, again. (F. - L.) F. encore 
(«■ Ital. ancora), again. — L. hanc horam, 
for in hattc horam, to this hour ; see 

Encounter ; see Contra-. 

Encoura^ ; see OordiaL 

Encrinite, the stone lily. (Gk.) Coined 
from Gk. Iv, in ; xpivov, a lily ; with 
suffix 'irqt. 

Encroach ; see Crook. 

Encumber ; see Cumulate. 

Encyclical, Enoycloi>a9dia ; see 

End, sb. (K) M. E. ende. A. S. endc, 
sb. + Du. eimfe, Icel. endi, Sw. dndct Dan. 
ende, Goth, andeis, G. ende, Skt. anta, end, 
limit. % Hence the prefixes ante-, anti-, 
an- in an-swer. 

Endeavour ; see Habit. 

Endemic, peculiar to a district. (Gk.) 
Gk. iyHrjfi-os, belonging to a people.— 
Gk. iVf in ; brjfws, a people ; see De- 

Endive, a plant. (F.— L.) F. endive.'^ 
L. iniubus, 

Endogen ; see Genesis. 

Endorse ; see Dorsal. . 

Endow ; see dowager, under Date (i). 

Endue, to endow. (F. — L.) An older 
spelling oi endow; XVI cent— O. F. en- 
doer (later endouer), to endow (Burguy).— 
L. in\ and dotare^ to endow, from dos 


(stem do/'), a dowry. See Sndow. 
^Distinct from indtu, 

jESndure ; see Ihire. 

Enemy ; see Amatory. 

Snergy. (F.-Gk.) O. F. energie,^ 
Gk. iv4py€ta, vigou*, action. — Gk. iytpySf, 
at work, i- Gk. kv, in; ipyw, at work; 
see "Work. 

Enervate ; see Snare. 

Enfeoff, to invest with a fief; see 

Enfilade ; see File (i). 

Engage ; see Gage. 

Engender ; see Genua. 

Engine ; see Genus. 

Engrain; see Grain. 

Engrave ; see Grave (i). 

Engross ; see Gross. 

Enhance, to advance, augment. (F.i- 
L.) M. E. enhansen, [Of O. F. origin ; 
bat the word is only preserved in Pro- 
vencal.] i- O. Prov. enansar, to iiirther, 
advance (Bartsch). — O. Prov. enans^ before, 
rather. — L. in ante^ in front of, before ; see 
Advaaoe. % The h is an English insertion. 

Enigma. (L. — Gk.) L. anigma,^G\i, 
atytyfia (stem cdrtyfULT')t a riddle, dark 
saying. i-Gk. alvtaaofuu, I speak in riddles. 
— Gk. a7vor, a tale, story. Der. interna/' 
ic (from the stem). 

Enjoin; see Join. 

Ex^oy ; see Gaud. 

Enlighten ; see Iiight (i). 

Enlist; see List (i). 

Enmity ; see Amatory. 

Ennui ; see Odium. 

Enormous ; see NormaL 

Enough. (£.) M.E. inch, enoj^h; pi. 
inohtt enoghi, A. S. gendh, gendg^ pi. 
genSge, sufficient, i- A. S. getudh, it suffices. 
^ Icel. gn^r^ Dan. Swed.if^, Du.genoeg, 
G. giftug, Goth, ganohs. The ge- is a mere 
prefix. (VNAK.) 

Enquire ; see Query. 

Ensample ; see Exempt. 

Ensign; see Sign. 

Ensue; see Seauenoe. 

Ensure ; see Cure. 

Entablature ; see Table. 
. Entail ; see Tailor. 

Enter. (F.-L.) M.E. entren,^0,Y, 
enirer,^lj, intrare, to go into. — L. in, 
in; and ^TAR, to cross, overstep; cf. 
L. trans, across. Skt. tri, to cross,. See 
Trans-. Der. entr-ance. 

Enterprise ; see Frehenaile. 

Enthusiasm ; see Theist. 

Entice. (F.) M. £. entiau, - O. F. m- 


•iictrj enticher, to excite, entice. Origin 
unknown ; perhaps allied to Tiokle. 

Entire ; see Tangent. 

Entity, being, (L.) A coined word, 
with suffix 'iy. from L. enti-, crude form of 
ens, being ; see Essence. 

Entomology ; see Tome. 

EntraUs ; see Interior. 

Entreat ; see Traot. 

Enumerate; see Number. 

Enimoiate ; see Nunoio. 

Envelop. (F.-L. and Teut.) M. E. 
envolupen, ^O. F. envoluper, later enve- 
loptr, to wrap in, wrap round, enfold.— F. 
^n ( » L. t/f ), in ; and a base volup-, to wrap, 
of Teut. origin; this base is perfectly 
represented by M. E. wlapptn, to wrap, 
which is merely another spelling of "Wrap. 
And see Lap (3). Der. envelope, sb. 

develop, to imfold, open out. (F. — L. * 
a$id Teut.) F. tUvelopper, O. F. desveloper. 
— O. F. des' ( s L. dis-), apart ; and the base 
velop^ or voluP' (above). 

Environ ; see Veer. 

Envoy ; see Viaduct. 

Envy; see Vision. 

Epaot. (F. - Gk.) O. F. epacU, an addi- 
tion, the epact (a term in astronomy).— 
Gk. Iiroirr^s, added. — Gk. kitaytiv, to bring 
in, add.— Gk. Iv-, for M,Xo\ and iiytw, 
to lead, bring. (V^AG.) 

Epaulet ; see Spade. 

Ephah, a Hebrew measure. (Heb.— 
Egypt) Heb. iphdh, a measure ; of Egyp- 
tian origin ; Coptic ipi, measure. 

Ephemera, files that live for a day. 
(Gk.) XVI cent.-Gk. I^cpa, neut. pi. 
of l^/icpos, lasting for a day.— Gk. 1^- — 
hti, for; ^fiipa, a day. Der. ephemeiHil, 
adj., ephenur-is (Gk. kifnffAtpis, a diary). 

EphOd, part of the priest*s habit (Heb.) 
Heb. /pAM, a vestment. -» Heb. dp/tad, to 
put on. 

Epi-, pre/x, (Gk.) Gk. inl, upon, to, 
besides; spelt epA- in eph-emeral, ep- in 
ep-och, ep-ode. 

Epic, narrative. (L.— Gk.) L. epicus,^. 
Gk. iinic^, narrative. — Gk. ivos, word, 
narrative, song ; see Voice. 

Epicene, of common gender. (L. — Gk.) 
L. epiccenus.^Gk. kvi'Koivos, common.— 
Gk. M ; icotv6s, common. 

Epicure, a follower of Epicurus. (Ln* 
Gk.) L. Epicurus. '^Gk. 'EvuKovpos; lit. 
' assistant' 

Epicycle; see Cycle. 

Epidemio, afitc^n^ ti'^to'^ Q^^^^Ss^ 



FoiDMd from L. Mdtmui, epidemic — Gk, 
Mit)iiot, among ue people, geaenL — Gk. 
M, amongi Bf/"**! people. See Bndeiiila. 

BpldsnolBj see Sann. 

— ■ ; «ce01ou(*). 

Epilepsy. (F.-L.-Gk.J Q.T. epiUf- 
lie, ' the falling sickneu ; Cot — L. ipi- 
Gk. iwiXaii&Artiv, to seiie upon. — Gk. 
Iti, on : Aa/iMraf, to seize. Dsr. tpiltftie 
(Gk. JnAiTTTUcA). 

Spilogue; seeliOKla. 

Epiphany; see Fhuitom. 

EplBOopal. (F. - L. - Gk.) O.Y .tpUcopal. 

— L. ipiieapalit, belonging to r bishop. 

— L. efiicofiiti, a bishop. — Gk. l-wUmowot, 
an over'ieer, biibop. — Gk. M, upon ; 
omrwi!, one tbal watches. (y^PAK.) See 

Hpisod«,a stOTjintrodaced into another. 
(Gk.) Gk. kwtUsotot, a coming in besides. 
-Gk. Ir- (ItO, besides: tiaiam, an en- 
trance, tla6tim, coming in, from tit, in, 
iMi, a way. 

Epistle; see Btola. 

Epitaph. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. ipiiapki.— 
I. epitaphium. — Gk. Jsird^ot, upon a 
tomb. — Gk. 1t(, on; To^ot, s tomb. 

Eptthftlftlnitim, a mamage-song. (L. 

— Gk.) 'L. tpithatamium. — GV. ImSoiA- 
ftov, bridal long.— Gk- ktl, apoD, lor; 
HikafM, bride-chamber. 

Epithet: see Thema. 

Epitome; see Tom*. 

I^och. (L. - Gk.) Low L. tpacha.- 
Gk. 'tox4i > slop, panse, fixed date. — Gk. 
I*- (ivl), npon; ix«i'i to hoM, check. 

Epode ; see Oda. 

EquaL (L.) L. agualii, eqnaL — L. 
tcqtau, just, exacL Ci. Skt. tia, one. 

adaqUAte. (L.) L. adaqualut, pp. of 
adajuart, to make eqnal to.^-L. oi/, to; 
aquui, eqaal. 

equanimity, erenness of mind. (L.) 
Fiom I..i^B<i»i«ifaj, the same. — "L-aquait- 
imii, of even temper, kind. — L. aqu-ut, 
cqoal ; animus, mind. 

eqtutlon, a statement of «(jaality. (L.) 
L. ace. aquaiientm, an equalising ; from 
pp. of aquart, to make equal. — L. aquui, 

equilibrium, even balancmc- (L.) L. 
aquilibrium. — L. ajuHiiru, evenly 
balanced. — L. aqiti-, for aquia, even ; /i- 
t7»rt, to balance ; see Iilbnte. 


equinox. (F. — !>.> F. /quutf^.—h. 
aquiruxHiuH, time of equal day and night. 

— L.. ajui-. for aquui ; necli-, ciude form 
of nor, a night ; ice Night. 

equipollent, equally potent. (F.— L.) 
O. F. iquifolait. — 'L. aquiptlUnl-, stem of 
aquipalleHt, at equal power. — L. ajui; for 
aqaus ; pflUns, pies, pt. of petlen, to be 

eqtilty. (F. - L.) O. F. equili. - L. 
aquiialim, ace of aquitai, equity. — L. 
aqu$is, tqptA. 

equivalent. (F.— L.) O. F. tquivaltni. 

— L. aquisialtnt-, stem of pies. pt. of 
aquiuaUrt, to be of equal force. — L. aqui- 
{aqum'i ; ualtri, lo be worth ; see Value. 

equivocal. (L.) Formed from L. 
aquiiac-us, of doubtful sense. — L. aqui- 
(aqtmi) : wx-, stem of uex, voice, sense ; 
sec Voloo, Dor. equity-all, to speak 
doubtfully. ^ So also equi-angular, equi- 

ifuitee.-F. iniquili. — l,. iniquitattm, ncc. 
aiiniquilas, injustice. — L. w>,not; tequilas, 
equity; see eqaitT (above). 
Squerry, an ofhccr who has charge of 
horses and stables. (F.-O. H. G.) Pro- 
perly tqutrry means a stable, and mod. E. 
tqutrrjf stands iai equtrry-maH. -F. icurie, 
O. F. ticurit, a stable; Low L. scuria, a 
sUble. - O. H. 0. tkiira, tkiura (G. 
schauer), a shelter, stable. (^SKU.) 

S Spelt equerry to make it look u if 
lied to equiru. 

EqueBtrlon ; see nqnins. 

Equilibrium ; see XquaL 

Equine. (L.) L. equinus, relating to 
hones.- L. equus, a horse. 4- Gk. Jnroi, 
Owot; Skt.o^Ttti, Lt. 'runner.' (VAK.) 

equestrian. (L.) Formed from L. 
equtiiri; crude form of eqtuster, belanging 
to horsemen. — L, equts, *. horseman. — L. 
equus, a hone- 

Squinox ; see E^naL 

Equip, to furnish, fit out. (F.~Scand.) 
O. F. iquiper, eiquiftr, to fit out.-lcel. 
siipa, to set in order, allied to skapa, to 
shape. Allied to Shape. Dor. equipage. 

Equipollent, Equity; tee Squal. 

Equivalent, Equivocal ; see Equal. 

Era. (L.) L. ara. an era, fixed date. 
From a paiticular sense of ara, counlers 
(for calcnUtion), pi. of as, brass, money. 

Eradicate; see BMUx 

ErsMj leeBaae. 


Sre, before. (E.) M. E. er. A. S. tir, 
sooQ, before ; prep. adv. and conj. + ^^• 
eer, IceL dr, O. H. G. /r, G. eAir; Goth, 
a/r, adv., early, soon. % A positive, not a 
comparative, form. 

early, soon. (£.) M. E. irly. A. S. 
arUce, adv. ; from JtrHc*, adj., not used.— 
A. S. <^r, soon ; lUy like. 

erst, soonest. (E.) M. £. erst, A. S. 
irest^ snperl. of Jtr, soon« 

or (a), ere. (E.) M. E. or, er, ar, vari- 
ous forms of ere. A. S. tkr (above). (In 
the phrases er ere, or ever,) 

Srect ; see Begent. 

Ermine, a beast. (F. -O. H. G.) M. E. 
ermine. «- O. F. ermine (F. hermitu).'^ 
O. H. G. harmin, ennine-fur (G. ermelin). 
■-0. H. G. harmo, an ermine, -f- A. S. 
hearma; Lithnan. szarmu. % Littr^ ap- 
proves the derivation from Armenius mut, 
an Armenian mous^ ; ct Fonticus mus, an 

Erode ; see Bodant. 

Erotio. (Gk.) Gk. ipanueSs, relating to 
love. » Gk. ipojTi', crude form of tpcts, 

Err, to stray. (F.-L.) M. E erren.^^ 
O. F. errer. mmh, errare, to wander (for 
ers-are ♦). -f- G. irren^ to stray, Goth. 
airzjan, to make to stray. (^AK.) 

aberration. (L.) From L. aca aberr* 
ationem, a wandering from ; from pp. of 
ab errare, to wander from. 

errant, wandering. (F.—L.) F. errant, 
pres. pt. of errer (above). 

erratum, an error. (L.) L. erratum, 
cent, of pp. of errare, to make a mistake. 

erroneous, faulty. (L.) Put for L. 
errone%iSy wandering. —L. errare (above). 

error. (F. •• C) M. E errour. • L. 
errdrem, ace. of error, a mistake. >■ L. 
errare (above). 

Errand. (E.) M. E. erende, A. S. 
irende, a message, business. -|- Icel. 
eyrendi, orendi, Swed. drende, Dan. arende ; 
O. H. G. drunti, a message. The form of 
the word is that of an old pres. pt ; per- 
haps ' a going,' from ^AR, to- go. 

Errant, ZSratuni, &c ; see £rr. 

Erst; see lire. 

Erubescent; seeBnby. 

Eructate. (L.) From pp. of L. eructare, 
to belch ont.««L./,t>ut; ructare^ to belch; 
allied to rugire, to bellow. (i^RU.) 

Erudite ; see Bude. 

Eruption; seeBupture. 

Erysipelas, a Tednen on the skin. (L. 



tm Gk.) L. erysipeldf. — Gk. ipwrtrnkas, 
redness on the skin, i- Gk. ipwrt-, for 
ipv6'p6s, red ; ir^AAo, skin. 

Escalade ; see Boaa. 

Escape ; see Cape (i). 

Escarpment ; see Scarp. 

Escheat ; see Cadenoe. 

Eschew; see Shy. 

Escort; see Begent. 

Esculent ; see Edible. 

Escutcheon ; see Esquire. 

Esophagus, gullet. (L.-Gk.) Late L. 
iESopAoiguf.'^Gli, ohoipiyos, the gullet, lit 
conveyer of food.— Gk. oftr-o;, I shall carry, 
from a base ol-, to carry (Skt vt, to drive) ; 
^7-, base of ^ccytiv, to eat. 

EBOteric. (Gk.) Gk. iu9aT€puc6s, inner; 
hence, secret <«Gk. kairrtpos, inner, comp. 
of laay, adv., within; from Irsclr, into, 
prep. Opposed to exoteric. 

Espalier ; see Spade. 

Especial ; see Species. 

Esplanade ; see Plain. 

Espouse; see Sponsor. 

Espy; see Species. 

Esquire, a shield-bearer. (F. — L.) M. E. 
sqttyer,^0. F. escuyer, escuier, a squire.— 
Low L. scutarius, a shield-bearer. — L. 
scut'Um, a shield, cover (F. ^cu). (^SKU.) 
Doublet, squire, 

escutcheon, scutcheon, a painted 
shield. (F. — L.) Formerly scutchion, 
scuchin\ XVI cent— O. F. escusson, the 
same ; answering to a Low L. ace. scutiO' 
rum*, extended from L. scutum^ a shield. 

Essay, Assay, an attempt, trial. (F.— 
L. •- Gk.) O. F. essai, a trial. •» L. exagium, 
a trial of weight — Gk. i^Aytoy, a weighing. 
mm Gk. k(6ytty, to lead out, export goods. 
-Gk. kit out; dyeiv, to lead. (VAG.) 

Essence, a quality, being. (F— L.) F. 
essence.*^ L. essentia, a beine;.—L. essent-, 
stem of old pres. part of esse, to be. 
(^AS.) See Is. Der. essenti-al; and 
see entity, 

quintessence, pure essence. (F.— L.) 
Lit. ' fifth essence.* — L. quinia essentia^ fifth 
essence (in addition to the four elements). 

Establish, Estate ; see State. 

Esteem, to value. (F.— L.) 0,F,esti' 
mer. — L. €estimare, O. L. eestumare, to 
value. Allied to Sabine aisos, prayer, Skt 
ish, to desire. (^ IS.) 

aim, to endeavour after. (F.— L.) M. K 
eimen.^O, F. eusmer, esmer, to estimate, 
aim at, intend. —L. a/; Mud astimare, to 




estimate. (L.) From pp. of L. asti* 
mare, to value (above). 

Estrange ; see Bzterior. 

!ES8tuai7, mouth of a tidal river. (L.) 
L. astttarium^ the same. -« L. astuare^ to 
surge, foam as the tide.«>L. astus, heat, 
surge, tide. (^ IDH.) 

Etch ; see Eat. 

Eternal. (F. ^ L.) M. E. etemel - F. 
etemeL — L. aiemalis, eternal. <• L. atemus, 
lit. lasting for an age ; put for aui-temus*. 
— L. iBui-t for auum, an age. See Age. 

Ether, pure upper air. (L.«»Gk.) L. 
afher, '^ Gk. alB^p, upper air; from its 
glowing. — Gk. aiBtiVf to glow, (V IDH.) 

Ethio, relating to custom. (L. m> Gk.) 
L. ethicus, moral. -» Gk. 1fiut6is, moral.— 
Gk. ^Oot, custom, moral nature ; cf. i&oi, 
manner, custom. -|- Goth, sidus, G. sitte, 
custom; Skt. svadhA, self-will, strength, 
from sva, self, dhd, to place. 

Ethnic, relating to a nation. (L. ■■ Gk.) 
L. €f Aniens. ^Gk. iOyifc6s, nationaL ■■ Gk. 
t$voSf a nation. 

Etiquette ; see Stick (i). 

Etymon, the true source of a word. 
(L. •- Gk.) L. etymon. — Gk. Irvftor ; neut. 
ofirvfios, real, true.<«Gk. Irc^r, true. Al- 
lied to Booth. 

etymology. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
etymologie. •■ L. etymologia. -» Gk. krvyno- 
XoyiOf etymology. — GkJrvfiO'S, true ; *koy(a, 
account, from \iynv, to speak. 

Eu-, prefix, well (Gk.) Gk. cS, well ; 
neut. oflt^, good, put for iu-vs*, real| from 
V AS, to he. 

Eucharist, the Lord's Supper, lit. thanks- 
giving. ^L.-»Gk.) L. eueharistia. "Gk. 
€{iXapiffTia, a giving of thanks. •• Gk. c9, 
well ; xa/M^o/im, I £ew favour, from x^P^t 
favour, (V GH AR.) 

Eulogy ; see Iiogio. 

Eunuch, one who is castrated. (L.— 
Gk.) L. eunuckus. ^^ Gk. c^v-ouxos, a 
chamberlain; one who had charge of 
sleeping apartments. --Gk. c^v^, a couch; 
ix^iv, to keep, have in charge. 

Euphemism, a softened expression. 
(Gk.) Gk»^ tiKpfffua/iSs, the same as c^i^/Ja, 
the use of words of good omen.«»Gk« *Z, 
well ; ifnftju, I speak. (V BH A.) 

Euphony. (Gk.) Gk. c^^on^/a, a pleas- 
ing sound. — Gk. cS^M^of, sweet- voiced.— 
Gk. iJ, well ; ^wt}, voice. (V BH A.) 

Euphrasy, the plant eye-bright. (Gk.) 
Supposed to be beneficial to the eyes ; lit. 
« delight' - Gk. *i<ppa<rla, delight - Gk. 


cd^pa/rcif, to delight, cheer. — Gk. c?, well ; 
<l>p*v-, base of ^pi7v, midriff, heart, mind. 

Euphuism, affectation in speaking. (Gk ) 
So named from a book Euphues^ by J. 
Lyly (1579). — Gk. c&^f, well-grown, ex- 
cellent — (jk. c7, well ; <^v^, growth, from 
<fivotMt, I grow. (^ BHU.) 

Euroclydon, a tempestuous wind. (Gk.) 
Gk. €vpoic\iSSwv, supposed to mean * a 
storm from the east.'— Gk. cSjpo-r, S. £. 
wind; itAi^k, surge, from ic\v(tiv, to 
surge, dash as waves. 

Euthanasia, easv death. (Gk.) Gk, 
cMovaer/a, easy deatn ; cf. cv^db^aros, dying 
well. — Gk. c9, well ; Oayttv, to die. 

Evacuate ; see Vaoate. 

Evade, to shun. (F. — L.) F. evader. ^ 
L. euadere (pp. euasus)^ to escape. — L. e, 
away ; uadert^ to go. Der. evas-ion (from 
the pp.) 

invade. (F. — L.) F. invader. - L. 
in-tiodere (pp. in-uasus), to enter, invade. 
— L. in, in ; uadere. Der. invas-ion. 

pervade. (L.) L. per-uadere, to go 

Evanescent ; see Vanish. 

Evangelist, writer of a gospel. (F.- 
L. — Gk. ) O. F. evangeliste. — L. enangel' 
is/a.'^Gk. €fa77€A,i<m7t. — Gk. fvayyi\iov^ 
a reward for good tidings, gospel.— Gk. 
c7, well ; d77f A/a, tidings, from dyyiKos, a 
messenger ; see Angel. 

Evaporate; see Vapour, 

Evasion ; see Evade. 

Eve, Even, the latter part of the day. 
(E.) JSve is short for even ; (for evening, 
see below). M. E. eue, euen. A. S. <x/en, 
/fen. -^ O. Sax. dvand, Icel. aftan^ Swed. 
afton, Dan. aften^ G. abend. Supposed to 
mean the 'after* part of the day; allied to 
Afb. Cf. Skt. apardt posterior ; apard san- 
dhyd, evening twilight. Der. even-tide, A. S. 

evening, even. (E.) M. E. euening. 
A.S. Jefnung, put for afenung*; formed 
from £fen, even, with suffix -ung. 

Even, level. (E.) M. E. euen {even). A.S. 
efen, e/n.^'Dxx. even, \ct\,jafn, 'Dzn.jcetm, 
&yteA.jamn, Goth, ibns, G. eben. 

anent, regarding, with reference to. 
(E.) M. E. anent, anentis ; older form 
anefent, where the / is excrescent A.S. 
anifen, onefen, near ; also written anemn. 
— A.S. 0»,on; i^/Sm, even. Hence ^«^ = 
even with, on an equality with.-f-G. neben 
(for in eben). 

'EiVer, (£.) M. £. tuer {ever), A. S 


Jtfn, ever. Related to A. S. dwa^ Goth. 
c»w, ever, Der. etfer-lasting, ever-more, 

every, each one. (£.) M. £. eueri, 
euerich.'^A.S, Sfre, ever; tf/<f, each (Sc. 
Hit), Ever^isever-each; see'Ehoiii. 

everywhere. (£.) M. £. euerihwar. 
mA.S. ^/'i^* ever; gehwar, where. The 
word really stands for ever^ywhere^ Le. 
ever- where ; ^ is a mere prefix ( ^gt')* 

Evict; see Victor. 

Evident ; see Viaion. 

EviL (E.) M. £. eueL A. S. yfel, adj. 

and sb. ^ Da. euvel^ G. ilbel^ Goth, ubils^ 

Icel. i7/r, adj. ; Swed. illa^ Dan. ilde^ ill, adv. 

ill. (Scand.) Icel. illr, cognate with 

A. S. yfel ; it is a contracted form. 

Evince; see Victor. 

Eviscerate; seeViaoera. 

Evoke; see Vocal. 

Evolve; see Voluble. 

Ewe. (£.) M.E. ewe, A. S. eowu, a 
female sheep. ^ Du. ooi, IceL ar^ M. H. G. 
cuwe, Lithuan. aviSf a sheep, Russ. ovisa, 
L. ouiSy Gk« tii \ Skt avij a sheep, orig. 
'a peV from ovii, devoted, attached. 

Ewer; seeAqnatlo. 

Ex-, E-, prefix, (L.) L. ^jr, f, oat. ^ 
Gk. iic, 1^, out ; Ross, ii, out. 

Exacerbate; see Add. 

Exact, (i) precise, (a) to demand ; see 

Exaggerate ; see Qenind. 

Exalt ; see Altitude. 

Examine ; see Agent. 

Example; see Exempt. 

Exasperate ; see Asperity, 

Excavation ; see Gave. 

Exceed ; see Cede. 

Excel, to surpass. (F. — L.) O.F. ex- 
celler. — L. excelUre, to raise ; to surpass. 
— L. ex^ out; cellere^, to drive, only in 
compounds. Allied to Celerity. 

Except ; see Capacious. 

Excerpt, a selected passage. (L.) L. 
excerptum, an extract; neat, of pp. of 
excerpere, to select. — L. ex, out ; carpere, 
to cull. See Harvest. 

scarce. (F.— L.) M.E. scars,<^0,Y, 
escars, eschars, scarce, scanty, niggard (F. 
^charsy^ljow L. scarpsus, short form of 
excarpsus, nsed as a substitute for L. ex- 
cerptus, pp. of excerpere, to select (above). 
Thus the sense was picked out, select, 

Excess ; see Cede. 

Exchange ; see Change. 



Exchequer ; see Check. 

Excise, a tax ; see Sedentary, 

Excision; see Csenra. 

Exclaim ; see Claim. 

Exclude; see Clause. 

Excommunicate ; see Common, 

Excoriate ; see Cuirass. 

Excrement ; see Concern. 

Excrescence ; see Crescent. 

Excretion ; see Concern. 

Excruciate ; see Crook. 

Exculpate; see Culpable. 

Excursion ; see Current. 

Excuse ; see Cause. 

Execrate ; see Sacred. 

Execute ; see Sequence. 

Exegesis, exposition. (Gk.) Gk. 1^4- 
y^ovi, interpretation. — Gk. kir}[^M9ai, to 
explain. —Gk. I^, out; i^ur^cu, to guide, 
from &^ti¥, to lead. {jJ AG.) 

Exemplar, Exemplify ; see Exempt. 

Exempt, freed. (F.-L.) O. F. exempt \ 
whence exempter, to exempt, free. «- L. ex* 
emptus, pp. iAex-imere, to take out, deliver, 
free.— L. ex, out ; emere, to take. (V AM.) 
assume. (L.) L. assumere (pp. as- 
sumpius), to take to oneself. — L. cu; for 
ad, to ; sumere, to take, which stands for 
subimere *, from sud, under, secretly, and 
emere, to take. Der. assumpt-ion (from 
the pp.). 

consume. (L.) L. eonsumere, lit. to 

take wholly. — ll con- {cum), together, 

wholly; sumere, to take, for which see 

above. Der. consumpt-um (from the pp.). 

ensample. (F.— L.) M.E ensample, 

— O. F. ensample, corrupt form of example, 
exemple.^l^ exemplum, a sample, pattenu 

— L. eximere, to select a sample. — L. ex,. 
out ; emere, to take. 

example. (F. — L.) O. F. example^ 
F. excmple. — L. exemplum (above). 
exemplar. (F.— L.) l/l.'E. exemplaire, 

— O. F. exemplairC'^L,, exemplarium, later 
form of exemplar, a copy (to which the 
mod. E word is now conformed).— L. /jr« 
emplaris, adj., serving as a copy.— L. ex* 
emplum ; see ensample above. Der. «x- 
emplar-y ( = 0. F. exemplairi), 

exemplify, to shew by example. (F. 
— L.) A coined word ; as if from F. ex* 
emplifier*, — Low L. exemplificare^ pro- 
perly * to copy out* — L. exemtli', for eX' 
emplum^ a copy ; facere, to make. 

impromptu, a thing said off hand. 
(F. — L.) F. impromptu, — L. in promptu, 
in readiness; where promptu is abl. of 



promptus, a sb. formed from protnere, to 
bring forward ; see prompt (below). 

peremptory,, decisive. (F. - L.) F. 
peremptoire. — L. peremptorius, destructive, 
decisive. — L. peremptory a destroyer. --L. 
perempttu, pp. of per-imere^ to take away 
entirely, destroy.— L. /^r, utterly; enure, 
to take. 

premium. (L.) \a. pramium^ profit ; 
lit. *a taking before;* put ior pra-imium *. 

— L. pra, before ; enure ^ to take, 
presume. (F.— L.) yi.'E^. presumen. 

— O. F. presunur. — L. pra-sunure^ to take 
beforehand, presume, imagine. •- L. pne, 
before ; sunure, to take ; see assume 
above. Der. presumpt-ion, &c. (from 
the pp.). 

prompt. (F. - L.) F. prompt — L. 
promptum, ace. of promptus, promius, 
brought to light, at hand, ready, pp. of 
pronure, to bring forward. — L. pro, for- 
ward ; enure, to take, bring. 

ransom, redemption. (F.— L.) M. £. 
ransoun (with 6nal n), ■- O. F. raenson, 
later ranfon, a ransom.— L. redemptumem, 
ace. of redemptiOy a buying back. — L. 
redemptus, pp. of redimere, to redeem; 
see redeem below. Doublet, redemp- 

redeem, to atone for. (F. — L.) F. 
redinur, * to redeem ;* Cot. — L. redimere, 
to buy back. — L. red-, back; emere^ to 
take, purchase. Der. redempt'ion (from 
the pp. redemptiis), 

resume, to take up again. (F. -L.) 
F. resumer, — L. resumere. — L. re-, again ; 
sunure, to take ; see assume (above). 
Der. resumpt'ion (from pp. resumptus). 

sample. (F. — L.) M. £. sample, — 
O. F. essempUf example ; see ensample 

sampler. (F. -L.) O. F. examplaire 
(XIV cent.), the same as exemplaire, a 
pattern ; see exemplar above. 

sumptuary, relating to expenses. (L.) 
L. sumptuarius, adj. from sumptu^s, ex- 
pense. See below. 

sumptuous, costly. (F.—L.) F.somp- 
tuHtix (Cot.) — L. sumpttiosus, costly. — L. 
sumptuSf expense. — L. sumptus, pp. of 
sunure, to take, use, spend; see assuxne 

Exequies ; see Sequence. 

Exercise, sb. (F.—L.) Hi, ^, exercise, 

O. F. exercice, — L. exercitium, exercise. — L. 

exertitus, pp. of exercere, to drive out of 

an enclosure, drive on, set at woxk.— L. ex, 


out ; arceri, to enclose ; see Ark. Der. 
exercise, vb. 

Exert ; see Series. 

Exfoliate : see Foliage. 

Exhale. (F.-L.) F. exkaler. — L. ex- 
halare, to breathe out. — L. ex, out ; halarc, 
to breathe. 

inhale. (L.) L. in-halare, to breathe 
in, draw in breath. 

Exhaust. (L.) L. exhaustus, pp. of eX' 
haurire, to draw out, drink up. — L. ex, 
out ; haurire, to draw water. 

Exhibit ; see Habit. 

Exhilarate ; see Hilarity. 

Exhort ; see Hortatory. 

Exhume ; see Humble. 

Exigent ; see Agent. 

Exile; see Sole (i). 

Exist ; see State. 

Exit ; see Itinerant. 

ExodUB. departure. (L. — Gk.) Ti.exodus. 

— Gk. t^oloi, a going out. — Gk. l^, out; 
^<$r, a way, a march. (^SAD.) 

Exogen ; see Genesis. 
Exonerate ; see Onerous. 
Exorbitant ; see Orb. 
Exorcise. (L. — Gk.) Late L. exorcizare, 

— Gk. i^opKifttv, to drive away by adjura- 
tion.— (5k- l£, away; 6pKi(€iv, to adjure, 
from 6pK07, an oath. 

Exordium. (L.) L* exordium, a be- 
ginning. — L. exordiri, to begin, to weave. 

— L. ex', and ordiri, to begin, weave. 
Exoteric, external. (Gk.) Gk. ^forr*- 

pt/ros, external. — Gk. 4£a;7^pai,more outward, 
comp. of adv. €£a>, outward, from k^, out 
exotic, foreign. (L. — Gk.) L. exoticus. 

— Gk. i^orriKus, outward, foreign. — Gk, 
t^ca, adv., outward, from i^, out. 

Expand, Expanse ; see Patent. 
Expatiate ; see Space. 
Expatriate ; see Paternal. 
Expect ; see Speoies. 
Expectorate ; see Pectoral. 
Expedite ; see Pedal. 
Expel ; see Pulsate. 
Expend ; see Pendant. 
Experience, Exi>ert; see Peril. 
Expiate ; see Pious. 
Expire ; see Spirit. 
Explain ; see Plain. 
Expletive ; see Plenary. 
Explicate, Explicit ; see Ply. 
Explode ; see Plaudit. 
Exploit ; see Ply. 
Explore ; see Deplore. 
Exponent ; . see Position. 


Export ; see Fort (i). 

iBzpose; see Pose (i). 

Exposition ; see Position. 

Expostulate ; see PostuUtei. 

Expound ; see Position. 

Express ; see Press. 

Expulsion ; see Pulsate. 

Expunge ; see Pungent. 

Expurgate; see-Pnre. 

Exquisite ; see Query. 

Extant ; see State. 

Extasy ; see Statics. 

Extempore ; see TemporaL 

Extend ; see Tend. 

Extenuate ; see Tenuity. 

Exterior, outward. (F. — L.) Formerly 
exteriour. — O. F. exteritur, — L. exteriorem, 
ace. of exterior^ outward, comparative of 
exterus or exter, outward. — L. ex^ out ; 
with compar. suffix ^ter (-• Aryan 'tar), 

estrange, to make strange. (F.i-L.) 
F. estranger, to make strange. • F. 
titrange^ strange. <« L. extroLneum, ace of 
exiraneus, foreign, on the outside. — L. 
extm^ without ; see extra below. 

external, outward. (L.) From L. 
exf em-US, outward, extended form from 
extents, outward (above). 

extra. (L.) L. extra, beyond, bejrond 
what is necessary; put for exterd = exterd 
parte, on the outer side, where exterd is 
the fem. abl. of extents \ see Exterior. 

extraneous. (L.) L. extraneus, ex- 
ternal ; extended from extra (above). 

extreme. (F.— L.) O.Y, extrenu,^ 
L. extremus, superl. of exterus, outward ; 
see Exterior (above). 

extrinsio, external. (F.-L.) It should 
rather be extrinsec, — O. F. extrinsequi, 
outward. -• L. extrinsecus, adv., from 
without. — L. extrin ( -■ extrim ♦), adverbial 
form from exter, outward ; and secus, 
beside ; so that extrinsecus *» on the out- 
side. Secus is allied to secundum, accord- 
ing to, from sequi, to follow; see Sequence, 
strange, foreign, odd. (F. — L.) 
O. F. estrange ; see estsange (above). 



Exterminate ; see Term. 

External; see Exterior. 

Extinguish ; see Distinguish. 

Extirpate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
txtirpare, to root out, better spelt exstirp^ 
are, to pluck up by the stem. — L. ex, 
out ; stirps, stirpes, the stem of a tree. 
' Extol ; see Tolerate. 

Extort ; see Torture. 

Extra, Extraneous ; see Exterior. 

Extract ; see Traoe. 

Extraordinary ; see Order. 

Extravagant ; see Vague. 

Extravasate ; see Vase. 

Extreme ; see Exterior. 

Extricate; see Intricate. 

Extrinsic ; see Exterior. 

Extrude ; see Intrude. 

Exuberant. (L.) From stem of ores, 
pt. of L. exuberare, to be fruitful or 
luxuriant. i-L. ex\ and uberare^ to be 
fruitful, from uber, an udder, fertility ; see 

Exude ; see Sudorific. 

Exult ; see Salient. 

ExuviflB, cast skins of animals. (L.) 
L. exuuia, things stripped ofi^ i-L. exuere, 
to strip off. 

Eye. (E.) M.E. eye, eighex pi. eyes, 
eyen (whence eyne). A, S. edge, pi. edgan. 
+ Du. oog, Icel. auga, Dan. o'ie, Swed. 
oga, Goth, augo, G. auge, Russ. oko, L. 
oculus (dimin. oi ocus*)\ O. Gk. &r«or ; 
Skt. aksha. (V AK.) Der. dais-y, q. y. ; 
wind-mo, o. v. 

eyelet-nole.(F.-«L.;.aiM/E.) Eyelet h 
put for O. F. otilUt, 'a little eye, an oilet 
tkole^' Cot. ; dimin. of O. F. orsV, from L. 
oculum, ace. of ccuJust eye. 

Eyot, a little island. (Scand.) Also 
spelt ait, eyet, eyght* From M. K ei, an 
island » Icel. ey, an island; with dimin. 
suffix -e/, as in helm-et. The A. S. form is 
igo%, ige^ ; where ig is cognate with Joel. 
ey ; see Island. 

Byre ; see Itinerant. 

l^rry, a nest ; see Aery. 


Fable ; see Fate. 

Fabrio. (F. - L.) F. fahrique, - L. 
fabrica, workshop, fabric. — L. fabri-, for 
fcdfer, a workman. — L^ fa-, to put, do, 
make (as in fa-c-ere, to make), with suffix 
"Ur of the agent (V DHA.) Der. 

fabric-ate, from pp. of L. fahricari, to 

forge. (F.-L.) Q.F. forge, a work- 
shop. i-L. fabrica, a workshop (above). 
Hvrtfotge^ vb. 
Fa9ade ; see Face. 



Face. (F. - L.) Y.face, - L. factem, ace. 
tAfacies, the face, appearance. (^ BHA.) 

defieioe. (F. - L.) M. £. defacen, - 
O. F. derfacer, to deface, disfigure. — O. F. 
deS'C^L,, dis-)t 2.ipaji\face, lace (above). 

efraoe. (F.-L.) F. effacer.^Y, ef- - 
L. 1^, for ex, out ; zndface (above). 

fa9ade, face of a building. (F. - Ital. - 
L.) ¥, facade (0>t.)— Ital. facciaiay face 
of a bmlding. >- Ital. faccia, face. — L. 
faciemt ace. oi faciei, face. 

superfioies. (L.) L. supeffides, sur- 
face, outer faoe.«L. xi^/rr, above ; y^xo^j, 

0ur&ce. (F. — L.) F. surface^ tipper 
face. — F. j«r, above ; face, face. — L. super, 
above ; fades, face. 

Facetious. (F, - L.) F. facetieux 
(Cot.)-O.F./i«/w. 'witty mirth,* id.- 
i»,facetia, wit ; common in pi. — L. facetus, 
courteous ; orig. fair, allied to Lh fades. 
Facile ; see Fact. 

Fact, a deed, reality. (L.) "L. factum, 
a deed ; orig. neut oljdctus, pp. oifacere, 
to make. do. (V DHA.) 

affair. (F. - L.) M. E. affere. - O. F. 
aftire, afaire, a business ; orig. a f aire, i.e. 
(something) to do. — L. o^, to ',facere, to do. 

affect. (L.) L. affeciare, to apply 
oneself to (hence, to act upon) ; frequent 
of afficcre, to aim at, treat.— L. af^ ad, 
to ; facere, to do, act. Der. dis-affect, 

comfit, sb. (F.— L.) Formerly ^r^i^, 
confite, ■■ O.'F.cmfit, lit. eonfected, prepared ; 
pp. of confire. — L. conficere, to put together. 
— L. con- (cum), together ; facere, to put 

oonfect, to make up into sweetmeats. 
(L.) L. confectus, pp. of conficere, to put 
together, make up (above). Der. confect" 
ion, confect'ion-er, 

counterfeit, imitated. (F.-L.) M.E. 
countetfeit^O, F, contrefait, pp. of contre* 
faire, to imitate. — F. contre, over against, 
VdL<t\faire, to make.— L. contra, against; 
facere, to make. 

defeasance, a rendering null. (F.—L.) 
O. Norman F. law-term defeisance, a render- 
ing void.— O. F. dcfeisant, pres. part of 
defaire, desfaire, to render void. — O. F. des- 
(L. diS'-\ apart ; faire {L. facere), to make. 

defeat. (F.-L.) M. £. defaitcn, to 
defeat— O. F. defait, desfait, pp. of defaire, 
desfaire, to render void (above). 

defect. (L.) L. dcfectus, a want— L. 
defectus, pp. of deficere, to fail, orig. to 
undo. — L. de, down ; facere^ to make. 
Ber. defect-ion. 


deficient. (L.) From stem of pres. pt 
of deficere, to fail (above). 

deficit, lack. (L.) L. defidt, it fails ; 
3 p. s. pres. of deficere (above). 

difficulty. (F.-L.) M. E. difficulUe. 
— O. F. difficulte.m^l^ difficultatem, ace. of 
difficultcu (put for difficiJitas*), difficulty. 
— L. diffidiis, hard.— L. dif (for dis-), 
apart ; facilis, easy ; see faoUe (below). 

discomfit. (F.-L.) O.V. desconfiz, 
pp. of desconfire, 'to discomfit, defeat,* 
Cot. — O. F. des- ( == L. dis-), apart ; confire, 
to preserve, prepare ; see oomflt above. 

effect. (F. - L.) O. F. egkt, - L. 
effectum, ace. of effectus, an effect. — L. 
effectus, pp. of efficere, to work out. — L. 
ef^ex, out, thoroughly ; facere, to do. 

efficacy, force, virtue. (L.) L. efficada, 
effective power. — L. efficac-, for efficax, 
efficacious.— L. efficere (above). 

efficient. (L.) From stem of pres. pt. 
of efficere, to work out (above). 

facile, easy to do. (F.-L.) Y. facile. 
-m'L. facilis, i.e. do-zblt.^la. facere, to do. 

fac-simile. (L.) Short for factum 
dmilc, made like. — L.y2{<-/«/«, neut. of pp. 
oifacere, to make ; simile, neut. of nmilis, 
like ; see Similar. 

ffiiction. (F.-L.) ¥, faction, a sect 
— L. fcLctionem, ace. of f actio, a doing, 
taking part, faction.— L.^^/mj, pp. ofya- 
cere, to do. 

factitious. (L.) L. factitius, artifi- 
cial.— L.y&f/«j, pp. oifacere, to make. 

factotum. (L.) A general agent— L. 
fac-ere totum, to do everything. 

fEM5Ulty, facility to act (F.-L.) M.E. 
facultee. — F. faculty. — L. facultatem, ace 
oifacultas {«^fadlitas*), facility,— L.y&^- 
ilts, easy ; see £aoile above. 

fashion. (F. — L.) O. ¥.faceon,fachon, 
make, shape.— L.ySzf/<i0ff^m, ace oif actio, 
a making ; see faction above. 

feasible, easy to be done. (F. — L.) 
[Better feisable^'^O. F. feisable, faisable, 
* feasible, doable ;' Cot. — O. F. fais-ant, 
pres. part, oi faire, to do. — h. facere, to do. 

fetich, fetish, an object of superstitious 
worship. (F. — Port — L.) Y.fitiche, — 
VoTt, feitifo, sorcery, lit. artificial ; also, a 
name given by the Port to the roughly 
made idols of Africa. — h. factitius, artificial. 
^"L. fact'Us, pp. oifacere, to make. 

feat, a deed well done. (F. — L.) M. E. 
feet,fdte,^0» Y.fait.'^'L. factum, a deed ; 
see Fact. 

feature, make, form. (F.-L.) M. E. 


ftture, — O. Y.faiture^ fashion. — L- faetura, 
work, formation. — iL. foetus, pp. oifacere, 
to make. 

fiat, a decree. (L.) la. fiat, let it be 
done.— Ln >$<?, I become; used as pass, of 
faccrty to do. 

infect, to Utnt. (F.-L.) M. £. infect, 
as pp.; also infeeten, verb.»>0. F. infect, 
infected. «■ L. infeetus, pp. of infieere, to 
put in, dye, stain. —L. in,\n\facere,to put. 

perfect. fF.-^L.) Vi.lS,. perfit, parfit, 
- O. Y.parfii, parfeit (F. parfait), - L. 
ptrfectus, pp. oi perficere, to complete. 

prefect, a governor. (F.— L.) M. E. 
/^rf. - O. F. prefect (F. pr^fet), - L. 
prafectus, one set over others ; pp. oipra- 
ficere, to set before. — L. pra-, before ; 
faeere, to make. 

proficient. (L.) 'L, proficient-, stem of 
pres. pt. oi prO'ficere, to make progress, ad- 
vance. — If. /n^, forward ; faeere, to make. 

profit. (F.-L.) yi,lL.prcfit.^Y. pro- 
fit. ^\,, profectum, neut. o\ profectus, pp. 
of proficere, to make progress, be profit- 
able (above). 

refection, refreshment. (F. - L.) F. 
refection, a repast. — L. ace. refectionem, 
lit. a remaking. — L. refectus, pp. oireficere, 
to remake, restore. ■■ L. re-, again ; faeere. 

suffice. (F.— L.) From F. suffis-, base 
of suffis-ant, pres. pt. of suffire, to suffice. 
— L. sufficere, to supply. ■■ L. suf^sub, 
under ; faeere, to make, put 

sufficient. (L.) From the stem of 
pres. pt. of L. sufficere, to suffice (above). 

surfeit, sb. (F. - L.) O. F. surfait, 
sorfaii, excess; orig. pp. of sorfaire, to 
augment, exaggerate. «• L. super, above; 
faeere, to make. 
Fade ; see FatuouB. 
Fadge, to turn out, succeed. (E.) M. £. 
faggen* (not found). K.S,fcegian, to fit. 
AlUedtoPact. (VPAK.) 

Fadces. (L.) L. fceces, dregs; pi. of 
fax^ the same. Dw. fec-ulent, h,fac-u- 
lentus, adj. itomfax, 

de&cate. (L.) From pp. of defacare, 
to free from dregs.— L. de-, out ; fate-, stem 
of/fer (above). 

Fag, to drudge. (E.?) 'To fag, defi- 
cere;' Levins (1570). The orig. sense is 
'to droop.* Perhaps a corruption oiflag\ 
see Flag (i) ; and see below. 
Fag-end, remnant. (£. ?) In Massinger, 
Virg. Mart. ii. 3. Perhaps for flag-end^ 
loose end ; see above. 
Faggot, Fagot. (F. - L.?) ¥. fagot. 



'a fagot, a bundle of sticks;' Cot. (i) 
Perhaps from 'L.fae-, stem oifax, a torch ; 
ctfacula, a little torch, (a) Or, since the 
ItaL form is fangotto, perhaps from IceL 
fanga, an armful ; see Fang. 
Fail ; see Fallible. 

Fain. (E.) M. £. fayn, A. S. fagen, 
glad. 4- O. Sax. fagan, Icel. feginn, glad. 
Allied to Fadge. (V PAK.) 

fawn (i), to cringe to, rejoice servilely 
over. (Somd.) Icel. fagna, to rejoice, 
welcome one ; allied \o feginn, fain. 
Faint ; see Figure. 
Fair (i), pleasing, beautiful. (£.) M. £. 
fayr, \,S.fctger, fair. + Icel'.A?^» 'Dzn. 
feir, Swed. fager, Go\h.fagrs, fit, O. H. G. 
fagar\ Gk. tnffin, finn. (^PAK.) 

Fair (a), a holiday. (F. - L.) M. £. 
feire. — \,.feria, a holiday, later, a fair ; 
commoner as pi. feria, put for fes-ice*-, 
feast-days ; allied to Feaat. 
Fairy; see Fate. 

Faith. (F.-L.) M.£./«M; alsoy^. 
Slightly altered from O. Y,feid,fei, faith. 
m»L,.fidem^ ace. oi fides, faith. -|-Gk. trior n^ 
faith. (V BHIDH, from BH ANDH.) 

affiance. (F.»L.) 0.¥.afiance,tni%X\ 
cf. affier, afier, to trust (whence E. o^).- 
O. F. if (L. ad), to ; zndfidant-, stem of pres. 
pt. of Low "L.fidare* to trust, from "L. noire, 
to trust. Cf. Low h.fidantia, a pledge. 

affidavit, an oath. (L.) Low L. affi* 
dauit, 3 p. s. pt t. of affidare, to pledge, i- 
\,,af-=ad, to; lM^la.fidare,ioxla.fidere, 
to trust. 

confide. (L.) L. eonfidere, to trust 
fully. — L. con- (cum), folly ;fidere, to trust. 

defy. (F. - L.) M. E. defyen. - O. F. 
defier, deffier, desfier, orig. to renounce one*s 
faith. — Low L. diffidare, to renounce faith. 
— L. dif, for dis-, apart ; fidare, loxfidert, 
to trust. 

diffident. (L.) L. diffident-, stem of 
diffidens, pres. pt. of diffidere^ to distrust. 
— L. dif-^dis', apart ; fidere, to trust. 

fealty, true service. (F. — L.) O. F. 
fealte,feelteit, fidtWiy. "la. fidelitatem, ace 
oifidelitas, fidelity ; see below. 

fideUty. (F.-L.) "P.fideiitl^'L.fide- 
litatem, ace oifidelitas, iaithfolness. — L. 
fideli; crude form oi fidelis^ faithfoL — L. 
fides, faith. 

fiducial, shewing trust. (L.) From L. 
fiducia, trust — L.y&(rfv, to trust. 

infideL (F. - L.) O. F. infideie, <in- 
fidell ;' Cot. - L. infidelis, faithless. - L. 
in, not ; fidelis, faitmoL 



pei^di6u8. (L.) From 'Lrpeffidiatvs^ 
treacherous. — K perfaHa, treaohery. — L. 
perfidus, treacherous. — L. pir^ away (cf. 
Skt. pard^ from) ; fides, £Biith. 
Falchion, a sword. (ItaL » I^) Ital. 
falcione {ci pron. as rA). — Low L J&/ruiA^»(, 
ace. oHfalcio, a bent sword. •»L.ya/n\ crude 
form oifaix, a sickle. 

defaloate, to abate, deduct (L.) From 

pp. of Low L. diffakan, to abate, deduct, 

take away.«»L. dif"^dis', apart; Late L. 

falcare, to cut with « sickle, from L. fiiix 

(stem /alC'), a sickle. 

fiEaoon. (F.-L.) M.E./iii^tfif.-O.F. 
faucon,faulc(m,^\eX<t \,. fcdcotum, ace of 
falco, a falcon, so named from its hooked 
claws.— Ky^/if-, stem oifaix, a sickle. 
Faldstool; see Fold. 
Fall, to drop down. (£.) M. "E, fallen, 
A. S, feallan,'4'^>M. vallen, Icel.falla, Dan. 
falde(SoTfalle), S^ed. falla, G. fallen; L. 
fallere, to deceive, falli, to err; Gk. <r^<4x- 
Xcty, to cause to fall, trip up ; Skt sp/uil, 
to tremble. (V SPAR.) % Grimm's law 
does not apply, because an initial s is lost 
in Teut. and Latin. Der. befall, from A. S. 
Ife-feallan, to fall out, happen. 

fell (I), to cause to fall. (K) A. S. 
fellan, causal oi fiallan, to £all. So also 
Du. vellen, Ty^XL, falde, Svred. falla, IceL 
fella, G. fallen ; all caiusal forms. 
Fallible. (L.) Tu.faliiHlis, liable to 
err.oLb failli, to err; fallere, to deceive; 
coenate with 'K,fall, q. v. 

default. (F. - L.) See fault (below). 

fail. (F. - L.) ¥,faillir, - UfalUre, 
to beguile ; fitlli, to err. 

fiEkUacy. (F.-L.) Formed by addmg -^ 
to M. 'E.fiillace, a fallacy, deceit. «- ¥,fiLllace. 
^'L.fallacia, deceit •- l^fallac^, stem of 
fallax, deceit&iL^h. fallere, to deceive. 

fiease. (F. - L.) M. E. fals, - O. F. fals 
(F. faux), ^h,/alsus, false; j)p, of fallere, 
to deceive. 

falter, to totter, stammer. (F. — L.) 
M. Kfallren, to totter ; frequentative from 
a hsisefadi'.'mO, F, falter*, to fail ; not re- 
corded ; but see fktdt below. 

faucet, a spigot, vent (F. -L.) O. F. 
(and F.) famset, a faucet ; faulset. Cot. — 
O. ¥,faulser, to falsify, forge ; also^tfZr^r 
un escu^ to pierce a shield, hence, to pierce. 
M L. falsare, to frdsify . — L. falsus, £alse. 

faiilt. (F.-L.) Formerly/a«/. M.E. 
faaite, — O. F. faute, a fault (Span, and 
\\sX,falla, a defect) - O. F. fakerf, not 
found, but answering. to £pan.,/Si/ftzr, Ital. 


faltdre, tS lack; frequent form 6f li.faU 
lere, to fail Der. default {de- « O. F. 
fl5f-«L. diS'\ 

refel. (ll) L. refillere, to shew to be 
false, refute. >■ L; te*, again; fiUlere, to 

Fallow. (K) The sense 'untilled' is 
unoriginal, and due to the reddish colour 
of ploughed land; for the orig. sense is 
reddish or pale ydlow, as when we speak 
of ' fallow deer.* A. S. faalu, fialo, pale 
red, yellowish. 4^ Du. vactl, Icel. fair, pale, 
G. fahl, pale,' also /i/^, L, ptUlidus, Gk. 
voXi^r, giay, Skt palita, gray. See Pale. 

False, S'alter ; see Fallible. 

Fame, report. (F.^L.) ¥, ftune.^'L, 
fama, report, mm L.fari, to speak ; see Fate. 
confess. (F.-L.) 0.¥, confasser.'^L,. 
eonfesms, pp. of confiteri, to confess. — L. 
con^ {cum), fully ; faleri, to acknowledge, 
from h.fal'Umf supine offari, to speak. 

defame. (F. -> L.) M. £. defamen, 
diffamen.mmQ, F. defatner, to take away a 
man's character. •> L. diffamare, to spread 
a bad report. — L. dif-, for dis-, apart \fama, 
a report. 

infamy. (F. - L.) F. infamie, - L. infa* 
mia, ill fame. — L. f »•, not, bad ;frma, fame. 
profess. (F.-L.) We find U,¥^ pro- 
fessed, pp., Englished from 0.¥. profes, 
masc., professe, fem., professed.— L. pr<h 
fessus, pp. of profiteri, to avow. — L. pro^ 
forth ;^/m, to speak; seeoonfeas (above). 

Family. (F. - L.) F. familU, - L. 
familia, a household.— Lvy^;»M/«x, a ser- 
vant, Oscaafamel; from Oscan fimma, a 
house. Cf. Skt. dhdman, a house. (^ 
DHA.) "Dvejamilvar {L„familiaris), 

Famine. (F. — L.) ¥. famine. — Low 
L. famina *, unrecorded, but plainly an 
extension from L. fames, hunger. Cf. 
Skt. ^m, privation, want (VCHA.) 
Der. fam-ish^ formed (by ansUogy with 
languish, &c.) frt>m 'L.fam-es, hunger. 

Fan, an instrument for blowing. (L) 
A.S.y2x»ff.— L. uannus, a fan (cf. F. van) ; 
see below. Allied to Skt vdta, wind, from 
»<f,toblow. (VWA.) 

van (2), a fan for winnowing. (F. — L.) 
In Milton, P. L. ii. 927. — F. van, *a vanne;* 
Cot.— L. uannus (above). 

Fanatic ; see Fane. 

Fancy ; see Fhantom. 

Fane, a temple. (L.) L. fanum, a 

temple; supposed to be derived from L. 

fart, to speak (hence, perhaps, to dedicate). 

fanatic, religiously insane. (F. ■■ L.) 


T. fanaHque.^lj. foHoHatSf {i) belonging 
to a temple, (a) inspired by a divinity, c^ 
thiisiastic.«*L.j^»«m, a temple. 

profkne, impious. (P.— L.) Y.pnfitne, 
■•L. pro/anus, unholy; lit. before (i.e. 
outside oO the temple.— L. //v, before; 
fanum, a temple. 

Fanfiire, a floarish of trompets. (F. — 
Span. — Arab.) F. fanjdre, — Span, fan- 
farra, bluster, vaqnting. •• Arab, farfdr, 
loquacious. TiGt,fanfarr'tm'€tdc,\i\vA\tT, 

Fang, a taloii, claw. (£.) A. S. fang^ 
lit. a seizing. «- A. S. fangan ♦, to seize, only 
used in die contracted ioxvafin (pt. t.feng, 
pp. gefangen).J^T>\3i, vangen, to eatch ; Icel. 
fd{cA.fangy sb:, a catch of fish), Dan.>^^, 
Swed.ya, Got\i,fahan, G.fangm, to catch, 
fangf sb.,a catch, also a fang, (^ PAK.) 

Fantasy ; see Phantom. 

Far. (E.) M. E. fer, A. S. /ror.-f Du. 
ver; Icel. fhirrif %9icA. fferran, adv., Dan. 
fjerfty G./em\ Goth, ^imi, adv. Allied 
to Gk. W/KiK, beyond ; Skt. parcu, beyond, 
/am, for. (-^PAR.) The comi^. farther 
is a corruption of M. Y^.ferreriS^t.far-er) ; 
due to confusion with further, comp. of 

Faroe. (F. — L.) The orig. sense is 

'stuffing;' hence, a jest inserted into a 

comedy. — F. farce, stuffing, a larce. — F. 

farcer, to stuff. — L. y&/n><p, to stuff. -|-Gk. 

<ppaaa€i¥, to shut in. 

foroe (a), to stuff" fowls. (F.— L.) A 
corruption oi farce, to stuff (above). Der. 
forte-meat, a corruption oi farced meat or 

Fardel, a pack, bundle. (F. — Arab.) 
M. E. /an/^/.-O.F. fardel (F. fardeau). 
Dimin. oi¥.farde, a burden, now *a bale* 
of coffee, ^ob. from Arab, fardah, a 
package (Devic). 

fUrl, to roll up a sail. (F. — Arab.) 
Formerly sipt\ifurdle,farthel, to roll up in 
a bundle. Yxoxn fardel, a bundle (above). 

Fare, to travel, speed. (E.) A. ^.faran, 
to go, travel. +Du. vartn, Icel. Swed./inj, 
Dan. fare, G. fahren, Goth, faran, to go ; 
Gk. Ttop^ioyatii, I travel. Cf. L. experior, I 
pass tli^ough, Skt. pti, to bring over. ( ^ 
PAR.) "DeT. fare-well, i.e. may you speed 
well ; thorough-fare, a passage through ; 
welfare, successful practice or journey. 

ferry, verb. (E.) M. E. ferien, A. S. 

ferian, to convey across.— A. S. /&m/f, to 

go.+IceLySr/Tiz, to carry; causal oi fara, 

to go; Go\\i. farjan, to travel by ship. 

&rd.(E.) M.£.>n/;also>f/>i. A.S. 



fori, a fdtd, passage: Allied to A. S. faran, 
to go; and io frith; see below. 

frith, firth, an estuary. (Scand.) M. E. 

firth. — Icel. j^^^Cr, a firth, bay ; Din. fiord, 

Syred.Jfdrd, the same ; L. portus, a haven, 

Gk. 9op0fi6s, a feny. Allied to ford 


Farina, ground com. (L.) L. farina, 

meal. — L.^r, a kind of grain; allied to 

Barley. '"Det. farinaceous, h.fdrina-ce-us. 

taxngo. (L.) h. farrago, mixed food 

for cattle, a medley.- JLybr, grain, spelt. 

Farm ; see Firm. 

Farrier ; see Ferreoas. 

Farrow, to litter pigs. (E.) From the 
sb. farrow, a litter of pigs.— A. S. fearh, 
a pig ; pi. fearas.'^Vi. H. G. varch, a pig ; 
Q]firh-el; h.porcus; see Pork. 

Farther ; see Far. 

Farthing ; see Four. 

Farthingale; see Verdant. 

Fascinate. (L.) From pp. of L. fasci- 
nare, to enchant. 

Fascine, a bundle of rods. (F. - L.) 
O. F. fascine. — L. faseina, a bundle of 
twigs.— L.y2wrij, a bundle. 

Fashion ; see Fact. 

Fast (1), firm. (E.) A. S. yfer/.+Du. 
vcut, Dan. Swed. fast, Icel. fastr, G. fest, 
Cf. Gk« ijf^-irf&)t, fast, steadfast. Allied to 
Foot. Dor. fast (a), fcut (3) . 

flast (a), to abstain from food. (E.) A. S. 
fcestan, orig. to make fast, observe, be 
strict ; from fast (above), -f Du. vasten, 
DsLTi.faste, Swed. and IctLfasta, G. fasten. 
fiEUSt (3), quick. (Scand.) A peculiar 
use of fast (i) above; this use is Scand. 
Cf. Icel. drekka fast, to drink hard, sofa 
fast, to be fast nsicep, fastr i verkum, hard 
at work ; &c It means firm, dose,- urgent, 

fjEUSten. (E.) A. S. fastnian, to make 
fast or firm. — A.S.y^/, firm. 

fjEUEitness. (E.) M. 'E.festnes,fastnesse, 
orig. strength.— A. S. fastness, the firma- 
ment, orig. that which is firm. — A., 

Fastidious. (L.) L.fastidiosus, disdain- 
ful.— L.y^/t^ir»x», loathing; perhaps put 
for fastutidium * (VaniSek). — L. fastu-s, 
arrogance ; tadium, disgust ; so that fas* 
/iVii^m e= arrogant disgusL 

Fastness ; see Fast. 

Fat (i), gross. (E.) A. S./f/.-f Du. tfet, 
Dan. Jfed, Swed. fet, Iccl.feitr. C£. SkL 
pivan, fat. 

Fat (a), a vat ; see Vat. 



Fate, destiny. (F.-L.) Vi.'E. faU,^ 
O. Y, fat (not common). «L.^/!i/tfOTy what 
is spoken ; nent. of pp. oifan, to speak^-f* 
Gk. 4niid, I say, Skt bhdsh, to speak; 
A. S. bantmn ; see Ban. (V BHA) 

affable. (F.-L.) Y , affabU,^!^ affa- 
bilis, «asy to be spoken to. « L. <^ » a/, to ; 
ySirr, to speak. 

oonfkDiilate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
confabulari^ to talk together. « L. f^W' 
{cunC), with ; /ahilari, to converse, from 
fabula^ a discourse ; see fable (below). 

fjEible, a story. (F.-L.) F,fable.^'L. 
fabula, a narrative. — L. y^-ri, to speak, 

fairy. (F.-L.) M. E. faerU, fayrye, 
enchantment. [The mod. use of the word 
is improper ;/2xir^s enchantment, the right 
word for * elf * being fay?^ — O. F. faerie^ 
enchantment.— O. Y.fae^ a fay; see below. 

fay, a fairy. (F.-L.) Y,fie, O. Y,fae, 
a fay. Cf. Port, fadaf Ital. ydla, a fay.— 
Low L. fata, a fate, goddess of destiny, a 
izy.'^'L.fatum, fate (above). 

ineffable. (F.-L.) F. inejfable,^ 
L. ineffMliSf unspeakable. — L. in, not ; 
ef- (for ex), out; Ja-rt, to speak. 

infant. (L.) L. injfant-^ stem of in-fans, 
not speaking, hence, a very voung babe. — 
L. in-, not ; ySxffj, pres. pt. ot fari, to speak. 

infSEUitiy. (F.-Ital.-L.) YAufanterie. 

— Ital. infanteria, foot-soldiers; orig. a 
band of ' infants,* as young men were called. 

— Ital. infante, an infant— L. infantem, 
ace. of infans (above). 

nefSarioua. (L.) L. nefarius, impious. 
— L. nefas, that which is unlawful.— L. n€, 
not ; fas, law, from fari, to speak, declare. 
prefa^oe. (F. — L.) O. F. preface, — 
Low L. prafatium*, not found, put for 
L. prafatum, a preface, neut. of prafaius, 
spoken before. 

Father. (E.) ^.Ys, fader, k,^. fader, 

(The spelling with th approaches the Ice- 

landic.)+lccl.y2jttj>, Du. vader, Dan. Swed. 

fader, Goih.fadar, G. vater, "L. pater, Gk. 

varffp, Pers. pidar, Skt /f fri. (-^ PA. ) 

Fathom. (E.) M. E. fadme, A. S. 

fa!6m, the space reached by the extended 

arms, a grasp, embrace. *^Du. vadem, IceL 

fa^mr, a fathom, Dan. favn, Swed. famn, 

an embrace, G. fadcn. Allied to Patent. 


Fatigue, sb. (F.-L.) O. F. fatigtu-, 
from fatigutr, to weary. — L. fatigare, to 

Fatuous. (L.) tHfatum, silly, feeble. 


Der. tn-fatuate^ from pp. of L. infatnaret 
to make a fool o£ 

fBde,Tb. (F.-L.) From F.y&d5p, adj., 
nnsavooiy, weak, faint — L. fatuus, foolish, 

vade, to fade. (F.-L.) A weakened 
form of fisde (above). 

Fauoes. (L.) \^ fauces, pL, the upper 
part of the throat 

Faucet, Fault ; see Fallible. 

Faun ; see Favour. 

Fauteuil ; see Fold (i). 

Favour, sb. (F. — L. ) O. F. faveur — 
l^fauorem, ace oifauor, favour. — 'L.fauere, 
to befriend. 

feiun, a rural (Roman) deity. (L.) L. 
faunus.^'L, fauere, to be propitious. 

favourite. (F. * L.) Orig. fern, of 
Y^avori, favoured. 

Fawn (i) ; see Fain. 

Fawn (3), a young deer; see Fetui* 

Fay; see Fate. V 

Fealty; see Faith. 

Fear. (E.) M. K feer, A. S. fir, a 
sudden peril, danger, fear. Orig. used of 
the peril of travelling. — A. S.faran, to go, 
travel. + led- f^^* harm, G. gefahr, 

Feasible ; see Fact. 

Feast; see Festal. 

Feat; see Fact. 

Feather. (E.) M. E. fether. A. S. 
fe^er, + I^o* veder, Dan. fUeder, Swed. 
fjdder, \cx\.fid^r, G.feder, L.penna (for 
pet-na *), Skt. patra. See Pen. (VPAT.) 

Feature; seeFaot. 

Febrile ; see Fever. 

February. (L.) 'L.februarius, the month 
of expiation.— L.y^^rMZ, neut. pi., a festival 
of expiation on Feb. 15. — L. februus, 
cleansing ; februare, to expiate. 

Fecu&nt; seeFseoea. 

Fecundity; see Fetus. 

Federal. (F.-L.) Y.fldSral. Formed, 
with suffix -a/, from L. fader-, stem of 
fadus, a treaty. Akin to fides, faith. 

confederate. (L.) L. confaderatm, 
united by a covenant, pp. of confaderare. 
— L. con- {cum), togtrhst -, fader-, crude 
form of fadus, a treaty. 

Fee, a grant of land, property, payment. 
(E.) M. E. fee, A. S. feok, fed, cattle, 
property. + l^u* v^'* Icel. fl, Dan. fa, 
Swed. fa, Goth, faihu, G. vjeh, O. H. G. 
fiku,\.,pecus\ Skt. pacu, cattle. (VPAK.) 
See Feouniary. 
fellow, a partner. (Scand.) M. E. 


ftlawe.^\ziA,filagt, a partner in a ' f<6Ug.* 

— loi^.fHag, companionship ; lit. a laying 
together of propCTty.— Icel. /f, property; 
lag, a laying together, a law ; see Ijaw. 

Feeble. (F.-L.) M. K /«^/^.-0. F. 

foible, standing iox JUnbU*, as shewn by 

l\9\,fitvoU i^'^fUvoU), feeble; since Ital. 

Ji'^J[,^\^,flebuis>, doleful; hence, weak.-* 

l^JUre, to weep. Allied to Fluant. 

foible, a weak point in character. > 
O. Y, foible (above). 

Feed; see Food. 

Feel. (E.) M. Y...felen. A. S.ftlan. + 
Dn. voeUn, G.fOhlen, Perhaps allied to 

Feign ; see Figure. 

Feldspar; see Field. 

FeUcsity. (F.-L.) O. F. /^/ftofe. - L. 
ace. felicitate m. — L. feltci-, cmde form 
oijelix^ happy, fruitful ; allied to Fetus. 

Feline. (L.) h. felinus^ belonging to 
cats.— L./r/i>, a cat; lit. 'the fruitful;* 
allied to Fetus. 

Fell (I); see Fall. 

Fell ^2). a skin. (E.) M. 'E.fel. A. S. 
fel, fell, + Du. vel, Icel. fell, Goth. ///, 
M. ft. G. vel, L. pellis, Gk. vcAAa, skin. 

film, a thin skin. (E.) A.S.flm; O. 
Tncs.flm, Extended from the base^/- in 
A. S.felt skin, Goth, f II, skin. 

Fell (3), cruel, dire. (E.) A. S. fel, in 
comp. walfel ^terce for slaughter, &c. 4* 
O. UvL,fel, wrathful; whence O. F. fel, 

FeU (4), a hill. (Scand.) M. E. /^Z.- 
Iccl. //all, fell, a hill ; Dan. field, Swed. 
fjfdll, a fell. Orig. an open down ; allied 
to Field. 

Felloe; see Felly. 

Fellow ; see Fee. 

FeUy, Felloe, part of a wheel-rim. (E.) 
M. E. felwe, A. S. felga, a felly. So 
named u-om the pieces bemg put together; 
from A. S. feolan, folan, orig. filhan, to 
stick, cleave to, allied to Goth. JilAan, to 

hide. + I^- «'^4» ^*°- f^^i^f G.felge, 

Felon, a wicked person. (F. — Low L.— 
C. ?) M. E/r/i/».-0. Y, felon, a traitor. 

— Low 'L.felonem, ace. oifelo,fello, a trai- 
tor, rebel. Prob. Celtic. Cf. Gzx\.feallan, a 
traitor, "Biti, falloni, treachery; Irish and 
Gz/t\.feall, to betray, deceive, allied to L. 

fallere, to deceive. 

Felt. (E) M. Y,felt', not in A. S. + 
Du. vilt, G. filz\ Gk. irTXor, felt; cf. L. 
piltHSt a felt biat 



filter, to strain. (F.-O. Low G.) F. 
fiUrer, to strain through felt.— Du. vilt, 
felt ; originally v^Mflt, 

Feluooa, a ship. (Ital. — Arab.) ItaL 
feluca. — Knh.fuUi, a ship. 

Female; see below. 

Feminine. (F.-L.) O. F. femimn,^ 
L. femininus, womanly. — L. femina, a 
woman. (Perhaps allied to Fetxis.) 

effeminate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
effeminare, to make womanish.— L. ef, for 
ex, thoroughly; femina (above). 

female. (F.-L.) Put iox femelU by 
confusion with male, M. £. femele. — O. F. 
femelle, — L. femella, a young woman ; 
dimin. ol femina, a woman. 

Femoiul, belonging to the thigh. (L.) 
L. femoralis ; adj. from femor-, oase of 
femur, thigh. 

Fen, a bog. (E.) M. Y.,fen, A. S.fenn. 
•^ Du. veen, Icel. fen, Goth, fani, mud. 
Cf. L. palus, a marsh. And see Vinewed. 

Fence ; short for defence', see Defend 

Fend ; short for Defend, q. v. 

Fennel, a plant. (L.) M. Y.fenel, A. S. 
finol, finugle, — L. foeniculum, fennel; 
double dimin. oifenum, hay. 
fenugreek. (L.) 'L.fenum Gracum. 

Feoff; see Fief. 

Ferment ; see Fervent. 

Fern. (E.) A. ^,feam. + Du. varen ; 
Skt. paraa, a wing, feather, leaf, plant, the 
orig. sense being * feather.* 

Ferocity. (F.-L.) F. ferocitl - L. ace. 
ferocitatem, fierceness. — L. feroci-, crude 
form oiferox, fierce. —L.y!m#/, fierce, wild. 
Allied to Deer. 

fierce. (F.-L.) M. E //rrr. -O. F. 
fers, fiers, old nom. of O. F. fer, fier, 
fierce. — L. ferns, wild. 

Ferreoua. (L.) L. f^rreus, made of 
iron. — L. ferrum, iron. 

farrier. (F.-L.) Formerly /rrr^r, a 
worker in iron. — Y.fer, iron. — L. ferrum. 
ferruginoua. (L.) "L. ferruginus, same 
as ferrugintus, rusty. — ll ferrugin^, stem 
oiferrugo, rust of iron. — h, ferrum. 

Ferret (i), an animal. (F. — LowL.— 
C. ?) O. F. furei, a ferret — Low 'L.fure' 
tus^furectus, a ferret ; also furo. Said to 
be n-om 'L.fur, a thief; more likely from 
Bret.^r, wise, yi.ffur, wise, wily, crafty, 
ffurea, a wily one, a ferret 

Ferret (2), a kind of silk tape; see 

Ferruginoua ; see Ferreons. 

Ferrule, a metal ring at the end of a 



stick. (F.— L.) Corrupted spelling (due 
to confusion with ferrum, iron) of the 
older form verril; XVI cent. — O. F. 
viro/e, a ferrule ; Low L. virola, the same. 
From L. uiriola^ a little bracelet ; dimin. 
of uiria, an armlet «L. uiere, to twist, 
plait (VWI.) Allied to Withy. 

Perry ; see Fare. 

Fertile. (F.-L.) Y, fertile. ^'L.fertilis, 
fertile. — L. ferre, to bear ; allied to Bear 

circumference. (L.) L. eircumfer- 
entiUf boundary of a circle. — L. circum- 
ferent-^ stem of pres. pt of circum-ferre^ to 
carry round. 

confer. (F.— L.) F. conferer.^l,, eon- 
ferre, to bring together, collect, bestow. 

defer (i), to delay. (F.-L.) M. E. 
differren, — O. F. differer, to delay. — L. 
differre, to bear different ways, delay.— L. 
dif, for diS', apart ; ferret to bear. 

defer (a), to lay before, submit oneself. 
(F. — L.) O. F. deferer, to admit or give 
way to an appeal. — L. de ferre, to bring 
down, bring before one. 

differ. (L.) L. differre, to carry apart, 
to dififer.— L. dif-, for dis-, apait; ferre, to 

infer, to imply. (F.-L.) F. inferer. 
— L. in ferre, to bring in, introduce. 

offer. (L.) A. S. offrian. — L. offerre, 
to offer. — L. of, for ob, near; ferret to 
bring. Der. offer-i-or-y, from F. offertoire, 
L. ^ertorium, a place to which offerings 
were brought 

prefer. (F. - L.) O. F. preferer. - L. 
pra ferre, to set in front, prefer. 

proffer. (F.-L.) 0,¥. proferer, Xo 
produce, adduce. — L. pro ferre, to bring 

refer, to assign. (F.-L.) O. F. referer 
(F. rifirer),^\l, re ferre, to bear back, re- 
late, refer. 

Buffer. (F.-L.) Ui.'E. soffren, suffren. 
—O. F. soffrir (F. souffrir).^\^. sufferre, 
to undergo.- L. suf {sub), under; ferre, 
to bear. 

transfer. (F.-L.) Y. transfirer, ^ 
L. trans ferre, to convey across. 

Ferule^ a rod or bat for pxmishing 
children. (L.) YouoK^y ferula. ^L.. ferula, 
a rod.— L. ferire, to stnke. + IceL ber;a, 
to strike. 

interfere. (F. — L.) Formerly enter- 

feir, to dash one heel against the other 

(Blount). — F. entrt, be^een; ferir, to 

-strike. —L. inter, between %fcrirt, to strike. 


Vervetnt, hot, zealous. (F.-L.) O. F. 
fervent. **1j. feruent; stem of pres. pt of 
feruere, to boil. Allied to Brew. Der. 
fervour, from O. F. ferueur « L. ace. 
feruorem, hesit; fervid, from 'L.fetuidus, 

effervesce. (L.) L. effertuscere.^l^ 
ef, for ex, out ; feruescere, to begin to 
boil, inceptive oijauere, to boil. 

ferment. (L.) L. fermcntum (short 
for ferui-mentum), leaven.— L. /ir/v^nf, to 

Festal. (L.) A late word, coined 
(with adj. suffix -al) from L. fest-um, a 
feast, orig. neut oifestus, bright, joyful. 
(V BHA.) 

feast. (F.-L.) M. E. //-j/^f.-O. F. 
feste {Y.fite).^L,.festa, lit festivals, pi. of 
festum (above). 

festival. (F.-LowL.-L.) Properly 
an Vi'Ai.mmO.Y. festival, festive. — Low L. 
festiualis.^'L. festiuus (below). 

festive. (L.) L./-jft*««J, belonging to 
a feast — L.y5rj/«/w, a feast 

fSte. (F.-L.) Mod. F. fite, the same 
as O. Y. feste \ see feast (above). 

Fester, to rankle ; see Food. 

Festive ; see Festal. 

Festoon. (F.-L.) F. feston, a gar- 
land, festoon. — Low L. festonem, ace. of 
festo, a garland. Usually derived from L. 
festum, a feast ; but it is quite as likely to 
be from Low ^.festis (O. Y.fest, Y.fatte), 
a top, ridge, from 'L.fastigium, a top. 

Fetch. (E.) M. E. feeehen, pt. t.fehte, 
fcehte. A,S. feccan, to fetch. Gen. xviii. 4 ; 
Luke xii. 20. Allied to A. S. facian, to 
wish to get ; fae, a space of time (hence 
prob. an opportunity). Allied to Fair, 
(y PAK.) "Der. fetch, sb., a stratagem. 

Fdte ; see Festal. 

Fetich, Fetish ; see Fact. 

Fetid. (F. - L.) O. F. fetide. - L. 
fetidus, foetidtis, stinking. -L. fatere, to 
stink. Allied to Fume. 

Fetlock, Fetter ; see Foot. 

Fetus, offspring. (L.) L.y^///x, a bring- 
ing forth, offspring. — L. feucre *, an obso- 
lete verb, to generate, produce ; allied to 
fu'i, I was ; see Future, Bo. 

effete, exhausted. (L.) L. effettts, 
weakened by having brought forth young. 

-L. ef, for ex, out; fetus, that has 
brought forth, pp. oi feucre (above). 

fawn (2), a young deer. (F. — L.) 
O. F. fan, fcLon, earlier feon, a fav^n ; 
answering to a Low L. ioroifetonus* (not 
found). - L. fetus, fa-tus, offspring. 


fecundity. (F.-L.) O.Y, fecondii^ 
(Cot.) — L. ace fecunditaiem, fniitfulncss. 

— L. fecundus, fraitful ; allied to fetw, 
, offspring. And see Feline. 

Feud (i), hatred; see Foe. 
Feud (a), a fief; see Fie! 
Fever, a kind of disease. (F. — L.) 
M. lE^feuerifevery^O, YJevre{JB,fiivre). 

— L. febrem, ace of febris, iQ\tr, lit. a 
' trembling.' C£. A. S. bifian, G. beben^ 
to tremble. 

febrile, relating to fever, (F. — L.) 
F. febrile. — L. fehri-s, fever; with suffix 

feverfew a plant. (L.) A. S. fefer- 
fuge. — L. febrifuga, fever-dispelling. — L. 
febri'Sf fever ; fugare, to put to flight. 

Few. (E.) M. E. fewe. A. S. ftd^ pi. 

fcdwe. + Icel. fdr^ Dan. faa^ Swed^ fd., 

Goth. /aws, h,paucus; Gk. vavpos, small. 

Fey, doomed to die. (E.) A. S. y«^, 
doomed to die. + Icel. /si^f Du. vee^; 
G^eig, a coward. 

Fiat ; see Fact. 

Fib. (F. — L.) A weakened and 
shortened form of/ab/et q. v. 

Fibre. (F.-L.) Y , fibre.^'L, fibra, a 

Fickle. (E.) lA.'E. Jikel. A.S.JkoI; 
orig. an adj. from Jlc, sb., fraud. 

Fiction ; see Figure. 

Fiddle, a violin. (L.) A. S. Ji^le, 
Icel. yf5/fl, Dan. fiddeU Du. vedel, G. 
fiedeL Apparently borrowed from L. 
uitulaj uidtda^ a viol ; see VioL 

Fidelity ; see Faith. 

Fid^t. (Scand.) A dimin. form of 
fidge^ to be continually moving up and 
down, spelt fikt in North of England. 
M. E. fiken^ to fidget, to hasten. — Icel. 
Jika^ to climb up nimbly, as a spider; 
Swed. fika, to hunt after, Norw. fika, to 
take trouble, fika etier, to hasten alter, 

Fiducial ; see Faith. 

Fio. (Scand.) M. E. ^. - Icel. ^, /^i, 
fie!; Dzxi.fy, Swed.y)', fie! Cf. C.^ui, 
Lat. phui, phy, Skt. phtU, expressions of 

Fie^ land held of a superior. (F. — 
O.H.G.) O.F. fief, formerly spelt //« 
(Scheler).- O. H. G.fiAu (mod. G. vteA), 
cattle, property ; cognate with E./ee, q. v. 

enfeoff, to endue with a fief. (F. — L. 
and O. H. G.) The spelling is Norman F. ; 
formed from F. «» (~ L. in), in ; and fie/, 
a fief (above). See below. 



fisoff, to invest with a fief. (F. - 

O. H. G.) -Norman F. feofer, O. Y.fiefer, 

verb from Y. fief, a fief (above). Der. 

feoffee, i e. fitf-i, where -i is the suffix of 

the pp. 

feud (a), a fief. (Low L.-F.- O.H.G.) 
Low L. feuduntf a Latinised form of O. F. 
fieu, also spelty^l^/" (above). Der. feud-al, 

Field. (E.) l!i,Y..feld, A.S./eld.-^' 
Du. veld, Dan. felt, Swed. fait, G.Jeldi 
cf. Russ. poU, a field. Allied lo Fell (4). 

feldspar, a kind of mineral. (G.) 
Corrupted from G.feldspaih, lit. field-spar. 

fieldfare, a bird. (E.) A. S.feldefare, 
lit. * field-traveller ; * see Fare. 

Fiend. (E.) M.E. /r«^.<fnd, 
fednd, lit 'a hating one,* an enemy, the 
enemy; orig. pres. part oi feSn, feSgan, to 
hate. 4" I^Q« vijand, Dan. Swed. fiende; 
IctLfy'dndi, pres. pt. oifjd, to hate; Goth. 
fijands, from fijan^ to hate; G. feitid, 
(VPI.) See Foe. 
Fierce ; see Ferocity. 
Fife. (F. - O. H. G.) Y.fifre, - O. H. G. 
pflfa, G. pfeife, a pipe. - O. H. G. pfifen, to 
dIow, whistle. See Pipe. 
Fig. (F.-L.) Y.figue.^'L.ficum, ^zc, 
oificus, a fig. 

Fight. (E.) M. E fihten, fehien, verb. 
A. S. feohtan, to fight ; feohte, a fight + 
Du. vechient Dan. fegte, Swed. fakta, G. 
fechten, to fight 
Figure. (F.— L.) T.figure.^l^figutxt, 
a thing made. — L. fingere (base fig-), to 
make, fashion, feign. 4* ^^ Biyyayuv, to 
handle, Skt dih, to smear (VDHIGH.) 
Der. disfigure, prefigure, 

configuration. (F.-L.) V, configu- 
ration ; from ace. of L. configuraiio, a con- 
formation. — L. configuratus, pp. of con- 
figurare, to put together. — L. con- {cum-) ; 
figurare, to lashion, itomfigura (above). 

efi&gy. (L) Short ior effigies, an image. 
— L. effig-, base of effingere, to iform. — L. 
ef', for ex ; fingere, to form. 

faint. (F. - L.) M. E./««/. - O. F. 
feints weak, pretended ; orig. pp. oifeitidre, 
to feign. 'm'L, fingere, to form, feign. 

feign. (F.-L.) M. E.feinen, - O. F. 
feindre. — h. fingere (above). 

fiction. (F.-L.) F.fiction.'^'L.fictiO' 
nem, ace. oi fictio, a feigning.— L.J^/Mr^ 
pp. oi fingere, 

figment. (L.) "L, figmentum, an in- 
vention.— L.y{]f-, base oi fingere, 

transfigure. (F.-L.) f.iransfigurer. 



*L. tramfigurare, to dunge die fi^nre or 
-• I^ trans, across (impljiog 
5);/^nf, 6giire. 

see Pile (i). 
Filbert^ fruit of hazd. (F.-O. H. G.) 
Formerly philiberd (Gower) ; short for 
PkiUberd cnPhiUbert nut, from the proper 
name Philibert ; (S, PhOibert's day is Aug. 
33).«O.H. G.ji$/i-Ar//y very bricht; from 
Ji/i (G. f^f//), greatly, ^^rf, ierkt, bright. 
9 Called in Germany Lambertsnuu (S. 
Lambert, Sept. 17); prob. from the time 
ofrear of nnttin£. 

rach. (Scand.) Extended from M. E. 

fiUn, to conceaL«IceLy2r/it, to hide, buy. 

•fGoCh./Mtfff, to hide. 

File (I), string, Ime, order. (F. — L.) 

O. F. fiU ; allied to F.Jit, a thread. - L. 

Ji/um, a thread. 

defile (3), to mardi in a file. - F. <i/- 
/Ur, to deble.-F. dif- -O. F. des-^l^dis-, 
apart ; yf/f r, to spin threads, from 'L.JUum. 
Der. defile, sb. 

enfilade, a line or straight passage. 
(F. — L.) F. enfilade, a long string (of 
things). *F. enfiler^ to thread. >F. «»-»L. 
Ill, in ; fil, a thread, from \ufilum, 

filament. (F. - L.) O. Y.filamen, - 
'L.Jilamentum, thia thread. • Low l^JUare, 
to wind thread. — L.y{/wx«. 

filigree. (Span. — L.) YoimiaXy fili- 
grane ; XVII cent. — SpasLjiligrana, fili- 
gree-work, fine wrought wonL — Span.yf/iz, 
a thread or xo'it, filar, to spin ; grano, grain 
or texture; so called because the chief 
textore of it was wrought in silver wire. 
From 'L.filum, thread ; granum, grain. 

fillet. (F. - L.) M. l£.,filUt. - O. F. 
filet, dirain. oifil, a thread. — L.yf/Mx«. 

profile. (Ital. - L.) Ital. profile, a 

sketch of a picture, outline (Florio). — L. 

pro, before, in front ; filum, a thread (Ital. 

file, thread, line). % The mod. Y. profit 

is also from Ital. profilo, 

purl (3), to form an edging on lace, in- 
vert stitches in knitting. (F. — L.) Fre- 
quently misspelt pearl. Contraction of 
purfle. — F. pouffiler, to purfle, embroider 
on an ed^e. « F. pour (L. pro\ confused (as 
often) with F. par (L. per\ throughout ; 
fit, a thread. 
Pile (a), a steel rasp. (E.) A. S.feSl.'^ 
Du. vijl, Dan. fill, Svfed.fil, G./eile, Russ. 
pila, a file, sharp tool. 

Filial. (L.) From L, fili-us, a son; 
^//a, daughter; orig. infant; cf. h./elare, 
to Muck. (^DHA.) 


■IIIHetiow. (F.-L.) F. afiHatitm, an 
soo. — Low L^ aoc affUiO' 

File (I). 
Fan (I). 
File (I). 

Fimbe& Fhilibeg; a kilt (Gaelic.) 
Ot^feileadh-beag, the modem kilt — Gael. 
fiUeadk, a fold, plait, from the ^n:^fiU, to 
fold; nd beag, little, smalL 
Fillip, to strike with the fi^;er-nail, 
when jerked from the thnmb. (E) An- 
other form oifiip ; see Flippant. 
Filly; seeFoaL 
FUm; see Fen (2). 
Fater; see Felt. 
Fath; see Foot 

Fin. (E.) A S. fin, a fin. -f- Do. vin, 
Swed, /ena, DuLfinne, h. pinna^ 

Final (F.-L)^'L.finalis, 
final.— L.jiOKr, end. 

affinity. (F. - L.) F. ajfimti. - L. 
affimtatem, ace. of ajfinitas, nearness. — L. 
affinis, near, bordering on.— L. a/-, iox ad, 
near ; finis, boundary, end. 

confine, to limit. (F.— L.) Y.confiner, 
to keep within limits. — F. confin, near. — 
L. conpnis, bordering on. — L. con- (cum), 
with ; finis, boundary. 

demie. (F.-L.) O. F. definer, to de- 
fine, conclude. — L. definire, to limit. — L. 
di^ down ; finire, to end, from finis, end. 

finance, revenue. (F. — L.) O. F. finance. 

— Low L. finantia, payment. — Low L. 

finare, to pay a fine. — Low L,. finis, a 

settled payment, b, finish or end, i.e. final 

arrangement; 1j. finis, end. 

fine (i), exquisite, thin. (F.— L.) O.F. 
fin, witty, perfect — 'L.finitus, well rounded 
or ended, said of a sentence (Brachet); 
orig. pp. oi finire, to end. — h. finis. 

fine (3), a tax. (Law L.) Law 'L. finis, 
a fine ; a final arrangement ; "L. finis, end. 
See finance above. 

•flw-lfl.1 (L.) A coined word; from L. 
finire, to finish.— L.y&»fj, end. 

finical. (F.— L.) A coined word; ex- 
tended from fine (i) above. 

finish, vb. (F.-L.) U..Y..finischen.^ 
O. F.finiss; base of pres. pt. oifinir, to 
finish. — L.yf«i«, to end. m^L,. finis. 

finite, limited. (L.) h.Jinitus, pp. of 
finire, to end, limit. — 11,. finis, Der. in- 
finite, in-finit-esimal, 

refine. (F.-L.) Coined from re- and 
fifU {X)% ^^^ \m\Va.VtA. liOTcv ¥.rajjitur^ to 


refine, comp. of L. re-^ again,'^ad, 
to, and Y.fiUf fine. Der. refitu-ment', cf. 
F. raffmiment, 

superfine. (F. - L.) From L. super , 
above; and /f»^ (i). 

Pinch, a bird. (E.) M. Ys. finch. A. S. 

^«r.+Du. vink, I>an.finJke, Swed. and G. 

fink; W./iW, a chaffinch. Cf. Gk. mrly- 

yos, ciri(a, a finch ; prov. £. spinJk. Der. 

chaffinchf q. v., bullfinch^ &c. 

I^dL (£.) A. ^,findan. 4* Du. vinden, 
"Dan.finde, Swed. and Icthfinna ( =finda), 
Goth.finlAan, G.finden. Allied to "L.peiere, 
to seek after ; see Petition. (V PAT.) 

foundling, a deserted child. (£.) M. E. 
fundling; formed with suffix -l-ing from 
A. S./und-en, pp. oifindan. 

Pine (i) and (a) ; see Final. 

Pinger. (E.) A. S.//i^r.+Dn. vinger, 
Icel. fingTf Dan. Swed. G. finger, Goth. 
J^SSf"^ {''fi^P^)' Prob. allied to Fang; 
(finger^ catch-er). 

Pinical, Pinish ; see Final. 

Pir, atiee. (E.) M.E./r; A,S.furA, 
•^IceL /ura, Dan. /yr, Swed. furu, G. 
fiihre, \^,pyr. The same as L. quercuSf 
an oak. 

Plre. (E.) A. S.fyr, + Du. vuur, Icel. 
Jyri, Dan. and Swcd.j5'''i O.feuer, Gk.irvf). 
Cf. Skt. pdvana ( ^ptiana), purifying, also 
fire. (PU.) See Bolt (a). 

Pirkin ; see Four. 

Pirm. (F. - L.) M. E. ferme. - O. F. 
ferme. » L. firmus, steadfast. Cf. Skt. 
dhara, preserving. (^ DHAR.) 

afOLrm. (F. •• L.) M. £. affermen.^ 
O. F. afemur, to fix. — L. af-^ad, to ; fir- 
mare, to fix, from firmus, 

oonfirm. (F.*L.) M.'E.eon/ermen.'' 
O. F. confermer.^'L, confirmare, to make 
firm, strengthen. 

farm. (L.) '^.'E. ferme, K^S./eorm, 
a feast, food, property, use. — LowL.yfrw«tf, 
a feast, farm, tribute ; fern, of L. firmus, 
durable. (From ihe fixed rent.) 

firmament, celestial sphere. (F.— L.) 
O. ¥, firmament. — 'L.firmamentum, a sup- 
port, also, expanse of the ^y,^'L,firmare, 
to strengthen ; from firmus. 

In-finn. (L.) L. infirmus, not strong, 
weak. Der. tnfirm-ar-_y, infirm-i-ty. 

Pirman, a mandate. (Pers.) VtTS,far^ 
mdn, a mandate, order. 

First ; see Fore. 

Pirth; see Frith. 

Pisoal, pertaining to the revenue. (F.— 
JL) a K ySfra/, - O. F. Jisgue, the public 



purse. ^■L.^n/j, a basket of rushes, also a 

confiscate, to adjudge to be forfeit. 

(L.) L. eonfiscaiuSf pp. of confiscare, to 

lay by in a coffer, to confiscate, transfer to 

the prince's privy purse.— L. con- {cum) ; 

fiscus, a purse. 

Pish. (E.) A.S./>f.+Du. vtsch, Icel. 
fiskr, Dan. and Swed. fisk, G. fisck, L. 
piscis, W. pysg, Bret. /^J>t, Irish and Gael. 
icug (Jiox pias^. 

Fissure. (F. - L.) O. F. fissure. - L. 
fissura.^la.fissus, pp. oi findere, to cleave. 
^■Skt. bhid, to cleave ; A. S. biian, to bite. 
(^ BHID.) And see Vent (i). 

Pist. (E.) M. E. fist, fest.Just. A. S. 
^j/.+Du. vuist, G. ^«j/, Kuss. piaste. 
Allied to h.pugnuSf Gk. mryft^, fist. 

Fistula, a deep, narrow abscess. (L.) 
From the shape ; la. fistula, a pipe. 

Fit (i), to suit; as adj., apt. (Scand.) 

M..E.fitten, to arrange.— Icel. and Norw. 

fit/a, to knit together ; Swed. dial, fi/tja, to 

bind together. 4* Goth, /efjan, to adorn, 

deck. Allied to Fetch. 

Pit (a), a part of a poem, attack of ill- 
ness. (E.) M. E. fit, A. S. fit, a song, a 
struggle.+Icel. fet, a pace, step, foot (in 
poetry), fit (of a poem). Allied to Fetch 
and Fit (i). 

Pitch, the same as Vetch, q. v. 

Pitchet, Fitchew, a polecat (F.— 
O. Du.) Fitchew is corrupted from O. F. 
fissau, a polecat. — O. Du. fisse, a polecat ; 
firom the smell. Cf. Icel. ffsa, to make a 
smell ; see Foist. 

S^tz, son. (Norm. F. — L.) Formerly 
fiz (with z as /"j).- O. F.fiz (with zaats); 
alsofi/z, fils,^, a son. 

Five. (E.) M. E. fif; sometimes fiue, 
as a plural. A. S. fif (for ////♦).+ Du. 
vij/, Dan. Swed. /em^ Icel. fimm, Goth. 
fimfi G. fun/, Vi.pump, L. quinque^ Gk. 
irc/iirc (also vcVrc), Skt. paflchan. (Base 
KANKAN.) Der. yJ/^M. A. S. fifta ; fif- 
teen, A. S. flftyrn ; A/^/y, A. S. fif tig. 

Pix.(F.-L.) O.F-X^^. fixed. -L./jrttJ, 
fixed ; pp. oi figere, to fix. Cf. Gk. apty- 
yuv, to compress. 

aflftx. (F.-L.) M. E. afficken.^0. F. 
aficher, — O. F. a, to (L. ad) \ficher, to fix, 
answering to Low L. figicare ♦, developc^l 
from figere, to fix. ^ So also pre-fix, suf- 
fix (i.e. sub-fix), trans-fix. 

Pin (Scand.) Icel. flsa, Dan. ^^; 
with the same sense «& L*. ^dtrt. 

Plabby. pul Uxfiafpy \ «fclf\Kft* 



Flaccid. (F. - L.) F. flaccidtx - L. 
JUucidm^ limp. » L. fltucus^ Habby. 

Slag (i), to droop, grow weary. (E.) 
Weakened iform oi ficuk^ to hang loosely ; 
M. 'E^fiakken^ to flap about. From the 
base jfcu:* of A. S. flac^or^ flying, roving. + 
Icel. flakka, to rove ; Jlaka, to nap ; fiogra, 
to flatter ; G. flackem^ to flutter. 

flicker, to flutter. (E.) Frequent, form of 

flicks weakened form of M. 'E.Jlakken (above) . 

flag (3), an ensign. (Sciind.) Dan. 

/lag, Swed. fiagg, a flag ; from base of IceL 

Jiogra, to flutter (above). 

flag (3), a reed ; the same word as flag 
(2); from its waving in the wind. 
Plag (4), Flagstone, a pavmg-stone ; 
see Flake. 

Flagellate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
flagellare, to scourge. — l^flagtllum^ dimin. 
oiflagrum^ a scourge. (^ BHLAG.) 

flaa (F. -L.) O. F. flatl (F. flfau), 
a flail, scourge. «L.^^//tf/» (above). 
Flageolet ; see Flate. 
FlagitiouB. (L.) !», flagUioms^ shame- 
ful. « 'L, flagitium^ a disgraceful act. — L. 
flagitartt to act with violence. Allied to 

Flagon; see Flask. 

Flagrant, glaring, as a fault. (F.— L.) 

O. F. flagrant^ properly burning. — L, 

flagrant' f stem of pres. pt. oi flagrare^ to 

bum.4'Gk. <l>K4y*iv, to bum; Sk. bhrdj, 


conflagration. (F.— L.) F. conflag- 
ration, '^'L, ace conflagrationem, a great 
burning. — l^^con- (cum), together iflagrarc, 
to bum. 

flambeau. (F.— L.) F. flambeau, a 
link, torch ; dimin. of O. F. flcunbe, a 
flame ; see flanie. 

flame. (F. - L. ) O. F. flame, flamme ; 
also flambe, — L. flamma ( t^t flag-ma), a 
flame ; from the base flag-, to bum ; cf. 
flagrare. See Flagrant. 

flamen. (L.) L. fldmen, a priest of 
Rome. Prob. iox flag-men ♦, he who bums 
the sacrifice. 

flamingo. (Span.-Prov.-L.) Span. 
flamenco, a flamingo; but said to be a 
Provcn9al word. The F, form is flamant, 
lit. ' flaming,' but it was certainly confused 
^th F. Fktmand, a Fleming', whence the 
peculiar foma of the Span, word seems to 
be due. Still, the et3rmology b certainly 
from L. flamma, a flame ; from the fiame- 
}ike colour of th& bird. 
J^TaJJ; see JPlagalM^ 


Flflike, k thin slice. (Scand.) Norw. 
flaJt, a slice, an ice-floe; cf. led, flaJhui, 
flagna, to flake ofij Swed.^flgw, a flake. 
Allied to Flay. 

flag (4), a paving-stone. (Scand.) Tcel. 
flaga, a flag or slab of stone ; SwG^.flaga, 
a flake. A weakened form of flake. 

flaw, a crack. (Scand.) M. 'E.flawe. — 
Swed. flaga, a crack, flaw, also, a flake 
(as above). 

flitch, side of bacon. (E.) M. E. 
flicche. A. S.flicce. + lce\. flikki, a flitch ; 
flik, a flap, tatter. Orig. a thin slice; 
weakened form of Flake. 

floe, a flake of ice. (Dan.) T>an.flage; 
as in iis-Jlage, an ice-floe, lit. * ice-flake.* . 
Flamoeau, Flame ; see Flagrant. 
Flamen, Flamingo ; see Flagrant. 
Flange ; see below. 
Flank, the side. (F.-L.) Y.flanc, lit 
the * weak * part of the body. — L. flaccus, 
soft ; with inserted n as in jongleur from 
ioculatorem ; see Flaccid. % Cf. G. weiche, 
softness ; also, the side. 

flange. (F. — L.) The same as prov. 
E. flanck, a projection ; which, again, is a 
weakened form oi flank ; hence it means ' a 
rim projecting on one side.' 

flunkey, a footman. (F. — L.) Modem. 
From Y.flanquer, to flank, run by the side 
of, support, be at hand. — F.yfawr, side. 
Flannel. (W.) Prov. E. flanncn, a 
better form. — W. gwlanen, flannel, from 
gwlan, wool. Allied to "Wool. 
Flap, to beat with the wings. (E.) 
M. E. flappen, to beat ; not in A. S. A 
variant oiflcLck, to beat ; see Flag (i). + 
TiM. flappen, to flap. "Dex, flabby (flappy). 
Flare ; see below. 

Flash, to blaze. (Scand.) Swed. dial. 
flasa, to bum violently ; Icel. flasa, to 
rQ&Yi,flcu, a swift mshing. 

flare. (Scand.) Norweg. flara, to 
blaze; the same as Swed. dial, flasa 

Flask. (LowL.?) A.S,flasc; we also 
find Icel. flaska, Dsin.flaske, Svfcd.flaska, 
G. flasche; but hardly a Teut. word.— 
Low L. flcucay a flask ; cf. also W. fflasg, 
Gzx\.flcug. Remoter origin uncertain. 

flagon. (F.— Low L.) O.Y. flcLcon, 
another form oiflascon.^ljyvf 'L.flasconem, 
ace. of flcuco, a flask. — Low L. flasca 

Flat. (Scand.) M. E. flat. - Icel. flatr, 
SvredL,flat, T>z.n.flad. 
Flatter. (F.-^Scvod.^ M.E. fiateren. 


a frequent, fonn.— O. F. >fa/^r, to flatter, 
stroke gently ; from the huscjlak; seen in 
O. Swcd. fleckra^ to flatter, Swed. dial. 
fleka, to caress ; cf. M. £. flakken^ to move 
to and fro ; see Slag (i). 

Flatulent, windy. (F.-L.) Y, flatu- 
lent, — Low L. flatuUntus. — L. flatus, 
breath. —L.^fT, to blow ; see Blow (i). 
Inflate. (L.) From pp. of L. in-flartt 
to blow into, puff up. 

Flaunt, to display ostentatiously. 
(Scand. ?) It seems to have been particu- 
larly used of the display of fluttering 
plumes, &c. — Swed. ^loX^flanka, to waver; 
allied to flakka, to waver, answering to 
M. Y..flakken\ see Flag (i). 

Flavour. (Low L. — L.) The sense of 
taste or scent seems to have been adapted 
from the older sense of ' hue ' or ' appear- 
ance.'— Low "L-flauor, golden coin, yellow- 
ness. — \,.flauust yellow, gold-coloured. 

Flaw; see Flake. 

Flax, a plant. (E.) A. S. fleax, + Du. 
vlas^ Q. flocks. Allied to Goth, flakta, a 
plaiting, Gk. itKkKuv, to weave. 

Flay, to strip off skin. (E.) M. E. 
flean. A S. fledn, to flay. + Icel. fld, pt. 
t. i^, ^\i.fleginn. Allied to Flake, q. v. 

Flea ; see Fly. 

Fleam, a lancet , see Phlebotomy. 

Fleck, a spot. (Scand.) M. E. flek.^^ 
^l<x\. flekkr, a spot; Jlekka^ to stain; 
Swed. flacky a spot. + ^u* ^l^^* G. fleck. 
From the base FLAK, to strike, dab ; cf. 
L. p/a^a, a blow. (V PLAK.) 

Flection : see Flexible. 

Fledge, Flee ; see Fly. 

Fleece. (E.) M.E. flees. A.S.yfi^j. + 
Du. v/ies, G.fliess. Cf Flesh. 

Fleer, to mock. (Scand.) M. E.flerien, 
— Norw. yf«>a, to titter, giggle; also spelt 
fltsa; Syfed.flissa, to titter. 

Fleet (i), a number of ships ; see Float. 

Fleet (a), a creek ; see Float. 

Fleet (3), swift; Fleet (4), to move 
swiftly ; see Float. 

Flesh. (E) M.E. flcsck. A. S. /ixr, flesh. 
'^Icel. flesk, bacon ; Dasi.fleskf Svfcd.fldsk, 
bacon ; G.fletsck. Prob. allied to Flake. 

Fleur-de-lis ; see Floral. 

Flexible. (F. - L.) F. flexidle, - 
X:flexibilis, easily bent. — L.yf^j:tfj, pp. of 
fiectere, to bend. Der. in-flexible, 

circumflex. (L.) L. syllaba circum- 
flexa, a syllable marked with a circumflex 
(*) or •bent' mark.—L. circumflexus, pp. 
kA eimt»ifl^f/^/r, to bend round. 



deflect. (L.) L. de flee/ere, to bend 
down or aside. 

flection, a bending. (L.) Better 
flexion : from L. ZQcflexionem, a bending. 
— 'L.flexus, pp. oiflectere. So also^^x-^r, 

flinch. (F. — L.) A nasalised form of 
M. E. flecchen, to flinch, waver. — O. F. 
flechir^ to bend, ply, go awry or aside, 
flinch. •■L.y?(fr/^ir, to bend. 

inflect, to modulate the voice, &c (L.) 
L. inflecteret lit. to bend in. 

reflect. (L.) L. teflectere, lit. to bend 
back, hence to return rays, &c. 
Flicker ; see Flag (i). 
Flight ; see Fly. 

Flimsy, weak, slight. (W. ?) Prob. 
from W. llymsif sluggish, spiritless, flimsy. 
(For^ « VV. //, set flummery,) 
Flinch ; see Flexible. 
Fling. (Scand.) Swed. fldnga, to use 
violent action, romp, race about; i fldng, 
at full speed (taking one*s fling)- ; O. Swed. 
flengUf to strike. + l^an^ fl^^g^» to slash ; 
iflengf indiscriminately. AUi^ to Flicker 
and Flag (i). 

Flint. (E.) A. S. flint, + Dan. flint ; 
Swtd.flinta ; Gk. v\{p$os, a brick. 
Flippant. (Scand.) Flippant is for 
flippand, the O. Northern pres. pt. ; fliP' 
pand « prattling, saucy. — Icel. fleipa, to 
prattle ; Swed. dial. /ftr/a, to talk nonsense ; 
cf. Swed. ^z\,fliPf the lip. Weakened form 
of Flap. 

Flirt. (E.) Often ymiitnflurt, meaning 
to mock, gibe, scorn ; LowL Sc. flird^ to 
flirt. A. S. fleardt a piece of folly; 
fleardian^ to trifle. 
Flit ; see Float. 
Flitch ; see Flake. 

Float, to swim on a liquid surface. (E.) 
M. E. floten ; also fleten. The form float 
is due to the sb. jloat, from A. S. flola^ a 
ship. The verb is properly fleets A. S. 
fleoian ; cognate with Icel. fljSta, G. 
fliessen, to float, flow. We fin(f, however, 
the (derived) yexhflotian, A. S. Chron. an. 
1031 (Laud MS.). (V PLU.) 
afloat. (E.) M. E.onflote, i.e. on the float, 
fleet Ci)» a number of ships. (E.) M. E. 
flete^ a fleet. A. S.fle6t, a ship ; the collec- 
tive sense is later. — A. S. fleotan, to float, 
fleet (2), a creek, bay. (E.) Cf Fleet 
T})\X^\ fleet is a shallow creek, channel. 
M. E. fleet, A. S. fleSt, a bay of the sea 
(where ships y^oo^V 
fleet (3), smlt (JE.:^ ^xwq. K.^ 



Jledtigt swift; allied to Jledtan, to float; 
see flit below. 

fleet (4), to move swiftly. (E.) M. E. 
Jletefif to float, swim ; A. S. Jledtan, the 
same ; see Float (above). 

flit, to remove from place to place. 
(Scand.) l/l.'E. JUtim.'^SvieA, fytia, to 
flit, remove ; Dan. Jlytie ; causal of Swed. 
Jfytti, Dan. Jfyde, to float. 

flotsam, goods lost in shipwreck, and 
floating on the waves. (Law F. — Scand.) 
An O. F. law-term, barbaroasly com- 
pomided of the Icel. Jiot (as in JloZ-fundinn, 
loxmd afloat) ; and the soflix -sam s Icel. 
'samr = E. -somg in gamt-somef witi'sonu. 
Cf. Jetflam. 

flutter, to flap the wings. (E.) M. E. 

Jloteren^ to fluctuate. A.S. Jlotorian, to 

float about. — A. S> ^1?/, the sea; Jlota, a 

ship. « A.S.Jlot; steai^ of Jioi-en, pp. of 

Jleotan, to float. 

Flock (i), a company of sheep, &c. 

(E.) M. E. flok. A. S. flocc. + Icel. 

Jlokkr, Dan. flok^ Swed. flack. Perhaps a 

variant of Folk. 

Slock (2), a lock of wool. (F.-L.) 
O. Y.floc. — ii.floccus, a lock of wool. Cf. 
Lithuan. //(ZM^ir, hair. 
Floe ; see Flake. 

Flog, to beat. (L.) A late word; and 
a mere abbreviation oi flagellate, q. v. 
Flood ; see Flow. 

Floor. (E.) A. S. flSr. + Du. vloer, 
G. flur, W. llawr, Bret, leur, Irish lar 

Floral, pertaining to flowers. (L.) L. 
floraliSf belonging to Flora, goddess of 
flowers. — L.yf(C?r-, stem oiflos, a flower; cf. 
florere^ to flourish, allied to Blow (2). 

deflour, deflower. (F.-L.) M. E. 
deflouren.''0. F. defleurer,'mljoyi L. de- 
florare, to gather flowers. 

efflorescence. (F. — L.) F. efflorescence^ 
lit. * a flowering.' From L. efflorescere, in- 
ceptive form oiefflorere, to blossom out. 
(L. ef' = ex), 

ferret (2), a kind of silk tape. (Ital.- 
L.) ItoX.fioreUo, a little flower, also ferret ; 
dimin. ol flore, a flower. —L.^r^w, ace. of 
flos, a flower. 

fleur-de-lis, flower of the lily. (F.) 
O. F. fleur de lis. Here lis ^ Low L. 
lilius, corrupt form of L. lilium, a lily ; see 
flower and lily. 

florid. (L.) la.floridus, lit. abounding 
with lowers; hence rosy,^'L,flori', crude 
/brm of/las, a £ower. 


florin, a coin. (F.-Ital.-L.) M. E. 
florin (about a. d. 1337). — O. Y. florin, a 
florin. —ItaL^d^riw \^ florino), a coin of 
Florence, so called because it bore a lily, 
the symbol of that town. — Ital. flore, a 
flower; see ferret (2) above. 

floscule. (L.) L. flosculus, a little 
flower ; double dimin. oiflos. 

flour, finer part of meal. (F. — L.) Short 
for 'flower of wheat.* — F. yf^wr, short for 
fleur de farine, flour ; see flower below 
(which is a doublet). 

flourish, vb. (F. — L.) ^i.'E.florisshen. 

— O. Y.fleuriss-, stem of pres. pt. olifleurir, 
to flourish. — L.y?^r«f^/r, inceptive form of 

florere, to blossom. 

flower, sb. (F. - L.) M. "E. flour. - O. F. 
flour {¥. fleur). ^"L.florem, ace. oiflos. 

inflorescence, mode of flowering. (F. 

— L.) F. inflorescence. From the pres. 
pt. of L. inflorescere, to burst into blos- 

Florid, Florin, Floscule ; see Floral. 

Floss ; see Fluent. 

Flotilla. (Span.-L.) SpT^n. flotilla, a 
little fleet ; dimin. offlota, a fleet, cognate 
with O. Flflote, a fleet of ships, a crowd of 
people. Tnis O. Y.flote (fem.) is closely 
allied to L. flot (masc), a wave ; from L. 
fluctus, a wave; see Fluent, p. At the 
same time, the sense seems to have been 
aff*ected by Du. vloot^ lcs\. floti, a fleet 

Flotsam ; see Float. 

Flounce (i), to plunge about. (Swed.) 
Swed. dial, and O. Swed.]/?««jfl, to plunge ; 
allied to Flounder (i). 

Flounce (2), a plaited border on a 
dress. (F. — L. ?) Changed from M. E. 
frounce, a plait. — O. Y , fronser^ froncer, to 

father, plait, wrinkle ; fronser le front, to 
nit or wrinkle the forehead. Prob. from 
Low L. frontiare*, not found, but regu- 
larly formed from fronti-, crude form of 
frons, forehead ; see Front. 

Flounder (i), to flounce about. (O. Low 
G.) XVI cent. Nasalised form of Du. 
flodderen, to dangle, flap, splash through 
mire., Cf. Svred.fladdra, to flutter. 

Flounder (2), a fish. (Scand.) Swed. 
flundra, 'D?in. flynder, Icel. flyiSra, Prob. 
from floundering about ; see above. 

Flour, Flourish ; see Floral. 

Flout ; see Flute. 

Flow, to stream. (E.) A. S.flJ7van. + 
Du. vloeijen ; Icel.^<^, to flood ; L. //////, 
It rains ; Russ. pluite, to float ; Gk. TrAcctK, 


flood. (E.) A. S. JUd, a flood; from 
JUwdn (above). + I^u. vloed, Icel. fldd, 
Swed. Dan.yW, Oo^, flodus, a river, G. 
Jluth. And see Float. 
Flower; see FloraL 

Fluctuate ; see Fluent. 

Flue (i), a chimney- pipe ; see Flute. 
. Flue (2), light floating down. (F.-L. ?) 
Also called fluff \ cf. prov. E. fluke, waste 
cotton. Prob. a mere corruption oi flock 
(a), q. V. 

Fluent. (L.) From stem of pret. pt. of 
L. fluere, to flow. Cf. Gk. <pKiitiv, to 
swell, overflow. 

affluence. (F.-L.) F. afflumce.^l.. 
affluencia, abundance. — L. affluent; stem of 
pres. pt of affluere, to flow to» abound. 
(L, of' ^ad), 

confluent. (L.) From stem of pres. 
pt. oi confluere^ to flow together. So also 
eonflux, uom the pp. confluxus, 

defluzion. (ll) From ace. of L. de- 
fluxio, a flowing down. 

effluence, a flowing. (L.) From the 
pres. pt. oieffluere, to flow out. 

fluctuate, to waver. (L.) From pp. of 
fluetuare, to float about — L. fluctus, a 
Yf^yt.^'L, fluctus, old pp. ol flture, to 

fluid. (F. - L.) O. F. fluide. - L. 
fluidus, flowing. — L.yf«^r^, to flow. 

floss, untwisted silken filaments. (Ital. 
— L.) Ital. floscioj Venetian flosso, soft, 
weak; floscia seta, floss silk. — L.^«jr»j, 
fluid, loose, lax. 

fluor, fluor-spar, a mineral. (L.) 
The 'L. fluor (lit a flowing) was fonnerly 
in use as a term in alchemy and chemistry. 
^'L.fluere, to flow. 

flush (i), to flow swiftly. (F.-L.) Cf. 

flusch, a run of water (G. Douglas). — F. 

flux, * a flowing, a flux, also a flush at 

cards;* Coi. '^'L. fluxus, a flowing; from 

the pp. oifluere, to flow. 

flush (3), level. (F. ?-L. ?) This seems 
to be a derived sense; from the (level) 
flooding of land. 

flux. (F.-L.) O. F. flux, a flux.-L. 
fluxum, ace. oi fluxus, a flowing; orig. 
pp. oifluere, to flow. 

influence. (F.-L.) O. F. in/luenee, a 
flowing in, esp. used of the influence of 
planets. — Low L. influentia.'^'L. influent-, 
stem of pres. pt. of influere, to flow into. 

influenza. (Ital- L.) IXsX. influensui, 
influence, also used of a severe catarrh. A 
doublet oi induanoe (above). 



< influx. (L.) L. influxus, a flowing in ; 
see flux (above). 

superfluous. (L.) "L, superfluus,oyet- 
flowing. — L. super, over ; fluere, to flow. 

Fluke (I), a flsh. (£.) M. £. fluke. 
A. S.flSe, a kind of plaice. 4" icel. fldki, 
a kind of halibut. 

Fluke (2), part of an anchor. (Low 
G. ?) Also spelt_/?iw>6.— Low G. /?««>&, a 
wing ; cf. Swed. ankarfly, the fluke of an 
anchor. Prob. allied to fly. A fluke (at 
billiards) is a flying stroke ; cf. Du. vlug, 
quick, G.flug, a flight. 

Flummery, a light food. (W.) W. 
Uymru, llymruwd, flummery, sour oatmeal 
boiled and jellied. — W. llymrig, crude, 
raw ; llymus, sharp, tart. — VV. tiymu, to 
sharpen ; llym, sharp. 

Flunkey ; see Flank. 

Fluor; see Fluent. 

Flurry, hurry. (Scand.) Swift h^s flurry, 
a gust of wind.— Swed. flurig, disordered, 
dissolute; flur, disordered hair, whim; 
NorwcR.flurutt, shaggy, disordered. 

Flium (i), to flow swiftly ; see Fluent. 

Flush (a), to blush, redden. (Scand.) 

M. 'E, flus/ien, to redden (with anger).— 

Swed. disiL flossa, to bum, flare ; Norweg. 

flosa, passion, vehemence. Allied to Flaah. 

Flush (3), level ; see Fluent. 

Fluster, to heat with drinking, confuse. 
(Scand.) Icel. flaustra, to be flustered ; 
flaustr, fluster, hurry. Allied to Flush 
(2) and Flash. 

Flute, a musical pipe. (F. — L.) O. F. 
flaute, fleute, a flute ; flauter, to blow a 
flute, answering to a Low 'L.flatuare* (not 
found), to blow a flute, from L. flatus, a 
blowing. — L. flare, to blow; see Fla- 

flageolet, a sort of flute. (F. — L.) 
O. F. flageolet, dimin. oi flageoL with the 
^ame sense. — Low L. flautiolus * (not 
found), dimin. of Low la, flauta, a flute 
( = O.F.y?tftt/^ above). 

flout, to mock. (Du. — F. — L.) Bor- 
rowed from Du. fluyten, to play the flute, 
also to jeer. — O. Du. flttyt (Du. fluit), a 
flute ; borrowed from F. 

flue (1), an air-passage, chimney-pipe. 
(F.-L.) A mere corruption oi flute; in 
Phaer*s Virgil, x. 209, we tind^«^, to trans- 
late L. concha, a sea-shell trumpet 

Flutter ; see Floats 

Flux ; see Fluent. 

Fly, to float m a\T, (3L>> '^.'!L. jlegen» 
pt \.,fl€W. K.%,fitbg(xn^ ^\.A. jli&K^-V^^' 



vlUgen, Icel. Jljiigit, Dan. Jfyve, Swed. 
Jlyga, G. flUgen. Ct L. p/uma, a feather. 
(V PLU.) AUied to Flow. 

fllibuflter, a fieebooter. (Span. » E.) 
Span, filibuster^ a baccanier ; from tiie 
▼esfel vatd^^S^ptuk. filibote^ fiibde, a £ast 
ve«el.«£.^A0a/, a fast vessel (lit. flying 
boat) ; Beaiun. and Fletcher, Beggar's Bosh, 

IT. %. 30. 

flea. (E.) M. E. fi^e, pi. fieen. A.S. 
fiiA,fie6, a flea^-fDn. i^iiw, \tA.fi6, G.fioh, 
KvM,biccha, Lit 'a jumper.' C£ Skt/Zv, 
to swim, to fly, also to jmnp. 

fled^. to furnish with feathers. (Scand.) 

The ^.fitdged is now sabstituted for M. £. 

flegge^ ready to fly.— Icel. Jj>y^, able to 

flv. — \(x\,fi€ygfat to cause to fly, causal of 

fijtiga ; see Fly. Tier, fiedge-hng. 

nee, to escape. (Scand.) Icel. Jlyja, 
flaja, to flee. pt. X.fl§^i i^^Y..fUd) ; Swed. 
fly^ "Dzn, fye, to flee. Allied to Icel. 
fijdja, to fly. 

flight, act of flying. (E.) A. S. fiyhi, 
allied \o fiyge, flight. — A.S. y?«/^-, base of 
pi. of pt. t. oljfledgan, to fly. So also Swed. 
j?V*A G.fiucM. 

Foal (E ) M. lE..foli, A. S.fola. + Du. 
veuUn^ IctX.foH, Dan.y^/?, Swed. /Si^?, Golh. 
fula, G.fohUn, L. pulltu^ young of an animal, 
GlcwAor. (VPU.) 

filly, a female foal. (Scand.) lotV fylja, 

a filly, from foli^ a foal ; Dan. fol, from 

foU ; Swed, Jo//, fTom/d/e, + G./u//m. 

Foam. (E.) M.E.>w. A. S./i»i.+ 

ProT. G. faum; L. spuma. Allied to 


Fob. watch-pocket. (O. Low G.) An 
O. Low G. word, only preserved in the 
cognate H. G. (Prussian) fuppe, a pocket ; 
for which see Bremen Wort. i. 437. 
FooTiB, a point where light-rajrs meet 
(L.) L. focus, a hearth ; hence, a centre 
of fire. Cf. Gk. ^. light. (VBHA.) 

ftiel. (F. - L.) M. E. fewe// (Barbour). 
O. F. fouai/le, only found in fouai//er, a 
wood-yard ; Low 'L.focU/ia, fuel. —Low L. 
foca/e^ {\ie\.^l0. focus, a hearth. 

fU8e(3), ftL8ee(i); seefti8il(i) below. 
fU8il(i), alight musket (F.-L.) Orig. 
not the musket itself, but its fire-lock ; also 
gpelt fiise/, fusee, fuse, * Fuse, fusee, or 
/use/, a pipe filled with wild fire, and put 
into the touch-hole of a bomb;* Kersey 
(1715). — O. F. /««/, 'a fire-stecle for a 
tinder-box ;* Cot.— L. foci/e, a steel for 
kindling fire.— L. focus, a hearth; Der. 


Fodder; see Food. 

Foe. (E.) M.E.>0, K.S.fdk,fd; aU 
lied to fecgOM, to hate, and to Goth.^Viif, 
to hate. (VPL) Allied to Fiand. 

jGBUd (i), hatred. (E.) VL'E.fede, A.S. 

y^5, enmif^.— A.S. fdk, hostile (above\ 

Modified in roelling by confusion with 

feud{2).^G.fehdi, hatred;, 


Foetus ; see Fetua. 

Fog. (Dan.) Dan. fog, as in sneefog, a 
blinding fall of snow ; <S. fyge, to drift (as 
snow).4'IceL fok, spray, snowdrift, fjiik, 
snow-storm ; uomfo/t-inn, pp. of strong vb. 
fjiika. to be tossed by wind, drift 

Foible ; see Feeble. 

Foil (I), to defeat (F. - L.) M. E. 
foy/en, to trample under foot — O. Y. fouler, 
to trample on, also to oppress, foil, over- 
charge extremely (Cot). — Low L fu//are, 
fo/are, to full doth ; see Full (3). Der. 
foi/, a blunt sword, so called because 'foiled' 
or blunted ; foil, a defeat 

Foil (3), a set-off; see Foliage. 

Foin, to thrust with a sword. (F.— L) 
Obsolete. Lit 'to thrust with an eel- 
spear.'— O. F. fouitu^ an eel-spear. — L. 
fuscina, a trident 

Foison ; see Fuae. 

Foist, to intrude surreptitiously. (O. Du.) 
O. Du. vysten, * to fizzle,* ie. to break wind 
noiselessly, which b also the orig. sense of 
foist', allied to O. Du. veest, *a fizzle' 
(Sewel). So also Dan. fiis, the same, 
from fise, to fizz ; see Fias. 

Fold (i), to double together. (E.) M.E. 
fo/den, A. S. fecddan (pt. t. feSld), to fold. 
4-Dan. fo/de, Swed. f&l/a {=^f&lda\ Icel. 
fa/da, Golh. fa//han, G. fa/ten, AUied to 
Gk. isKUhv, to weave. (V PLAK.) Der. 
fo/d, sb., a plait; -fo/d, sufi&x, as in twO' 
fo/d, &c 

faldstool, a folding-stood. (Low.L.— 
O. H. G. ) Low L. fa/disto/ium, — O. H. G, 
fald-an, to fold ; stual (G. stuht), a stool, 
flauteidl, an arm-chair. (F. —Low L. — 
O. H. G.) F. fauteuil, O. F. fau/detueil 
(Cot.) — Low \b, fa/disto/ium (above). 

Fold (a), a pen for sheep. (E.) A. S. 
fa/d, also fodod, fa/ud. Not connected 
with fo/d (i), but with Icel. fjo/ (gen, 
fja/ar\ a board. 

Foliage, a cluster of leaves. (F.— L.) 

Modified from O. F. feui//age, from O. F. 

feui//e, a leaf. — L fo/ia, pi. of fo/ium, a 

leaf.+Gk. ^t/AAov, leaf. 

exfoliate. (L) From pp. of L. eX' 


foIiarCf to strip off leaves ; from ex, off, 
Joiittm, leaf. 

foil (2), a set-ofT, as in setting a gem. 
(F.-L.) O.Y.feuilli, a leaf, 'also the 
foyle of precious stones ;' Cot. See above. 
folio. (L.) From the L. phr. in folio^ 
vrhere/olto is the abl. oi folium^ a leaf, sheet. 
penoliate. (L.) Coined from L. pcr^ 
through ; folium^ a leaf. 

trefoil. (F. - L.) O. F. trefoil. - L. 
irifolium, lit. ' three-leaf.' — L. /n-, allied 
to tres, three ; folium^ a leaf. 

Folk, a crowd of people. (E.) A. S. 

f olc. '^Ictl. fdlk, Dan. Swed. fo/i, Du. G. 

tw/Jli, LJthuan. pulJkas, a crowd, Russ. polk\ 

an army. Allied to Flook ; and prob. to 


FoUide, seed-vessel. (F. * L.) O. F. 
follicuU, little h&g.^L. foUioilfis, double 
dimin. oifollis, a bag. 

Follow. (E.) lli.E,folwen, K.S.fyl- 
ganffyligan^ weak verb, to follow. 4* Du. 
volgen, lod, fylgfa, 'Dzxk.filgif Svfed./b'ija, 

Folly ; see Fool. 

Foment. (F. - L.) O. Y,fomenter, - 
L. fomentan, » L. fomentum, short for 
fouimtrUum, a warm application, lotion. — 
'L^ouere, to warm. 

Fond, foolish. (Scand.) M. E. fond, 
more commonly y^»-^^, pp. oifonnen, to 
act as a fool, from the M. E. sh-fonffonm, 
a fool. *i Swed.^Q^f^, a fool ; Icel, fdni, a 
standard, metaphorically, a buoyant per- 
son. Allied to G.faAm, standard, L. pan- 
nus, a bit of cloth. Thus y^-</— flag-like. 
See Fane. Hetfond-Uf verb. 

Font (i), basin of water. (L.) A. S. 
fant. * L. fontem, ace. oi fans, a fount. 
Allied to Foiind (a). (V GHU.) 

fount (i), a spring. (F.-L.) O. F. 
funt (F.font), — Ij. fontem (above). Der. 
fount-ain, O. F. funtaine. Low L. fon- 

Font (a). Fount, an assortment of types ; 
see Found (a). 

Food. (E.) M. E. yW^. K.S.f6da, 
what one eats. {^ FA,) Allied to 

foed, to take food, give food. (E.) 
hi.E.feden, A.S.fidani put for fadan, 
by vowel-change from ^ to ar»/, 

foster, to rankle. (£.) M. E,festeren, 
in "pp, festered, applied to wounds. A. S. 
fistrua, lit. fostered, fed (but in a bad 
sense). The spellingy2(r/^fory^j/^ris not 
uncommon; see foster below. 



fodder, food for cattle. (E.^ M. E. 
fodder. A.S.fddor,f6ddor'y extended lorm 
oifddaf food.+Du. voeder, Icel.^Sr, Dan. 
Swed.yi?</ifr, Q,f utter,, fodder, chiefly obtained by pil- 
lage. (F. — Low L. — Scand. ) M . E. forage, 

— O. ¥,fourage. — O. Y,forrer, to forage. 

— O. Y,forre {J^,feurre\ fodder. — Low L. 
fodrum, fodder. •■ Dan. and Swed. foder 


foster, to nourish. (E.) A.S.f6strian, 
yh, ^ A. S. fcfstor, nourishment; allied to 
f(fda, food. 4" Icel.^f/r, nmsing, fa^stra, to 
nurse; Swed. fostra, Dzn, fostre, to rear, 
bring up. 

Fool, a jester. (F. - L.) O,¥,fol (F. 
fou\ a fool. — 'L.follist a wind-bag; pp. 
folles, puffed cheeks, whence the term was 
easily transferred to a jester. Qi. flare, to 
blow. Der. befool, 

folly. (F.-L.) M. E. folye, - O. F. 
folie, folly.-O.F./<?/ (above). 

fools -cap, paper so called from the 
water-mark on it. 

Foot. (E.) M. E.>/, foot, pi. fet.feet, 

A.S. fSt, pl.///.+Du. voet, Ictl.fdtr, Dan. 

fod, Syfed.fot, Goth,fotus, G.Juss, la. pes 

[sitm ped'), Gk. vovs (stem voS-), SVi.pad, 

pdd, (VPAD.) 

fotlock. (Scand.) Orig. the Mock" or 
tuft of hair behind a horse's pastem-joint. 
The syllable lock = lct\, lokkr, A. S. locc, a 
lock of hair. Fet- is allied to Icel.y^/, a 
pace, sieptfeti, a pacer (used of horses); 
and to lct\, fStr, a foot (above). 

fotter, a shackle. (E.) M. E. feter, 
A. S. fetor, a shackle for the foot ; allied 
iofdt, ioo\..^l(x\.f;dturr, G.fessel, h.ped' 
ica or com-pes, Gk. WS17. "D&r. fetter, vb. 

Fop, a coxcomb. (Du.) From TiM. fop- 
pen, to prate, cheat ; fopper, a wag ; fop- 
perij, cheating {^"E. foppery). 

For (i), prep., in place of. (E.) Orig. a 
prep. A. S. for, for ; also, before that j 
allied to A. S. fore, before that, for ; see 
Fore. + ^« voor, Icel. fyrir, Dan. for, 
Syfcd.for, G,fUr. 

For- (a), prefix, (E.) For- has usually 
an intensive force, or preserves something 
of the sense ol from, to which it is nearly 
related. (Quite distmct from y&f^p-). A.S. 
for- ; \^. for- ^ fyrir-, Dsai.for-, Swed, for-, 
Du. G. ver-, Goth, fra-, fair-, Skt pard-. 
The Skt. pard is an old instrumental sing, 
of para, far ; hence the orig. sense is 
* away.' Der. for-hear, for-btd, for-fend^ 
for-go (misspelt fore-go), for-get, for-give. 




foT'lom, forsake, for-rwear', 

For. {z\ prefix, (F.-L.) Only in for- 
elcse (m\M^\t foreehu^ffr'feii, whkh 

Foraminated, perforated. (L.) FromL. 
foramin', stem oi foramen, a tmall hole.-> 
"L^orare, to bore ; see Bcnre. 
Woraj, Forray, a raid for foraging. 
Foray, forray are old LowL Scotch spel- 
ling of Forage, q.v., nnder Food, 
^irbear. (£.) From For- (2) and 
Bear. A.S.foriertin. 
Forbid. (£.) From For- (3) and 
Bid (3). K.S.forbe6dan. + G. verbieien. 
Force (i), strength. (F. - L.) M. E. 
force, fori, — O. Y. force. — Low L. fortia, 
strength. « 'L.forti-, erode form oi fortis, 
strong. (VDHAR.) 

oomfbrt, vb. (F.—L.) M. E. conforten, 
later comforten, — O. F. conforter, to com- 
fort. •■ Low L. confortare, to strengthen. 

deforce, to dispossess. (F.—L.) LegaL 
-• O. F. deforcer, to dispossess (Low L. 
difforciare), — O. F. ^- « des' » L. </«-, 
away ; and T. force (above). 

effort. (F. - L.) F. effort, an effort ; 
verbal sb. from F. s'efforcer, to endeavonr. 
— F. ^- (-sL. ex)\ 2XiA force, force. 

fort. (F. - L.) O. Y.fort, sb., a fort; 
a peculiar use of Y,fort, adj., strong. — L. 
zee, fort-em, strong. 

fortallce, small fort. (F.-L.) O. F. 
forte Usee, Lovf 'L.fortatitia; see fortress 

forte, loud. (Ital. - L.) Ital. forte. - 
L, SLCc. fort-em, strong. 

fortify. (F. - L.) O. F. fortifier, to 
make strong. — L. forti-, crude Iovol of 
fortis ; -ficare, iotfaccre, to make. 

fortitude. (L.) 'L.fortitudo, strength. 
^l^forti-s, strong. 

fortress. (F. — L.) M. 'E.fortresse. - 
O. Y.forteresce, fortelesce. — Low \..forta- 
litia, a small fort.— Low 1^, fortis, a fort ; 
"L^ortis, strong. 

£^orce (a), to stuff fowls ; see Faroe. 
Force (3;, Foes, waterfall. (Scand.) 
Dan.yiw, loi\.foss^fors, a waterfalL 
Forceps, pincers. (L.) "L. forceps, orig. 
used for holding hot iron. — 'L.for-mus, hot ; 
capere, to hold. 
Ford; see Fare. 

Fore, in front, coming first (£.) A.S. 

fore, for, before, prep. ; fore^foran, before, 

adv.^'Du* voor, Icel. ^n'r, iSssi.fbr, Swed. 

for, G. fvr, Goth./wni,, Gk. ap^, 


Set. fm. The orig. sense is ' beyond ; ' 
allied to Far. Der. fore-arm, -bode, -cast, 
"Castle, -date, -father, finger, foot, front, 
'go (in the sense 'to go before* only), 
'ground, 'hand, -head, -jud^, 'knew, -land, 
'lock, -man, -noon, -ordain, -part, -rank, -run, 
'See, 'Ship, 'Shorten, -show, -sight, -stall (to 
buy np goods before displayed on a stall), 
-taste, 'tell, -thought, -token, -tooth, -top, 
-warm ; all easily understood. 

afore. (E.) A. S. onforan, adv., in 

before. (E.) M.E. bifore. A. S. be- 
foran, biforan, prep, and adv. — A. S. be-, 
bi- (E. ^) ; foran, before. 

first. (E.) K.S.fyrst {^for-esf), the 
correct superL oi fore, with vowel-diange 
of to y.^lcd.fyrstr; Dan. Swed. fb'rste. 
former, more in front (E.) Not 
early ; XVI cent ; a false formation, to 
suit M. E. formest, i. e. foremost ; see 
below. Formed by adding -er to the base 
form- of A. S.form-a, first, really a superl. 
form, precisely equivalent to L. primus, 
where -m- is an Aryan superl. suffix. 

foremost, most in front. (E.) A double 
superl., the old superl. form being mis- 
understood. Formed by adding -est to 
A. S. form-a, foremost, first ; this gave 
formest, often written /yrw^j/, which was 
turned vaX.o foremost by confusion with most \ 
See below. 

forward. (E.) M. Y.. forward. A. S. 

foreweard, adj. — A. S.y^rr, before; -weard, 

suffix; see Toward. Der. forwards, 

M. Y..forwardes,vf)itTe -es is the suffix of gen. 

case, used adverbially. And see Further. 

Foreclose, to preclude, exclude. (F. — L.) 
Better ^^\t fore lose." O. Y.forclos, pp. of 
forclorre, to exclude, shut out. — O. Y .for-, 
from lj.foris, outside ; and clorre, to shut, 
from L. claudere. See Forfeit and Close. 

Forego, to relinquish ; see Forgo. 

Foreign. (F. — L.) The g is wrongly 
inserted. M. E. foraine, foreyne. — O. F. 
forain, alien, strange. — Low Ju.foraneus, 
adj., from 'L.foras, out of doors, adv. with 
ace. pi. form, allied to Y,. fores, doors; cf, 
"Lt^orum, a market-place, and E. door. 

Foremost ; see Fore. 

Forensic, belonging to law-courts. (L.) 
Coined from 'L.forens-is, belonging to the 
ioTxxoL.^'L. forum, market-place, meeting- 

Elace ; orig. a vestibule or door-way. Al- 
ed to "L. fores, and £. door. 
forest. (F.—L.) O. F. forest. — Low L. 
fonstOf a wood, forestis, open space of 


hantin;g-grotmd. (Medieval writers oppose 
the forestis^ open hunting-ground, to the 
parcuSy enclosed park.) — L. foris^ out of 
doors; adv. allied to "L, fores ^ doors. Der. 
fores t-er^ also s^^i forsier^ foster. 

Forfeit, a thing forfeited or lost by 

misdeed. (F.— L.) M-.'E. fbrfete\ whence 

forfeien^ verb. — O. F. forfait^ a crime 

punishable by fine, a fine ; also a pp. of 

forfaire, forsfaire^ to trespass. — Low L. 

forisfactuniy a trespass, fine; orig. pp. 

(neut.) oiforisfaeere, to trespass, lit. * to do 

beyond.* — L. foris faccre, to do or act 

beyond or abroad; from foris^ out of 

doors; wci^facere^ to do. See Foreclose. 

ForfencU Forefend, to avert. (Hybrid ; 
E. and F.) M. 'E.forfenden, An extraor- 
dinary compound of E. for-, prefix, with 
fend, a familiar abbreviation of defend. 
See For- (a) and Defend; also Fend, 

Forge ; see Fabric. 

Forget. <E.) From For- (a) and Oet. 
A. S. forgitan.-^Y)ii. vergeten, G. vergessen. 

Forgive. (E.) From For- (a) and Give. 
A. S. forgifan.-\rT>VL. vergeven, G. vergeben. 

Forgo, Forego, to give up. (E.) Bet- 
ter forgo. A. S. forgdn, to pass over. 
From For- (a) and Go. 

Fork. (L.) A. S. fore. - L. furca, a 

bifurcated, two-pronged. (L.) Low L. 
Infurcatus, pp. of bi/urcarif to part in two 
directions. « L. bt-furcusy two-pronged; 
from bi'Sf double ; furca, a fork. 

Forlorn, quite lost. (E.) M. Ys. forlorn, 
A. S. forhren, pp. of forledsan, to lose 
utterly; from for^, prefix, and leSsan, to 
lose; see For- (a) and Iiose. So also 
Dan. forloren, Du. and G. verloren, simi- 
larly compounded. 

Form.(F.-L.) O.Y.forme,^!,. forma, 
shape. (VDHAR.) 0.¥. forme also means 
'a bendi,* like E.form. 

confonxL (F.— L.) F. eonformer,^L, 
conrformare, to fashion like. 

aeforzEU (F. * L.) M. E. deformen, 
chiefly in pp. deformed. ^O. F. defforme, 
adj., deformed, ugly. — L. deformis, ugly. 
^iLde, away ; forma, shape, beauty. 

formula, a prescribed form. (L.) L. 
formula, dimin. oi forma, a form. 

Inform, to impart knowledge to. (F. 
•■L.) Y,informer,^'L,iu-formare,ioyxLt 
into form, mould ; also, to tell, inform. 

reforzzL (F.-»L.) F. reformer, to shape 
anew. — L.. fv-, again ; formare, to form. 



transform. (F.»L.) F. .transformer. 

mL. transformare, to change the shape 
of. Also uniform, multiform, &c. 

Former ; see Fore. 

Formic, pertaming to ants. (L.) L. 
formica, an ant 

Formidable, causing fear. (F.-L.) F. 
formidable. — L. formidabilis, terrible. — L. 
formidare, to dread ; formido, fear. 

Formula ; see Form. 

Fornicate. (L.) From pp. oi'L.fomic' 
ari, to commit lewdness, seek a brothel. 

— L. fomiC', base oi fornix, a vault, arch, 

Forsake. (E.) M. E. forsaken, A. S. 
forsacan, to neglect, orig. to contend 
against, or oppose. — L. for-, prefix; and 
sacan, to contend, whence the E. sb. sake. 
See For- (a) and Sake. So also Swed. 
forsaka, "Dzn, forsage. 

Forsooth. (E.) M. E. for sotke, for a 
truth. A. S. for sdfSe; where for—iox^ 
and sSt^ is dat of sd'S, truth ; see Sooth. 

Forswear. (E.) From For- (a) and 
Swear. A. ^. forswerian. 

Fort, Fortalice; see Force (i). 

Fortify, Fortitude ; see Force (i). 

Forth, forward. (E.) M. "E. forth. A. S. 
for^, adv. ; extended {romfore, before ; see 
Fore. + Du. voort, from zfoor; G. fort, 
M. H. G. vort, from vor. 

Fortnight ; see Four. 

Fortress ; see Force (i). 

Fortuitous ; see below. 

Fortune. (F.-L.) F. fortune. ^'L.for- 
tuna, chance. — L. fortu-, allied to forti; 
crude form of fors, chance ; orig. ' that 
which is brought,* horn ferre, to bring; 
see Fertile. 

fortuitoiiB. (L.) 1,. fortuitus, casual. 
^h. fortu- (as above). 

Forty ; see FouT. 

Forward ; see Fore. 

Fosse. (F.-L.) F. fosse.^L, fossa, a 
ditch. — L. fossa, fem. of fossus, pp. of 
fodere, to dig. 

fossU, petrified remains obtained by 
digging. (F.— L.) O. F. fossile, * that may 
be digged;* Cot. '^'L.fossilis, dug up.— L. 
f OSS-US, pp. oi fodere (above). 

Foster ; see Food (and Forest). 

Foul. (E.) M. E. foul. A. S. fill, + 
Du. zmil, Icel. ftill, Dan. fuul, Swed. ful, 
Goth, fuls, G. faul. Akin to Putrid. 

filth, foul matter. (E.) A. S. ^/S.* 
A. S.ftil, foul (by vowel-change of u toy). 



foumart, a polecat. (£. onttF.) M. £. 
fulmart\ comp. of M. £. ftU, foal (as 
above), and O. F. marte, tnartre, a marten ; 
see Marten. 

Found (i), to lay a foundation; see 

Found (3), to cast metals. (F. - L.) 
O. ¥, fondre.'^'L, futuUrCt to pour, cast 
metals. (VGHU.) 

font (2), fount, an assortment of types. 
(F. — L.) O. Y.fonte, a casting of metals. 
— O. F. fondre, to cast (above). And see 
Fuse (1). 

Founder ; see Fund. 

Foundling ; see Find. 

Fount (1), a spring; see Font (i). 

Fount (a) ; see under Found (2). 

Four. (E.) M. E. feowur, fewer, four, 
A. S. frhuer. + Icel. /jSrir, Dan. fire, 
Svied. /jfra, Du. tner, Gom. fidwor, G. vier, 
W. pedwar, Gael, ceithir, L. quatuor, Gk. 
T4rrap€s, riaaapti, iriavp€s, Russ. chetvero, 
Skt. chatvar, (Aryan type, kiuatwar.) Der. 
four-ik, A. S. fe^rpa ; four-teen, A. S. 
foSwertyne ; for^ty, A. S,/ehvertig. 

fartiiing, fourth part of a penny. (E.) 
M. E. firtking. A. S. fer\ing, feor^ing, 
older iormfeor^Iing.^ K. S.fe6r6-a, fourth ; 
with double dimin. suffix -l-ing, 

fbrkin, the fourth part of a barrel. (O. 
Du.) From Du. vier, four; with suffix 
'kin (as in kilder-kin) answering to the O. 
Du. double dimin. suffix -k-en (G. -ck-en 
in mddchen), 

fortnight, two weeks. (E.) M. "E./ourte- 
night; zS&o fourten night. '^yi. "E,, fourten, 
i.e. fourteen; nighty old pi., i.e. nights. 
A. S.fehvertyne niht. So also sennight =■ 
seven night, 

FowL (E.) M. E. foul, A. S. fugol, a 
bird. + Du. vogel, Icel. fugl, Dan. fugl, 
Swed.fogel, Goth. /ugls, G. vcge/. 

Fox. (E.) A. S. fox, + Du. vos, Icel. 
foxifda, Goth..fouh!f, G.fuchs. 

foxglove. (E.) A. S. foxes glofo, \, e. 
fox's glove ; a fanciful name. 

vixen. (E.) M. E. vixen, fixen, a she- 
fox ; answering to A. ^.fyx-en, made from 
fox by vowel-change of o to y, with fem. 
suffix -en; precis^y as A. S. gyden, a 
goddess, from god^ a god. 

Fracas. (F. — ItaL— L.) F. fo^acas, a 
crash. — F. fixuasser, to shatter. — ItaL 
fracassare^ to break in pieces. — Ital. fra, 
prep., among ; and cassare, to break (imi- 
tated from L. interrumpere), Cassare 'm'L, 
quassare, to shatter ; see Quasld 


Fraction, Fracture ; see Fragile. 
Fractious, peevish. (E.) A prov. E. 
word, from North. E. fratch^ to squabble, 
chide ; the same as M. E. fracchen^ to 
creak as a cart. % Not ixomL,. frangere. 
Fragile. (F. - L.) F. fragile. - L. 
fragilis, easily broken.— L.^^t^-, base of 
frangere, to break. 

defiray. (F.-L.) O.F. defrayer, to 
pay expenses. — O. F. de^ ( = L. dis-^ ; 
frait, expense (pi. frai3s »ui<A, F. frais) ; 
from Low L. fractum, ace. oi fractus, ex- 
pense (Ducange). The Low L. fractus is 
from h.fraetus,pp. of frangere, to break. 

fraction. (F.-L.) F. fraetion.^L, 
ace. fractionem, a breaking.— L. yhur/tu, 
pp. oi frangere, to break. 

fracture. (F.-L.) O.T. fracture,^ 
'L.fractura, a breach. — L.^ar/i/j, pp. of 
frangere, to break. 

fragment. (F. - L.) F. fragment.'^ 
\,. fragmentum, a broken piece. — L./«x^- 
(base oi frangere') ; with suffix -mentum. 

frail. (F. - L.) M. E. freel, - O. F. 
fraile, brittle. — L./nzg77fw, ace. oi fragilis; 
see fragile above. 

frangible. (L.) Late L. frangibilis, 
breakable ; a coined word. — L. frangere, 
to break. 

infraction, violation of law. (F.-L.) 
F. infraction, — L. ace. infractionem, a 
weakening, breaking into.— L. infractus, 
pp. of in-fringere (below). 

infringe. (L.) L. infringere, to 
break into, violate law. 

irrefragable, not to be refuted. (F. — 
L.) F. irrefragable. — L. irrefragabilis, not 
to be withstood. — L. ir- ( = in, not) ; re- 
frdgari, to oppose, thwart ; from re-, back, 
and (probably) L. frag-, base oi frangere, 
to break. (For the long a, cf. L. suf 
frdgium, prob. from the same root.) 

refract, to bend back rays of light. 
(L.) L. refractus, pp. of refringere, to 
bend back. Der. rejract-or-y, a mistaken 
form for refractary, from L. rcfractarius, 
stubborn, obstinate. Also refrangible, a 
mistaken form for refringible. 

refrain (2), the burden of a song. 
(F. — L.) F. refrain ; so also Prov. 
refranhs, a refrain, ref ranker, refrenhcr, to 
repeat. So called from frequent repetition ; 
the O. F. refreindre, to pull back, is the 
same word as Prov. refrenher, to repeat ; 
both are from L. refringere, to break back 
(pull back, hence, come back to, repeat). 
The word is rather Prov. than F. 


Frafiprant. (F. — L.) F. fragrant. — L. 
frxigraniem, ace. oi f/xigranst pres. pt. of 
fragrare, to emit an odour. 
Frail ; see Fragile. 
Prcune, to construct. (E.) ^i.'E.fremm. 
A. S. fremmattf to promote, effect, do, lit. 
to further. — A. S. /nzw, strong, good, lit. 
forward. ■■ A. S. /nz/w, prep., from, away; 
see From. + Icel. fremiay to further, from 
framr^ adj., forward, fram^ adv., forward, 
allied to frd^ from. D&r. frames sb. 
Frampold, quarrelsome. (C.) Obsolete. 
Also frampold. — W. ffromfol, passionate ; 
UoTViffromi, to fume, IttUffrom^ testy. 
Franc, Franchise ; see Frank. 
Frangible ; see Fragile. 
Frank, free. (F.-Low L.-O.H.G.) 
O. F. franc \ Low L. francus^ free. — 
("). H. O. franko, a free man, a Frank. 
The Franks were a Germanic people. 

franc, a French coin. (F. — G.) M. E. 
frank.^0. Y. franc ; named from its being 
French^ i. e. Frankish. 

franchise. (F.-G.) l/l.Y., franchise, 
■- O. F. franchise^ privileged liberty. — 
O. Y.franchis', stem of pres. pt. oifranchir, 
to free.— O.F. /rawtf, free (above). Der. 
disfranchise, en-franchise. 

frankincense. (^/L.) O.F. 
franc encens, pure incense; see Frank 
(above) and Inoense. 

franklin, a freeholder. (F.-G.) M. E. 
fixtnkelein. — O. F. frankeleyn ( = franche- 
Uyn^ ; Low L. franchilanus. ■■ Low L. 
francus, free ; see Frank (above). The 
suffix is from O. H. G. -line ( = E. -hing as 
in dar-ling) ; precisely as in chamberlain. 
Frantic ; see Frensy. 
Fraternal. (F. - L.) O. F. fratemel. 
— Low L. fratemcUis, the same as L. 
frcUemus, brotherly. — L. frater^ cognate 
with E. Brother. 

fraternity. (F. - L.) O. F. fratemite. 
•-L. ace. fratemitatem, brotherhood. —L. 
fraiemus, brotherly. — L. f rater, brother. 
Der. con-fraternity. 

fratricide (i), murderer of a brother. 

(F. — L. ) O.F. fratricide. — L. fratricida, 

a brother- slayer. — L./ra/n*-, crude form of 

f rater \ -cida, a slayer, from cadere, to kill ; 

see OaMora. 

fratricide (2), murder of a brother. 
(L.) From la. fratri-cidiumf the killing of 
a brother. 

friar. (F. - L.) M. E. frere. - O. F. 
frerttfreire, lit a brother, ^l^fratrem, ace 



Fraud. (F. - L.) O. F. fraude, - L. 
fraudem, ace. of fraus, deceit, guile. 
Cf. Skt. dhilrta^ fraudulent ; dhvii, to 
bend. (V DHVVAR.) 

defraud. (F.-L.) O.F. defrauder.'^ 
L. defraudare, to deprive by fraud. 

Fraught, to lade a ship. (Scand.) We 
now use fraught only as a pp. M. E. 
frahten, fragtcn, only in the pp. fraught, 
'^^'wcd. frakta, to fraught or freight, from 
frakt, a cargo ; Dan. fragtc, from fragt, a 
cargo. 4- Du- bevrachtcn, from vracht ; G. 
frachtcn, from fracht. Origin uncertain. 

freight, a cargo. (F.-O. H. G.) A 
curious spelling of F. fret, the freight of a 
ship, the gh being inserted by confusion 
witn fraught above. — Y.fret, * the fraught 
or freight of a ship, also, the hire that's 
paid for a ship ; * Cot. — O. H. G. freht, 
orig. •service,* whence use, hire. This 
O. H. G.freht is thought to be the same as 
G^racht, a cargo. 

Fray (i), an affray. (F.-L.) Short for 
affray, or effray, orig. * terror,' as shewn by 
the use m. fray in the sense of terror, 
Bruce, xv. 355. See AfiPray. 

Fray (2), to terrify. (F.-L.) Short for 
affray ; see Af&ay. 
1Pray (3), to rub away ; see Friction. 

Freak (i), a whim, caprice. (E.) A 
quick movement ; from M. E. frek^ quick, 
vigorous. — A. S. free, bold, rash. + Icel. 
frekr. Voracious ; Swed. frock, impudent, 
Dan. frak, audacious, G. frech, saucy, 
O. H. G.freh, greedy. 

Freak (2), to streak. (Scand.) A coined 
word ; short lor freckle below. 

freckle, a small spot (Scand.) We 
find both frekeil and freken or frakn, — 
Icel. freknur, pi., freckles ; ^^^. frdkne, 
Dan. fregnct a freckle. Cf. Gael, brecu, 
Gk, vtpKvdi, Skt. pri^ni, variegated, 
spotted. Allied to Fleck. 

Free. (E.) M. Y. fre. A. S./r^<f.+ 
Du. vrij, leel. frl, Swed. Dan. fri, Goth. 
freis, G.frei. Orig. acting at pleasure, re- 
joicing ; allied to Skt. priya, beloved, 
agreeable ; also to E. Friend. Der. free- 
dom, A. S. fredddm. 

Freeze. (E.) M. E. fresen. A. S. freSs- 
an; ^^p. froren.'^lcQ\.fr;<fsa, Svfed, frysa, 
Dan. fryse, Du. vriezcn, G, frier en, L, 
prurire, to itch, originally to bum (cf. 
pruino, hoarfrost), Skt. plush, to bum. 

frore, frozen. (E.) A.S, froren^ pp* 
oifriosan (above). 




frOBt (E.) Hi, "E,, frost, first \ A.S. 
first (for/fw/). — A. S. fredsan (pp. fivren, 
for ,^j^i).4-Du. v^rr/, Icel. Dan. Swed. 
G^rost\ GoXh.frius, 

Ireight ; see Fraught 

Prenzy. (F. - L. — Gk.) M. E. frmesyt, 

— O. F. frenaisie, — L. phrenesis, — Late 
Gk. if>p4vrj(Tis = Gk. if>p€viTi5, inflammation of 
the brain. — Gk. ^pcv-, base of fpp^y, midriff, 
heart, senses. 

frantic. (F. -L. -Gk.) M. E.fiymtii, 
shorter form frentik. — O. F. frenatiqtu, — 
L. phrtfuticus^ phrenitutis^ mad. — Gk. 
^pwiriKoif mad, suffering from ipp€vtTis 

Frequent. (F. -L.) O.Y, frequent,^ 
"L. freqtuntem, ace oi frtquens, crowded, 
frequent ; pres. part, of a lost yexbfrtquere, 
to cram, allied to farcire, to cram; see 

Fresh. (E.) M. E. fresh^ also firsh. 
A. S. firsc. Here firsc ( "fir-isc *) orig. 
meant • moving * or * on the move,' used of 
fresh water, as opposed to stagnant water. 
—A. S.firan^ to move, travel; see Fare. 
+Icel. firskr^ fresh, frtskr, brisk ; Swed. 
'Dan. frisk, Dan.firsJk, Du. vcrsch, Q.frisch^ 
M. H. G. virsc, 

afresh. (E.) For on fresh or of fresh ; 
cf. anew, 

fresco. (Ital. — O. H. G.) A painting 
on fresh plaster. —Ital. //rjr^, cool, fresh. 

- O. H. G. frisc {G.frischy 

tcisTs^ to skip about. (F. — Scand.) 

From the sA], frisk, brisk. — O. Y.f risque, 

* friske, blithe, brisk ;* Cot. — Icel. frtskr, 

frisky; Swed./rw^, fresh, also lively, Dan. 

frisk, hale ; all cognate with E. fresh (above). 

r^esh. (F. - L. and G.) M. E. re- 

freschen.'^O.Y, refreschir; Cot. — L. re-, 

again; O. Yi.G. frisc (pcfn'sch), cognate 

with E. fresh. 

Fret (i), to devour ; see Bat. 

Fret (2), to ornament, variegate. (E.) 
M. E. fretien. A. S. frcetwan, to adorn ; 


irom.fratwe, ornament. Root unknown. 

^8^t (3)1 a kind of grating. (F. — L.) 

Common in heraldry. — O. Y.frete, a ferrule ; 

frettes, pi., an iron grating (Diez) ; fretter, 

to hoop;/r^///, fretty (in heraldry). Cf. 

Span, fretes, frets (in heraldry) ; Ital. fir- 

riata, an iron grating. — F. ferrer, to hoop 

with iron. — F.y^r, iron. — L.y5rrrK«r, iron. 

fret (4), a stop on a musical instrument. 

(F. — L.) Frets are bars across the neck 

of the Instrument; the same word as 


Prlable, easily crumbled. (F.-L.) O.F. 
friable, ^\m friabilis,^!^. friart^ to rub, 
crumble. Allied to Grhid. 

Friar ; see Fraternal. 

Fribble, to trifle. (F.) Vjoh. for f ripple; 
from O. Y.fripper, to rub up and down, to 
wear to rags. See Frippery. 

Fricassee, a dish of fowls cut up. (F. 

— Ital. I — L. ?) Y,fricassSe, a fricassee ; fem. 
of pp. of fricasser, to fricassee, also, to 
squander money. A fricassee is made of 
chickens, &c. cut up into small pieces. I 
suspect it to have been borrowed from 
ItaL fracassare ; to break in pieces. See 
Fracas. % Origin doubtful. 

Friction. (F.-L.) F. frittiorr, -L. 
ace. frictumem, a rubbing. — L. frictus, 
contr. pp. of fricare, to rub ; allied to 
friare, to rub ; see Friable. 

fray (3), to wear away by rubbing. (F. 

— L.) O.Y, frayer, to grate upon. — L. 
fricare, to rub. 

Friday. (E.) A. S. frige-dag; where 
f'^^^ is gen. oifrigu, love, also the goddess 
of love. Allied to Friend. (V PKI.) 

Friend. (E.) lli,Y.frend. A.S.frednd, 
orig. • loving,' pres. pt. oifreSn,freSgan, to 
\o\Q.^T>M,vriend; icel.frandi, from fr/d^ 
to love ; Dan. fninde, Swed. frande, G. 
freund; Goth, frijonds, a friend, pres. pt. 
oi frijon, to love. Cf. Skt. pri, to love. 
(V PRI.) Der. friend-ship, A. S. freSnd- 

Frieze (i), a coarse woollen cloth. (F. 

— Du.) F. frize, frise, * frise ;* Cot ; also 
drap de frise, i.e. cloth of Friesland. — Du. 
Vriesland, Friesland, Vries, a Frieslander, 
belonging to Friesland. So also cheval de 
Frise, a horse of Friesland ; whence fi4«i»«ar 
de Frise, spikes to resist cavalry, a jesting 

Frieze (2), part of the entablature of a 
column. (F.) O. F. frize, * the cloth called 
frize; also the broad and flat band that's 
next below the comish [cornice], or be- 
tween it and the architrave ;' Cot. Span. 
fiiso, a frieze ; cf. Ital. fregio, a fringe, 
lace, border, ornament. Origin much 

Frigate. (F. - Ital. ) O. F. fregate, * a 
frigate ;* Cot. — Ital. fregata, a frigate. 
Origin uncertain. 

Fright. (E) ^A,Y,fryght, h,S.fyrhto, 

fyrhtUyin^X;fyrht, timid. +0. Sax,foroht, 

forht, I)sLn..frygt, Swed. fruktan, G,furchty 

Goth, faurhtei^ fright, faurhts, fearful. 

Rool ^mVnovm. 


affright, to frighten. (E.) The double 
y is a modem mistake. M. E. af right, pp. 
affrighted. — A.S. dfyrhtan, to terrify; 
where the prefix d^G. er- ; see A- (4). 

Frigid. ^L.) L,. frigidus^ cold, adj.«i 
Jafrigerej to be cold.— L. frigus, cold, sb. 
^Gk. JJTyoj, cold. 

fHll, a ruftle on a shirt. (F.-L.) Orig. 
a term in hawking; a hawk ruffling its 
feathers, from feeling chilly^ was said to 
frill.^O. Y.frilUry to shiver with cold.— 
O. F. friileux, chilly. — Low l^frigidu- 
iosus *, coined from L. frigidiilus, chilly, 
dimin. form oifrigidus (above). 

refrigerate. (L.) From pp. of L. re- 
frigerare, to make cool again. — L. re^, 
attain; frigcrare, to cool, from/r/]^//j,cold. 
Pringe, a border of loose threads. (F. 

— L.) M. E. fringe. — O. F. frenge* (not 
found), oldest form of F. frange^ fringe ; 
the Wallachian form \% frimbic^ put (^by 
metathesis) for fimbric*. — L. jfimbria, 
fringe ; allied io/ibnif a fibre ; see Fibre. 

Frippery, worn-out clothes, irash. (F.) 
Stuff sold by z. fripier.^O.Y , fripier^ *a 
fripier, or broker, trimmer up of old gar- 
ments, and a seller of them so mended ;* 
Cot. '^O, ¥, f ripper, to rub up and down, 
wear to rags. Origin unknown. 

Frisk ; see Fresh. 

Frith, Firth ; see Fare. 

Fritter; see Fry (i). 

Frivolous, trifling. (L.) L. friuolus, 
silly. The orig. sense seems to have been 
• rubbed away ;' htactfritioia meant broken 
potsherds, &c. — L. friare, fricare, to rub; 
see Friable. 

Friz, Frizz, to curl, render rough. (F. 

— Du. ?) O. F. frtzer, * to frizle, crispe, 
curie;* Cot. [Cf. Span. /mar, to frizzle, 
raise the nap on frieze, from /risa, frieze.] 
Similarly the F. /riser is from /rise, frize, 
frieze; see Friese (i). Der. /rizz-le, fre- 
quent, form ; in commoner use. 

Fro ; see From. 

Frock. (F.-Low L.) M. E. /rok.'^ 
O. F. /roc ; Low 'L./rocus, a monk's frock, 
also spelt Jloccus (Ducange). Prob. so 
called because woollen ; see Flock (2). 
% So Diez; but Brachet derives it from 
O. H. G. hroch (G, rock)^ a coat. 

Frog (i), an animal. (E.) M, 'E./rogge. 
A. S. froga, /rocga. Also A. S. /rox, a 
frog, \a^./roskr, Du. vorsch, G^/rosch, 

Frog (2), a substance in a hoise^s foot. 
(E. ?) It is shaped like a fork ; perhaps 
a coirnptioa of /orA, q, y. Yet it was 



certainly supposed to mean /rog (though 
it is hard to see why) because it was also 
called a /rush, i. e. M. E. /rosh, A. S. 
/rox, a frog. See above. 

Frolic, adj., sportive. (Du.) XVI cent. 
Orig. an adj. — Du. vrolijk, frolic, merry. 
^G./rohlich, merry. Formed with sofiix 
'lijk ( = E. like, ^ly) from the O. SsiX. /rdh, 
O. Fries, /ro ( = G. /roK), merry. Der. 
/rolic, sb. and verb. 

, From, away, forth. (E.) A. S. /rom, 
/ram. -4- Icel./raw, forward, distinguished 
in use from /rd, from ; ^vicd. /ram, Dan. 
/rem, O. H. G. /ram, forth ; Goth, /ram, 
from ; /ramis, adv., further. Allied to Far, 
Fare. (-/PAR.) 

fro. (Scand.) The Scand. form.— Icel. 
/rd, Dan./rdX, from. 

froward, perverse. (E.) M. "E. /reward, 
commonly fraward (Northern). A. S. 
/romweard, only in the sense 'about to 
depart ; ' but we still keep the orig. sense 
of /rom-ward, i. e. averse, perverse. (Cf. 
wayward, i. e. away -ward.) And see 

Frond, a branch. (L.) L. /rond-, stem 
oifrons, a leafy branch. 

Front. (F.-L.) M. E. /nw/, forehead. 

— O. F. /ront, forehead, brow. — L. /ront- 
em, ace. oi /rons, forehead, brow. Allied 
to Brow. 

afi^ont. (F.— L.) M. E. a/ronten.^ 
O. F. a/ronter, to confront, oppose face to 
face. — O. F. a (L. ad), to ; /ront, forehead, 
face (above). 

confront. (F.— L.) F. con/ronier, to 
bring face to face. — F. con- ■= L. con- 
(cum), together ; /ront, face (above). 

eflTrontery . (F. - L.) XVIII cent. - F. 
effronterie, Mmpudency;' Cot. — O. F. 
effronti, shameless. — O. F. e/ ■■ L. e/ (L. 
ex) ; /ront, face. 

frontal, a band worn on the forehead. 
(F.-L.) O. Y . /rontal.^'L. frontale, an 
ornament for a horse's foreheaa.— L.^(Wi/-, 
stem oi/rons, forehead. 

firontier. (F.-L.) O. F. frontiere.^ 
Low L. /rontcria, frontaria, border-land. 

— la. /ront', stem ox/rons (above), 
frontispiece. (F.-L.) Misspelling of 

/rontispice. — O. F. /rontispice, ' the fronti- 
spiece or fore-front of a house;' Cot •« 
Low L. /rontispicium, a front view.— L. 
/ronti; crude form oi/rons ; specere, to see ; 
see Speoies. 

fix)ntlet. (¥. -Lh"^ Yox frontoX-U^^^m^su 
of firontal (aboNc). 

1 64 


frounce, to wrinkle, curl, plait. (F.- 
L.) The older form of flounce; see 
Flounoe (2). 

Frontier, Frontispiece ; see Front. 

Frore, Frost ; see Freese. 

Froth. (Scand.) M. E. frvthe. - Icel. 
froiSaf frauiS, Dan. fraade, Swed. fradga, 
froth, foam on liquios. 

Frounce ; see Front. 

Froward ; see From. 

Frown. (F. -Scand.) IJl.'E.frounen.f 

O. F. frogncr, only in comp. refrogner, to 

frown, lower, look sullen. Cf. Ital. itt' 

frigno^ frowning, Ital. dial. (Lombard ic) 

frignartf to whimper, make a wry face. 

Of Scand. origin ; cf. Swed. dial, fryna^ 

'^orfr.froynat to make a wry face; Swed. 

Jlina, to giggle. Compare "E.Jlecr, 

Fructiftr; see Fruit. 

Frugal, thrifty. ( F. - L.) F. frugal. - 
'L.frugalis, economical; lit. belonging to 
fruits. — L. frug-i, frugal ; orig. dat. of 
fruXf fruits of the earth. Allied to Fruit. 

Fruit. (F.-L.) M. E. /rwj/.-O. F. 
fruit, mmlj, fructum, ace. oi fructus, fruit. 

— L. fructuSf pp. oi frui {^frugui*), to 
enjoy; allied to Brook (i). (VBHRUG.) 

fructify. (F. - L. ) F. fructifUr, - L. 
fructificare^ to make fruitful. — L. frucH-, 
for fructus, fruit; ficare, for facere, to 

fniition, (F. - L.) O. F. fruition, 
enjoyment. Coined as if from L. fruitio *. 

— L. fruit'US, the same as fructus, pp. of 
frui, to enjoy. 

fi:xLmenty, Airmety, wheat boiled in 
milk. (F. — L. ) O. F. froumentSf • fuimen- 
tie, wheat boyled ; ' Cot. Lit. made with 
wheat ; the suffix -/ = L. -atus, made with. 

— O. Y.froument, VfhtaX.^lj.friimentum, 
com (from the base/rw « frug). 

Frustrate, to render vain. (L.) From 
pp. of L. frustrarif to render vain.— L. 
frustrd, in vain; orig. abl. fem. of obso- 
lete adj. frustrus ( « frud-trus), deceitful. 
Allied to Fraud. 

Frustum, a piece of a cone or cylinder. 
(L.)^ 'L. frustum, a piece cut ofif. Cf. Gk. 
0pav<rfia, a fragment, from 0pab€ir, to break 

Irry (i), to dress food. (F.-L.) M. E. 
frien. — O. F. frire. — L. frigere, to roast. 
+ Gk. </>p6ytiv, to parch; Skt bhrajj, to 
fry. (VBHARG.) 

fipitter, a kind of pancake. (F. — L.) 
M. E./ry/<ne/rg, /rt/oure, [Cf. F. friteau, 
'a fjitter, ' Cot.]^ O. F. JHture, a frying, 


dish of fried fish (also a fragment, Shak). 
-O. F. frit, fried. - L. f rictus, pp. of 
frigere (above). 

Fry (2), spawn of fishes. (Scand.) M. E. 
fri. •- Icel. fra, frj6, spavm, fry; Dan. 
Swed. Ao. + GoUi./nx/a/, se^. 

Fuchsia, a fiower. (G.) Named after 
L. Fuchs, German botanist, ab. 1542. 

Fudge. (F.-Low G.) Prov. Y, fuche, 
feuche (H^cart). — Low Q.futsch \ begone I 

Fuel ; see Foous. 

Fugitive. (F.-L.) O. T. fugitif^l.. 

fugitiuus, fleeing away. — L. fugit-um, 

supine of fuge re, to flee. + Gk. fptvytiv, 

to flee; Skt. bhuj\ to bend, turn aside, 

(VBHUGH.) Der. centrifugal, q. v.; 

febrifuge, fever-few. 

ftigue, a musical composition. (F.— 
Ital. — L.) Y. fugue. — Ital. fuga, a fugue, 
lit. a flight — L._^^, flight. 

refuge. (F.-L.) M. E. refuge.^Y. 
refuge. — L. refugium, an escape. — L. 
refugere, to flee back, 

refugee. (F.-L.) F. refugii, pp. of 
se refugicr, to take refuge. — F. refuge 

subterfuge. (F.-L.) F. subterfuge, 
*a shift;* Cot — Low L. subterfugium,^ 
L. subterfugere, to escape by stealth. 

Fugleman, the leader of a file. (G.) 
Put for flugleman.^G. flUgelmann, the 
leader of a wing or file of men. — G.yfi5(f<:/, 
a wing, dimin. of flug, wing, fiova. Jfliegen, 
to fly; niann, a man. See Fly. 

Fug^ie; see Fugitive. 

Fulcrum, a point of support. (L.) L. 
fulcrum, a support. — L. fulcire, to prop. 
Cf. Skt. dhru, to stand firm. 

Fulfil ; see Full. 

Fulgent, shining. (L.) From stem of 
pres. pf. of L. fulgere, to shine. + Gk. 
ip\iy€iv, to bum ; Skt. bhrdj, to shine. 
(V BH ARK.) Der. effulgent {ef « L. ex) ; 

ftifininate, to thunder, hurl lightning. 
(\^) From pp. of "L.fulminare, to thun- 
der. ^ h, fulmin-, stem of fuimen, a thunder- 
bolt {'=fulg'men).''L. fulgere, to shine. 

Fuliginous, sooty. (L.) 'L. fuliginosus, 
sooty, —L. fuligin-, stem of fuligo, soot. 
Allied to Fume. 

Full (i), complete. (E.) A.S./w/.+Du. 

vol, loA. fullr, Dan. fuld {for full), Swed. 

full, Goth, fulls, G. full, Skt fdma, Gk. 

vK^ptlh L. plenus, (-/ PAR.) 

fin, verb. (E.) A, S. fyllan ; formed 


Du. vullen, \qx\. fylla, T)axi,fyiJe, Swed. 
fyiia, Go\h. fulljant Q, fulUn, 

ftiim. (E.) U,1E.. ful/lUn, \S.ful- 
fyllan, -A. S./«/, full \/yllan, to fill. 

fulsome, cloying. (E.) lA.lLfulsum, 
from M. £. jful, full ; with suffix -sum ( « £. 
'Sonti as in winsome.) And see Plenary. 

Pull (a), to whiten cloth, bleach. (L.) 
Only (in this sense) in sh.fulier, a bleacher. 
A,S.fulleret a bleacher, —A. S. /«///««, to 
bleach. •- Low L. fuilare, (i) to cleanse 
clothes, (2) to full cloth. — L./«//<?, a fuller, 
bleacher. Perhaps allied to infula, a 
white fillet. (See below.) 

Pull (3), to full cloth, felt. (F.-L.) 
O. ¥. fouler, * to full, or thicken cloath in a 
mill ;' Cot. Also spelt fouler^ to trample 
on. — Low L./«//ar^, (i) to cleanse clothes, 
C 2) to full. — L. fullOf a fuller. (See above.) 
% The senses 01 full (2) zndfull (3) should 
be kept distinct ; the sense of felting is due 
to the washing of clothes by trampling on 
or beating them. 

Pulininate ; see Fulgent. 

Pulsome ;• see Full (1). 

Fulvous, Pulvid, tawny. (L.) From 
L. fuluus, tawny, fuluiduSf somewhat 

Fumble, to grope about (Du.) XVI 

cent. — Du. fommelen, to fumble. + Swed. 

famla, Dan. famle, Icel. fdlma, to grope 

about ; due to the sb. appearing as A. S. 

Jolnit tJie palm of the hand, L. palma \ see 

Pa m. 

Fume. (F. — L. ) O. Y.fum. — 'L.fumum, 
ace oifumuSf smoke. -fSkt. dhtima, smoke. 
(V DHU.) Allied to Dust. 

flmilgate. (L.) From pp. of L. fum- 
igare, to fumigate. ■■ L. fum-^ for fumus, 
vapour ; -igare, for agere, to drive about. 

mmitory, a plant. (F.-L.) Formerly 

fumiter.^Y, fumeterrc^ fumitory (put for 

fume de terre).^!^ fumus de terrd, smoke 

from the earth ; so named from the smell. 

perftune, vb. (F. — L.) F. parfumer, to 

perfume, lit. to smoke thoroughly. — L. /^r, 

thoroughly ;/«warif, to smoke, homfumus. 

Fun, merriment. (C.) XVIII cent. — 
Irish fmn, delight, pleasure, a tune, song ; 
Gael. fonn. ^ Distinct from fond. 

FuuaiilbuliBt, a rope-dancer. (Span. 
— L.) Fonnerly funamdulo.'^Span. fun- 
. amhulOf a funambulist. — L. fun-is, a rope ; 
ambul-are, to walk ; see Amblo. 

Function, performance, office. (F. — L.) 
O. F. function, ^\j. ace functionem, per- 
iormsmce, —2* /itfu/us, pp, of fungi (base | 



Arf» *o perform, orig. to nse.+Skt. bhuj, 
to enjoy, use. 

defunct, dead. (L.) L. defunctus^ i.e. 
having fully performed the course of life, 
pp. of defungi, to perform fully. —L. d€\ 
zxA fungi (above). 

perfunctory. (L.) L. petfunctorius, 
carelessly done. — L. perfunctus^ pp. oiper- 
fungi, to perform fully, complete. 
Fund, a store. (F.-L.) O. F. fond, 
'a bottom, a merchant's stock;* Cot.— 
L. fundus, bottom ; cognate with £. 

found (i), to lay the foundation of. 
(F. — L.) M. E. founden, — O. Y. fonder, — 
L fun dare, to found. — L. fundus (above). 

founder, to go to the bottom. (F. -L.) 
M. IL.foundren, said of a horse falling.— 
O. Y.fondrer, in comp. afondrer (obsolete), 
effoiuirer, to fall in (still in use) ; orig. to 
smk in. — F. fond, bottom. — L. fundus, 

fundament, base. (F. - L.) M. E. 
fundement.'^O. F. fondement, foundation. 

— L. fundamentum^ foundation. — L./i/i{i/- 
are ; see found (i) above. 

profound, deep. (F.-L.) Y.profond, 

— L. profundum^ ace. of profundus^ deep. 

— L. pro^ forward, hence downward ; fund- 
us, bottom. Der. profuiui-ity, F. pro- 

Funeral, relating to a burial. (L.) Low 
L. fumralis, adj., ffom L. funer-, base of 
funus, a burial. Der. funere-al, from L.. 
funereus, funereal. 

Funerua, a spongy plant. (L. - Gk.) L. 
fungus (put iorsfungus). — Gk.<r0(577O5, At- 
tic form of iTir6yyo5, a sponge ; see Sponge. 

Funnel. (W. ?) Perhaps from W.jynel,. 
an air-hole ; allied to W. ffyned, respira- 
tion, breathing, ffiin, breath. Cf. Bret.- 
founil, a funnel for pouring in liquids. 

Fur. (F.-O. Low G.) U.Y.. forte. ^ 
O. F. forre, fuerre, a sheath, case ; cf. 
Span, forro, lining lor clothes, IXdX.fodero^ 
lining, fur, scabbard. — Golh.. fodr, scab- 
bard, orig. * protection ;' Icti. foSr, lining ; 
allied to G. fuller, which (like Icel.y^Cr) 
also means 'fodder.' Allied to Fodder; 
the senses of feeding and protecting being 

Furbelow, a flounce. (F.) Prov. F. 
farbala, a flounce, in the dialect of Hainault 
(Diez) ; the usual form is F.Span. Ital. Port. 
falbala, a flounce. Origin unknown. 

Furbish, to polisk, tnm, yf .-O .^.O^ 
0. Y.faurbisS'f stem oi ^i«&. \X. ol JourUr^ 




to furbish, polidh. ■■ O. H. G. furpjan^ 
M. H. G. vurbertf to purify, dean, rub 

X^l; see Fardel. 

Furlong ; see Putpo^. 

Furloiigh, leave of absence. (Du. — 
Scand.) Also spelt furhe. — Du. verlof, 
leave, furlough ; borrowed from DvjL.for- 
lov, Swed. forlof, leave. Cf. G. verlaub^ 
furlough ; also Dan. orlov. p. As to the 
prefix, Du. G. wr-, Dan. for- are the same 
as E. for- ; whilst Dan. or^ Goth, us, out. 
The syllable lof is Icel. /^ (i) praise, (2) 
leave, the same as G. hb, praise, allied to 
£. Iiief. 

Furmety ; see Frumenty. 

Furnace, an oven, (F.-L.) M.E./?r- 
neis. — O. Y.fomaise. — 'L.fomacem, ace. of 
fbmax, an oven. — L. fomtis, an oven ; 
allied XoformuSf warm. Cf. Skt. ghamta, 
warmth, glow. Allied to Glow. 

Furnish, to fit up, equip. (F.— O.H.G.) 
O. Y.foumiss-f stem of pres. pt. oifoumir, 
to furnish, of which an older spelling is 
fomir, the same word as Prov. formir, 
fromir. — O. H. G. frumjan, to provide, 
furnish. — O. H. G. fruma, utility, profit, 
gain ; cf. G.fromm;good, Allied to For- 
mer ; and cf. Frame. 

perform, to achieve. (F. — O. H. G.; 
«/iVA L. prefix^ Corrupted from M. E. 
parfoumen, later parfoumun, — O. F. par- 
foumir, * to perform ; * Cot — L, per^ tho- 
roughly; and 0,¥, foufnir, to famish, 
provide (as above). 

veneer, to overlay with a thin slice of 
wood. (G. — F.— O. H. G.) G. fumiren, 
to fura^h orprovide small pieces of wood, 
to veneer. — F.y2wr««>, to furnish; a word 
of G. origin ; see above. 

Furrow. (E. ) M . E. forwe. A. S. furh, 
a furrow. + G. furche, a furrow. Cf. L. 
porca, a ridge between two furrows. 

furlong, 4th of a mile. (E.) A. S./wr- 
langf orig. a furrow-long, or the length of a 
furrow. — A. S./urh, a furrow ; Icmgy long. 

Further. (E.) Really the comp. of 
fore, but usually misunderstood as comp. 
of forth, M. E. fur^Ser, A. S. furfur, 
fu?Sor, further. — A.^.for-e, adv., before; 
with comp. suffix -iSor (Aryan -tar). + Du. 
vorders, adv., further ; comp. of z^^r, before, 
with comp. suffix -der-s ; O. H. G.furdor, 
from O. H. G.furi, before. So also Gk. 
irp6T€pos, comp. of vp6. "Der. further, verb, 
A. S. fyrtSran, formed from furSor by 
vowel-change of u toy. 

fiirthest, a mistaken form, made as the 
superl. oi forth, and due to a mistaken ety- 
mology oi further. The true superl. oifore 
is first. 

Furtive. (F. - L.) O. F. furtif, fem. 

furtive. — h.furtiuus, stolen, secret. — L. 

fuftum, theft. — L./«rari, to steal. —L./wr, 

a thief.+Gk. <^a/p, a thief, allied to <pipnLV, 

to bear, carry (away). {^ BHAR.) 

Fury. (F. - L.) Y.furie. - l..furia, 

rage. — 'L.furere, to rnge. {^ BH UR.) 

infuriate. (Ital.— L.) Ital. infuriato, 
pp. of infuriare, to fly into a rage. — Ital. 
infuria, Mn a fury, ra^ingly;* Florio.— 
L. f«, in ; furia, rage (above). 
Furze. (E.) M. E.frse. A.S.fyrs,'^ 
Gael, preas, a briar. 
Fuscous, brown. (L.) 'L.fiiscus, brovm. 

obfuscate, to darken. (L.) From pp. 
of L. obfuscare, to obscure. — L. 0^; and 
fuscus, brown. 
Fuse (I), to melt by heat. (L.) A late 
word. Due iofus-ible (in Chaucer),yf/j-iiW, 
in Sir T. Browne. — L,.fusus, pp. oifundcre, 
to pour, melt. Allied to Gk. x^***'* Goth. 
^»«/fl«, to pour. (-^GHU.) her.fus'ible 
(from O. ¥. fusible) \fus-ion. 

confound. (F.-L.) V.cotifondre.'^'L, 
confundere, to pour together, confound. 

confuse. (L.) M. E. cortfus, used as a 
pp. in Chaucer. — L. confusus, pp. of con- 
fufuiere (above'). 

confute. (F. — L.) F. confuter. — L. 
confutare, to cool by mixing cold water 
with hot, to allay, also to confute. — L. 
con- {cum\ together ; fut-is, a water-vessel 
to pour from, from the base/w-, to pour. 
See refate below. 

diffuse. (L.) 'L.diffusus, pp. of dif 
fundcre, to shed abroad ; (L, dif «= dis-, 

effuse. (L.) L. effusus, pp. of effun- 
dere, to pour out. (L. ef-=ex.) 

foison. pleniy. (F.-L.) O.F. foison, 
abundance. — h.fusioncm, ace. offusio, a 
pouring out, hence profusion. — L. fusus, 
pp. oifundere, to pour. 

fusil (3), easily molten. (L.) h.fusi- 
'Us, easily molten. — V..ftisus, pp. oifundcre. 

futile, vain. (F. — L.) ¥. futile. — L. 
futilis, that which easily pours forth, also 
vain, empty, futile; put for fud- til is ^ .^^'L. 
fud'i, pt. t. oifundere, to poui. 

infuse. (F. — L.) F. infuser. — L. /«- 
fusuSy pp. of infuftdere, to pour in. 

profuse, lavish. ^L.), pp. 
of pro fundere, to pour forth. 


refund, to repay. (I..) L. rc-fuuacrc, 
to pour back, also to restore, give back. 

refuse, to deny a request. (F. — L.) 
M. £. rtfusem^'mO, F. refuser (the same as 
Port, refusar, Ital. refusare, to reject). It 
answers to a Low L. type refusare*, formed 
as a frequentative of refundere, to pom- 
back, also to restore, give back (whence 
to reject), p. We may also note E. refuse, 
sb., O. F. refus, refuse, of which the orig. 
sense was probably dross to be re-fused. 
In any case^ the et)'mology is from re; 
back, vLoAfundere, to pour. 

refiite, to oppose, disprove. (F. — L.) 
F. refuter. — L. refutare, to repel, rebut. 
The orig. sense was prob. ' to pour back ; ' 
see oonfate above. 

BUffhsioxi. (F.— L.) Y. suffusion. ^1h 
sufftuionem, ace. of suffusio, a pouring 
ovcT.^h, suffusus, pp. of suffundere, to 
pour over. (L. suf- » sud, under, also over.) 
transflise. (L.) L. transftisus, pp. of 
transfundtre^ to pour out of one vessel 
into another. 

Puae (a), Fusee (i) ; see Foous. 

Fusee (a), a spindle in a watch. (F. *L.) 
O. Y.fus^e, orig. a spindleful of thread. — 
Low h.fusa/a, the same ; fern, of pp. offus- 
are, to use a spindle.— L./f/J'f/j^, a spindle. 
fUail (a), a spindle, in heraldry. (L.) 
Dimin. of 'L.fusus^ a spindle. 

J*asil (i)y a light musket ; see Focus. 

Fusil (a)y a spindle; see Fusee (a). 

.Fusil (5), easily molten ; see Fuse (i). 

Fuss, haste, flurry. (E.) The sb. cor- 
responding to M. ILfus, adj., eager ; A. S. 
f4s, eager, prompt + Iccl. ftlss, eager 
for, willing; O. H. G.funs, ready, willing. 

jSlst (i ), to become mouldy ; see below. 



Fust (2), the shaft of a column. (F.-I..) 
In Kersey (1715). — O. ¥. fusty a trunk.— 
'L.fustem^ ace. ol fustis, a cudgel, thick 

fUst (i),. to become mouldy. (F.— L.) 
In Hamlet, iv. 4. 39. Coined from fusted 
ox fusty, answering to 0,Y,fusti, 'fusty, 
tasting of the cai3c,' Cot. — O. Y.fuste, a 
cask, orig. a stock, trunk, log. — 'L.fustem 
(as above). 

fVistigate, to cudgel. (L.) From pp. 
oi\,. fustigare, to cudgel. — L. /i/j/-, stem 
oi fustis, a cudgel; -igare, for agere^ to 
drive, wield. 

Fustian, a kind of coarse cloth. (F. - 
Ital. — Low L. — Egypt.) M. 'E.fustane', 
also fustian. — O. F. fustaine. — Ital. fus- 
tagiu)\ Low la. fustancum. — Aivih. fustdi, 
another name of Cairo, in Egypt, whence 
the stufif first came. % Introduced through 
Genoese commerce. 

Fustigate; see Fast (2). 

Fusty ; see fust (1), under Fust (2). 

Futile ; see Fuse (i). 

Futtocks, certain timbers in a ship. 
(E.) 'Futtocks, the compassing timbers 
in a ship, that make the breadth of it ; * 
Kersey ( 1 7 1 5) . Called foot-stocks in Florio, 
s. V. stamine. The first syllabic is {ox foot ; 
futtocks is thought to be for foot-hooks, but 
perhaps futt-ocks ^foot-ocks (cf. bull-ock). 
Origin obscure. 

Future, about to be. (F.-L.) O. F. 
futur, itm. future. — l^.futurus, about to 
be ; fut. part, from fui, I was ; allied to 
Be. (VBHU.) 

Fu2zball, a spongy fungus. (E.) Cf. 
prov. ^. fuzzy, fozy, light and spongy; Du. 
voos, spongy. 


^abarcUne, Gaberdine. (Span.-C.) 
Spaa,gadardina, a coarse frock. Extended 
from Span, gaban, a great coat with a 
hood, allied to Span. caSaza^ the same, and 
Span. eahaOa, a cabin. Of Celtic origin ; 
see Cabin. 

■Oabble» to prattle. (Scand.) Frequent. 
of M. £. gabben, to lie, delude. — Icel. 
gabba, to mock; ^o^,. mockery. Cf. Irish 
cab^ gob, the mouth. Allied to Gobble, 

Gabion ; see Gave. 

Gable, a peak of a house-top. (F.— 

M. H. G. - C.) M. E. gabie. - O. F. 
gabie ; Low L. gabu/um.^M. H. G.gabele, 
G. gc^el, a fork ; gebel (G. gicbel), a gable. 
+ Icel. gafl, Dan. gavh Swed. gafvel, a 
gable, gajfel, a fork, Goth, gibla, a gable, 
Du. gevel. But it seems to be of Celtic 
origin ; cf. Irish ^^^/, a fork, gable, Gael. 
gobhal, W. gafl^ a fork ; see QafCl 

Gaby ; see Qape. 

Gad (i), a wedge of steel; see Goad. 

Gad (a), to roam; see Goad. 

Gaff, a light fishing-spear, a sort of 
boom. (F. — C.) A ship s gaff is named 



from the forked end against the mast; the 
fishing spear is hooked. — O. F. gaffe, a 
gaff, iron hook. Of Celtic origin. — Irish 
ga/, gafa, a hook. W. caff, a grasp, grapple, 
fork, gafael, a hold. From Irish gabh^ to 
take, cognate with L. capere, to take. And 
seeOable. (-^KAP.) Der.^jw/iv^t (obso- 
lete), a spear, W. gaflach. 

javelin. (F.-C.) O.Y. Javelin, *a 
javeling,' Cot. ; allied iojaveht, 'a gleave, 
dart,* id. Most likely orig. a pointed 
weapon with a forked end, such as could 
be made of a branch of a tree. — Bret, gavi, 
a place where a tree forks, Irish gaf, gafa, 
a hook, gabhla^ a spear, gabhlan, a fork of 
a tree ; Gael, gobhlan, a prong ; W. gajl, 
a fork, gaflach, a dart. (Irish M as Z'.) 

Gaffer ; see Grand. 

Gag. (C. ?) M. E. gaggen, to suffocate. 

— W. cegio, to choke ; ccg, the mouth. 
Gage (I), a pledge. (F.-L.) M. E. 

gage.'^Y. gage, verbal sb. from gager, to 
pledge. — Low L. uadiare, to pledge. -• Low 
L. uadium, a pledge. — L. uadi-, crude 
form of uas, a pledge. + A. S. wed, a 
pledge. See "Wed ; and see Wage. 

engage. (F.-L.) O. F. engager, to 
bind by a pledge. — F. en (L. in), in ; gage, 
as above. Der. dis-engage. 

Gage (2), to gauge; see Gauge. 

Gain (i), profit. (Scand.) M. E. gain, 

— Icel. gagn, gain, advantage ; Swed.^atjw, 
profit, Dan. gavn. 

gain (2), to win. (Scand.) Really from 
the sb. above. * Yea, though he gatne and 
cram his purse with crowns ; * and again, 
* To get a gaine by any trade or kinde ; * 
Gascoigne, Fruits of War, st. 69 and st. 66. 
But doubtless influenced byF. ^,^w^r, which 
it strikingly resembles both in form and 
sense. This F. gagner, O F. gaagnier (Ital. 
guadagttare), is from O. H. G. weidanjan =• 
weidcnSn, to pasture, which was the orig. 
sense of the F. word ; from O. H. G. weida 
(G. weide\ pasture-ground. Der. re-gain. 

Gainly ; see Ungainly. 

Gainsay, to speak against. (E.) The 
prefix is A. S. gcgn, against, whence £. 
Again, Against. 

Gait. (Scand.) A peculiar use of M. E. 
gate^ a way; see Gate. 

Gaiter, a covering for the ankle. (F. — 
Teut.) F. gu$tre, formerly gtustre. The 
spelling with gu shews the word to be 
Teutonic {gu = G. w). Allied to M. H. G. 
wester, a child's chrisom-cloth, lit. a 
covering ; Goth, wasii, clothing ; see Vest. 


Gala ; see Gallant. 

Galaxy, the milky way. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. gaiaxie.^0. F. gaJaxie.^'L. ^• 
laxiam, ace. of galaxias.^QV, yaXa^ias, 
milky way. — Gk. yakatcs' for ToXoifT-, stem 
of yi>Jt, milk. See IjacteaL 

Gale. (Scand.) From Dan. gal, furious; 
Norweg. ein galen storm^ a furious storm, 
eit gaUt veer, stormy weather. Cf. Icel. 
galinn, furious, from gala, to enchant, 
storms being raised by witches. 

Galeate(C helmeted« (L.) L. galeatu> 
— L. galea^ a helmet. 

Galiot ; see Galley. 

Gall (I), bile. (E.) M. E. galle. A. S. 
gealla. + Du. gal, Icel. gall, Swed. galld, 
Dan. galdc (for galle), G. galle, "L./el, Gk. 
X^^l- Allied to Yellow and Green. 

Gall (2), to rub a sore place. (F. — L.) 
O. F. galler.'^O. F. galle, a galling, itch- 
ing. — L. callus, hard thick skin ; Late L. 
callus, itch. See Callous. 

Gall (3), a gall-nut. (F.-L.) O. F. 
galle. — L. galla, a gall-nut, oak-apple. 

Gallant, gay, splendid, brave. (F.— 
M. H. G.) 0.¥. gallant, belter galatU, with 
one /. Orig. pres. part, of O. F. galcr, to 
rejoice. — O. Y.gale, shows, mirth, festivity. 
(Cf. Ital. Span. Port, gala, festive attire.) 
Allied to M. H. G.geil, m\iMv\, geilen, to 
be merry, Goth, gailjan, to rejoice. 

gala. (F. - Ital. - M. H. G.) F.- gala, 
borrowed from Ital. gala, festive attire; 
whence di gala, merrily ; cf. galantc, gay, 
lively. See above. 

gallery. (F.-Ital.-M. H. G.) O. F. 
gallerie, galerie, a gallery to walk in, also 
diversion, mirth.- Ital. galleria\ Low L. 
galeria, a long portico, gallery. — Low L. 
galare, to rejoice, amuse oneself; the same 
as Y. galcr (above). 

galloon. (F. or Span.-O. H. G.) F. 
galon, 'galloon-lace;' Cot. Alio Span. 
galon, galloon, orig. finery for festive occa- 
sions. — F. and Span, gala, festivity (above). 

Galleon ; see Galley. 

Gallery; see Gallant. 

Galley, a low-built ship. (F.) M. E. 
galeie. — O. F. galie ; Low L. galea, a galley. 
Orig. unknown. 

galleon, a large galley. (Span.) Span. 

galeon, a galleon. — Low "L. galea, a galley. 

gallias, a sort of galley. (F. — Ital.) 

O. F. galcace. -^lioX. galeazza, a hea\'y 

galley. — Ital. and Low L. galea (above). 

gaiiliot, small galley. (F.) O. F. galiote ; 
Low L. galeota, small galley. 


Galliard, a lively dance. (Span.-C. ?) 
Span, gallarda (with // as ly)^ a kind of 
lively Spanish dance, ^^^on. gallardo^ gay, 
lively. The O. F. gaillard meant valiant 
or bold ; perhaps of Celtic origin ; cf. Bret. 
galloud, power, gcUloudeky siiongtV/. ^a/iad, 
able, «i//, energy, 

GaUias ; see Galley. 

Galligaskins, large hose or trousers. 
(F. ^ Ital. — L.) Corruption of F. gar- 
guesquiSf greguespus^ * slops, gregs, gallo- 
gascoins, Venitians;* Cot. -"Ital. GrecAesco, 
Grcekish. — Ital. Gnco, a Greek. — L. 
Gracus, Greek. The name was given to a 
particular kind of hose worn at Venice. 

Gallinaceous. (L.) L. gailinaceus, 
belonging to poultry. ^ L. gallina, a hen. 
— L. gallus, a cock. 

Galliot ; see Qalley. 

Gallipot, a small glazed earthen pot. 
(Du.) Corruption of O. Du. gleypot^ a 
gallipot or glazed pot — O. Du. gleye^ 
shining potter's clay ; cf. N. Friesic gUiyt 
shining, allied to G.giattf smooth, polished, 
2md to £. glad. And see Pot. 

Gallon. (F.) M. E. galon^ galufu - 
O. F. galloftf jalon^ a gallon ; orig. * a large 
bowl ; * augmentative form of the word 
which appears as mod. F. jale, a bowl. 
Orig. unknown. 

Galloon ; see Gallant. 

Gallop. (F.- O.Flemish.) '^^- 
en; also spelt walopen.'^O, F. galoper.^^ 
O. Flem. wahPf a gallop. The word is 
due to a resemblance between the sound 
made by a galloping horse and that made 
by the boiling of a pot. — O. Fries, and 
O. Sax. walla or wallan, to boil ; perhaps 
with the addition of Flem. and Du. op 
( = E. up). Allied to E. w^//, verb, to 
spring up as water. Cf. £. wal-k, and Skt. 
valg, to gallop, from the same root. 
(,^ WAR.) 

Gallow, to terrify. (E.) King Lear, iii. 
3. 44. A. S. galwiattt to terrify ; in comp. 

Galloway, a nag, pony. (Scotland.) 
Named from Galloway, Scotland. 

Ghtllowglass, a heavy-armed foot-sol- 
dier. (Irish.) Ir. galloglach, a servant, a 
galloglass. — Ir. giolla, a man-sen'ant ; 
gleacaim, I wrestle. See Oillie. 

Gallows. (E.) M. E.^/aw, pi. A. S. 
galga, gealga, cross, gibbet ; whence mod. 
', the s bemg a sign of the pi. form. 
^ioA, gdlgi, Dan. Swed.^oi^, Du.^»^, 
Goth, galga^ a cross, G. gaJgen, 



Galoohe, a kind of shoe. (F.^Low L. 
— Gk.) F. galoche. — Low L. calopedia 
(see Brachet), a clog, wooden shoe. •» Gk. 
KoXortHtiov, dimin. of KaKfj/ftom, iraA<iivovr, a 
shoemaker 8 last •- Gk. koAo-k, wood ; voOr, 
a foot. 

Galore, in plenty. (C.) Irish and Gael. 
go Uor, gu Icor, sufficiently; from Itor, 
sufficient. , The particle go or gu converts 
an adj. into an adv. 

Galvanism. (Ital.) Named from Gal- 
vani of Bologna, Italy ; about a.d. 1791. 

Gambado ; see Gambol. 

Gamble ; see Game. 

Gamboge. (Asiatic.) A corruption of 
Cambodia, in the Anamese territory', whence 
it was brought about a.d. 1600. 

Gambol, a frisk, caper. (F.-Ital. — L.) 
Formerly gambold, gambauld, gambaud.^ 
O. F. gambade, * a gamboU ; ' Cot. — ItaL 
gambaia, a kick, wm Ital. gamba, the leg ; 
the same as Y.jambe, O. l\gambe, Late L. 
gamba, a joint of the leg. The true form 
of the base is camp>- (Diez), corresponding 
to Greek /cafiv^, a bending, with reference 
to the bend of the leg. Cf. Gael, and W . 
cam, cipoked. 

gammon (i), the preserved thigh of a 
hog. (F. — L.) O. F. gambon {Y.jambon), 
a gammon ; from O. F. gambe, leg. 

jamb, side-post of a door. (F. -L.) F. 
jambe, a leg, also a jamb (see Cotgravc>. 
See Gambol. 

Game. (E.) M. E. mme, also gamai. 
A. S. gamen, sport. + Icel. gaman, Dan, 
gammen, O. Swed. gammon, O. H. G. ga- 
man, joy, mirth. 

gamole. (E.) A late word, put for 
gamm-le or gam-lc, a frequent, form which 
has taken the place of M. E. gamencn, to 
play at games. — A. S. gamcnian, to play 
at games ; from gamen, a game. 

gammon (2), nonsense; orig. a jest. 
(E.) M. E. gamen, a game (above). And 
see Backgammon. 

Gammer ; see Grand. 

Gam.mon (i), preser\^ed thigh of a hog; 
see GamboL 

Gammon (2), nonsense ; see Game. 

Gamut. (F. — Gk. ; andh.) Comp. of 
O. F. game, gamme, and ut. Here gamme 
represents the Gk. ^an/jia (7), because the 
musical scale was represented by a, b, c, d, 
e,f,g, the last being ^=7. Ut is the old 
name for do, the ist note in singing, be- 
cause it began an old hymn to St. John, 
' Ut queant laxis^' &c, used in learning 



singing. Gamut is the scale, from 7 Cf) 
to ut {a). 

Gander ; see Goose. 

Gan^f (i), a crew ; see Go. 

Gkm^^lion, a tumour on a tendon. (L. •» 
Gk.) L. ganglion. — Gk. "fiiy^Xtov. 

Gangrene, a mortification of the flesh. 
(F. -i L. -i Gk.) O. F. gangrene. — L. gan- 
grana. -• Gk. yayy paivaf an eating sore. — 
Gk. ypaiv€iv, ypdiiv, to gnaw. {^ GAR.) 

Gkinnet ; see Goose. 

Guntlet (i) ; see Gauntlet. 

Gantlet (2), Gantlope, a military 
punishment. (Swed.) Formerly gantlope ; 
corrupted by confusion with gauntlet. 
Again, gantlope is a corruption of Swed. 
gatlopPf lit. ' a mnning down a lane ; * to 
run the gantlope is to run between two 
6les of soldiers, who strike the offender as 
he passes. — Swed. gatay a lane, street (see 
Gate) ; and lopp, a running, from Ibpaf to 
run, cognate with E. leap. 

Gaol, Jail ; see Cave. 

Gape. (E.) A. S. gedpan^ to open wide ; 
from gedpy wide. + Du. gapen, Icel. and 
Swed. gapa, Dan. gabe, G. gaffen. Cf. 
SVi. jabhf jambkf to gape. 

gaby, a simpleton. (Scand.) Icel. gapi, 
a heedless man ; cf. gapamu^r (lit. gape- 
mouthed), the same. — Icel. ^/a (above). 

gap. (Scand.) M. E. gappe. — Icel. and 
Swed. ga.p^ a gap, abyss. •■ Icel. and Swed. 
gapa (above). And see Gabble. 

Gar (1), Garfish, a fish. (E.) A fish 
with slender body and pointed head. From 
A. S. gdr (or Icel. geirr), a spear ; cf. 
Garlic. So also pike. 

C^ax (2), to cause. (Scand.) Icel. and Swed. 
gora, Dan. g/ore, to make, cause; lit. to 
make ready. — Icel. gvrr, ready ; see Yare. 

Garb (i), dress. (F. - O. H. G.) In 
Shak. — O. F. ^r3^, a garb, good fashion. 
— O. H. G. garawen, M. H. G. gerv/en, to 
get ready. — O. H. G. garo, ready ; cognate 
with E. yare ; see Tare. 

Garb (2), a sheaf (F.-O. H.G.) An 
heraldic term. — F. gurbe. — O. H. G. gurba, 
a sheaf. 

Garbage ; see Garble. 

Garble, to select for a purpose ; hence, 
to corrupt an account. (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
Grig, to .pick out, sort, sift out. — O. F. 
garbeler* (not found), the same as gra- 
Mler, to garble spices, or sort them out, 
one;, to sift. The same as Span, garbillarj 
ItaT. garbellare, to garble or sift wares. — 
Span, garbillo, a coarse sieve. — Pers. ghar- 


bilf Arab, ghirbdl, a sieve ; Arab, gharhalat, 
sifting, searching. 

garbage, refuse. (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
Prob. for garble-age^ see above. Cf. F. 
grabeaUy refuse of drugs (Littre). 

Garboil, a commotion. (F. — L.) O. F. 
garbouil, ' a garboil, hurliburly ; * Cot Cf. 
Span, garbtillo, a "crowd ; ItaL garbuglio, 
a garboil, disorder. From L. garr-ire, to 
prattle, chatter; and bullire, to boil, bubble, 
boil with rage. Thus the sense is * a noisy 
boiling,' i.e. a hubbub. Florio has Ital. 
garabullare, to rave. See Jar (i). 

Garden. (F. - O. H. G.) M. E. gardin, 

— O. F. gardin (F. jarditi), — O. H. G. 
gartin^ gen. and dat. of garto, a yard, cog- 
nate with E. Yard, q. v. (The gen. appears 
also in O. H. G. gartinare, a gardener.) 

Gargle, Gargoyle ; see Gorge. 

Garish ; see Gaze. 

Garland. (F. - Teut. ?) M. E. gerlond. 

— O. F. garlande, Cf. Span, guimalda, 
lta\. ghirlanda (whence mod. F.guirlande), 
a garland. Prob. formed, with suffix -andcj 
from M. H.G. wierelen*, a supposed fre- 
quentative oiwieren^ to adorn, from O. H. G. 
TuiarUf M. H. G. wiere^ refined gold, fine 

Garlic ; see Gore (2). 

Garment ; see Garnish. 

Garner, Garnet ; see Grain. 

Garnish. (F. — O. Low G.) Also war- 
nish. — O. F. gamis-t wamis-, stem of pres. 
pt. oigamir, wamir^ to warn, avert, fortify, 
garnish ; all from the notion of * wariness * 
or protection (hence decoration). From 
an O. Low G, source ; O. Fries, wemia^ to 
give a pledge, A. S. wearttian ; see Warn, 
garment. (F. - O. Low G.) M. E. 
gamemcnt. — O. F. garneme^tt^ gamimcntf 
a robe (defence). — O. F. garnir (above). 

garniture. (F.— O. Low G.) Y. gar- 
niture, garnishment. — Low L. gamitura, 

— Low L, gamituSf orig. pp. of gamire, 
to adorn, which is merely a Latinised form 
of F. garnir (above). 

garrison. (F.-O. Low G.) Confused 
with M. E. garisoun, warisoMtf a reward ; 
but the true form is M. E. garnison, war- 
nison, provision, stores, supply. — O. F. 
garnison, store, supply. — O. F.^r«£f-<w«/, 
pres. pt. of garnir, to supply, garnish 
(above). And see Warisoun. 
Garret. (F. - G.) M. E. garite. - O. F. 
garite, place of refuge, watch-tower. — O. F. 
garir, warir, to preserve. — O. H. G, warjan^ 
to defend. Allied to Wary, 


Garrotte ; see Garter. 

Garrulous. (L.) L.^m/Z/w, talkative. 

— L. garrirct to chatter. {^ GAR.) 
Garter. (F.-C.) O. F. ^f^/>r (North 

of France, H^cart), spelt jariicr in Cot- 
grave (F. jarretiire), — O. F. garret (F. 
jarret), the ham of the leg ; a dimin. form. 

— Bret, gar, W. gar, shank of the leg; 
Irish carttf leg. 

garrote, garrotte. (Span. -C.) Span. 
garrote, a cudgel, tj'ing a rope tight, strang- 
ling by means of an iron collar. Formed, 
.with dimin. suffix -ote, from Span, garra, a 
claw, talon, clutch, grasp. — Bret., W., and 
Com. gar, the shank of the leg. 

Gas. (Du.) The Belgian chemist Van 
Helmont (died a.d. 1644) invented two 
terms, ^^ and bias ; the latter did not come 
into use. He seems to have been thinking 
oCDvL.g/iegsf, spirit, volatile fluid (JL^ghost), 
and of Du. blazen, to blow. 

Gasconade, boasting. (Gascouy.) F. 
^asconnade, boasting \ said to be a vice of 
Gascons ; at any rate named from them. 

Gash, to hack, cut deeply. (F. - Low L.) 
Formerly garsh, garse, — O. F. garscr, to 
scarify, pierce with a lancet. -• Low 'L.garsa, 
scarification, by making incisions in the 
skin ; called in Gk. iyxapaiis. Perhaps 
corrupted from x^P^^^* ^Q incision. 

Gasp. (Scand.) Icel. geispa, Swed. 
gdspa, Dan. gispe, to yawn. Certainly 
from an old form gapsa*, extension oi gapa, 
to gape; see Qape. (Cf. M. E. clapsen, to 
clasp, £. aspen from A. S. ceps.) 

Gastric, belonging to the belly. (L.— 
Gk.) L. gastn'cus; from a cruiie form 
ga^tro; — Gk. yaaTp6't crude form of 
yaariflpf the belly. 

Gate (i), a door, hole, opening. (E.) 
M. E. gate, y ate. A. S. geat, a gate, open- 
ing + )d\x.gat, a hole, opening, gap; Icel. 
gatf an opening. The orig. sense was ac- 
cess, or ' a way to get in ; * from A. S. gvet, 
pt. t. oi gitan, to get ; see Get. 

gate (2), a street. (Scand.) Common 
in the North; it also means 'a way.' — 
Icel. gata, Swed. gata, a way, path, street, 
lane ; Dan. gade ; cf. Goth, gatwo, G. 
gasse.'^ Icel. gat, pt. t. oigeta, to get; see 
above. B. Compare G. gasse, a street, 
derived from O. H. G. keczan, to get. 
Frequently fancied to be allied to the verb 
to go (which is impossible), from its use in 
the phrases to gang one's gate = to go one's 
way, &C.; we might as well derive ivay 
from go, for the like reason! y. Gate (i) 



answers to Teut. type GATA, but gate 
(2) to Teut. type GATVVA (Fick, iii. 98) ; 
they are closely allied, 

gait, manner of walking. (Scand.) 
A particular use of M. E. gate, a way ; see 
gate (2) above. See also Oantlet (2). 

Gather. (E.) M. E. gaderen. A. S. 
gadrian, gaderian, to collect, get together. 
— A. S. gader, together ; also gador, 
geador. — A. S. gad, a company, society 
(whence also A. S. gadeling, a comrade). 
Allied to Good. + Du. gaderen, to collect, 
from gader, together ; cf. gade, a spouse, 
G. gatte, a husband. 

together. (E.) M. E. togedere.^h.S, 
tSgtzdre, tS-gadere.^K, S. td, to, gador, 
gader, together (above). 

Gaud, a show, ornament. (L.) M. E. 
gaude. — L. gaudium, gladness, joy ; hence, 
an ornament.— L.^fl«£r<rr^, to rejoice (base 
gau', as in gauisus sum, used as pt. t.) + 
Gk. yoUiv, to rejoice ; yaupos, proud. Der. 
gattd-y, adj. See below. 

enjoy, to joy in. (F. - L.) M. E. 
enioien, — F. en (L. in) ; F. ioie, joie ; 
see joy (below). 

jewel, a valuable ornament. (F. — L.). 
M. E. iowel, iuel.'^0.¥. joel, jouel (later 
joyau), dimin. of F. ioie, used in the sense 
X)f trinket ; see joy (below). ^ Early 
misunderstood, and wrongly Latinised as. 
iocale, as if it were a derivative of iocus^ 
which is not the case. 

joy. (F.-L.) M.E. jVy^.-CF. ioye, 
joye ; oldest form goye (F. joie) ; cf. Ital. 
gioja, joy, also a ^aud, jewel, Span./^a, a 
gaud. — L. gaudta, neut. pi., afterwards 
turned into a fem. sing. — L. gaudere, 
to rejoice (above). 

rejoice. (F. — L.) M. E. reioisen. — 
O. F. resjois', stem of pres. pt. of resjoir 
(mod. F. riljouir), to gladden, rejoice. — L. 
re-, again ; F. esjo'ir, to rejoice, from L. 
ex, much, very, and gaudere, to rejoice. 

Gauge, Gage, to measure the content 
of a vessel. (F. — Low L.) Spelt gage in 
Shak. — O. F. gauger, later jauger, * ta 
gage,* Cot. — O. F. gauge* (not found), old 
form of jauge, * a gage, instrument where- 
with a cask is measured;' Cot. Low L. 
gaugia (a. D. 1446). Doubtless allied to 
Y.Jale, a large bowl ; see Gallon. 

Gaunt, tMn, lean. (Scand.) An East- 
Angliaa word, and therefore presumai»ly 
Scand. Also spelt gant (1691). Cf. 
Norweg. gand^ a thin stick, a tall and 
thin man, an overgrown stripling (Aasen) ; 




S«cd.dtaL^m»,ftltti.Ul^tan«d bone* 

Omntlet. (F.-Scad.) O.V.ganuUi,' 
«doabledsmnLof^(iur/,a{;]a«e.— O. Svcd. ' 
iMmU, a gfove ; E^sl vamU, a nutten, IceL 
witfr iifjem vant-y, a glare. ^ Da. sxmkT, a 
wtkVbm. Prob, from THnnd, Terh. 

OsimUet; fee OaaOei ( 3). 

€haum, a thin silkea fdxic ^F. — ' 
PaUstioe.) O. F. ^u. Cf. Ltjw L. 
gcttzaium, gauze ; guztSum, wiae from j 
Gaza. Named from 6tf =«, in Pakstiae^ • 
whenoe it was first brought. | 

OareUdnd, a tort of tenore. TC.) Prob. 
SfMrlt as DOW hj coafcs:on with A. S. ' 
gdfifl, tiibste. Bot the word is Celtic. « 
Jruh gabhaiUintt garelkind, lit. 'family- 
tcmtre.' — Irish gahhail, a receiring, tenure, 
iirom gabhaim^ I receive; dm, a race, 
tribe, uuniljr. 

Chivotte, a dance, (T,) O. F. gtrcote. 
orig. a dance of the GavoUs, or people of 
Gap, a place in the department of the 
Upper Aip* (France). 

Oawk, a simpleton, orig. a cnckoo. (E.) 
M. E gowke, A. S. gedc^ a cnckoo. + Icel. 
gaukr, Dan. gu>g, Swcd. gok, a cnckoo ; G. 
gatuhf a cnckoo, simpleton. 

Gay. (F. - M. HL G.) O. F. got. - 
M. H. G. ^<?^ (G. jdhe), quick ; hence, 
lively. Orig. ' full of go.' - M. H. G. gdn 
(G. gehtn\ to go. See Go. 

jay, a gay bird. (F.-M. H. G.) O. F. 
jay, also gai, a jay (F. geai). Cf. Span. 

fa/tf, » jay, gaya, a gay stripe on cloth, 
famed from its gay plnmage ; see above. 

Oaae. (Scand.) M. lL.gas€n. — Swed. dial 
gasa, to gaze, stare at Cf. Goth, us-gn'snan, 
to be amazed. Allied to Aghast, q. v. 

garish, staring, showy. (Scand.) From 
the vtrhgan, to stare, variant ofgau; see 
above. Cf M. E. gauren, to stare, 
Chaucer, C. T. 5332. i4375- 

Gazelle, an animal. (F. — Arab.) For- 
merly gazel.'^O.Y. gazel, gazelle. '^Ki^h. 
ghaztil, a wild goat, gazelle. 

Gazette. (F. - Ital.) O. F. gazette, an 
abstract of news, issued at Venice. — Ital. 
gazutta, a gazette ; the orig. sense is 
either (i) a magpie, from IxaX. gazzetta, a 
magpie, dimin.of^a^za, a magpie, whence it 
may have meant * tittle-tattle ; ' or (2) a very 
small coin (perhaps paid for the privilege 
of reading the news), from Ital. gazutta, a 
coin less than a farthing, probably from Gk. 
7rtC«i a treasury. The reader may choose. 

Gear, dress, harness, tackle. (£.) M. £. 

^trt^ A.S. gesTwtf KB. pL, pi c paiati op, 
mamcBt.— A.S. gearp, ready; see 
And see Qmr (2% Garb (1). 
afish; see Goad. 

Geld, to fwwyrlatr. (Send.) M. E 
geldai. — locL geldA, Dml gUde, Swed. 
gdlia. (for g^lda). Perhaps rdated to 
Goti- gilsha, a sickle. I>er. geU-ing, 
from IceL giUtKg^ the sanie. 

Oetid. cooL (ll) I^ gelidms.^'L. gelu, 
frosL Allied to CooL 

oongeaL (F. — L.) F. cengeUr. « L. 
am-^lare, to cause to freeze together. 

g^tiiie. (F. - L.) F. gflatint, a kind 
of jelly. «L. gelaius, pp. of gelane, to 
freeze. — L. griu, hosx. 

jelly. (F.-L.) Formcrlr gelly, - F. 
gel/e, * gel! J ; ' Cot. Orig. fern, of pp. of 
grler, to freeze.— L. gelare (above^. 

Gem. (F. - L.) M. E. gemme. - F. 
gemme. — 'L. gemma, a bnd ; also a gem, jewel. 

Gemini. (L.) L. gemini, twins ; pi. 
geminus, douUe. 

gimbald, a cmitrivance for suspending a 
ship's compass, to keep it horizontal. 
(F— L.) y ormcrXy gtmmals', also called 
gemmow or gemm(nu-ring, a double ring, 
with two or more lirks. The forms ^r/w- 
mtnv and gimmal correspond to O. F. 
^meau, masc, and gcmelle, fem., a twin.— 
L. gemellus, a twin, a dimin. form of Ln. 
geminus, double. 

G(ender (I^, sex ; see Genua. 

Gender (2), to er gender; see Oeniu. 

Genealogy ; see Genesis. 

General, Generate ; see Genus. 

Generic, Generous ; see Genus. 

Genesis, creation. (L. — Gk). "L. genesis, 
— Gk. ytytais, origin, source. Allied to 
7€»'oy. race ; see Genus. (^GAN.) 

endogen, a plant that grows from within. 
(Gk.) From Gk. tvho-p, within ; ytv-,, base 
of yiyvonai, 1 am bom, allied to yivo^, race. 
exogen, a plant that increases out- 
wardly. (Gk.) From Gk. i^o), outside, 
from «^, out ; and ytv- (as above). 

genealogy. (F. — L. — Gk.) M. E. 
genealogie. — O. F. gencalcgie. — L. genea- 
logia. — Gk. 7€»'«aAo7/a, an account of a 
family, pedigree (1 Tim. i. 4.) — Gk. 7(v«a, 
birth (allied to y^vos) ; and -\oyia, an 
account, allied to X0705 (see Iiogic). 

Genet, an animal. (F. — Span. — Arab.) 
Y.genette, 'a kind of weesell;* Cot. — Span. 
gineta.'m hroh. Jameit (Dozy). 

Genial; see Genus. 



Geniculate, jointed. (L.) lo botany. 
From L. geniculutn^ a little knee, joint in a 
plant ; double dimiu. of genUf a knee. 
Allied to Knee. 

genuflection, genuflexion, a bend- 
ing of the knee. (F. — L.) Y . genuflexion. 

— Late L. ace. genuflcxiofiem. — L. genu, 
knee ; ^ex-us, pp. oifiectere, to bend. 

Genital, Genitive, Genius ; see 

Gennet ; see Jennet. 

Genteel ; see Genus. 

Gentian, a pkint. (F. — L.) O.F. gen- 
tiane.^L.. gentiana; named softer Gentius, 
an Illyrian king. abt. b.c. 180. 

Gentile, Gentle ; see Genus. 

Gentry, Genuine ; see Genus. 

Genuflection; see Geniculate. 

Genus, kin. (L.^ 'L. genus (stem gener-\ 
kin, race.+Gk. 7/vos, race.+A.S. ^«, kin. 
See Kin. (V GAN.) 

congenial, kindred. (L.) Coined from 
L. con- {cum), with ; and genial, adj. from 

enius ; for which see below. 
congenital. (L.) Coined by adding -al 
to the obs. word congenite (XVI I cent.) — L. 
congenitus^ bora with. — L. con- {cum), with ; 
genittis, bora, pp. oi gignere, to produce. 

degenerate. (L.) From pp. of L. degen" 
crariy to become base. — L. degener, adj., 
base. — L. (U, down ; gcner-, stem oi genus ^ 
race (above). 

engender, to breed. (F.— L.) M. E. 
engciuircn.^0, F,'L. ingen" 
erarCf to produce. *L. in, in; gcnerare, to 
breed, from gener-, crude form of genus 
engine. (F.— L.) O. F. engin, a tool. 

— L. ingenium, natural capacity, also, an 
invention. — L. in, in; genius; see genius 

gender (i), kind. (F. - L.) M. E. 
gendrc (with excrescent </). — O. F. genre, 
kind. — L. genere, abl. case of genus, kind, 
kin. % The unusual deriv. from the abl. 
case is due to the common phrases genere 
natus, hoc genere, omni genere ; so also 
Ital. gcture, kind. 

gender (2), to produce. (F. — L.) 
M. E. gendren ; a clipped form of engen- 
dren ; see engender above. 

general, relating to a genus, common. 
(F. — L.) O. F. general. — L. generalis, 
belonging to a genus (stem gener-). Hence 
general, sb., a leader ; general-issimo, from 
Ital. generalissimo, a supreme commander, 
with superl. suffix -issimo. 



generate. (L^) From pp. of L. gem- 

rare, to produce. — L. gener; stem ol genus, 

generic, pertaining to a genus. (L.) 
Coined iiomlL generi-, crude form oi genus, 

generous. (F. -L.) O. F. generous, 
later genereux, ^"L, generosus, (properly) 
of noble birth. — L. gener^, crude form of 

genial. (F. - L.) O. F. genial, - L. 
genialis, pleasant ; adj. from genius ; see 
genius (below). 

genital. (F. - L.) O. F. genital - L. 
genitalis, generative. — L. genitum, supine 
oigignere, to beget. 

genitive. (F.-L.) O.F, geniti/.^J^ 
genitiuus, belonging to birth, applied in 
grammar to a certain case of nouns. — L. 
genitum (above). 

genius, inbora faculty. (L.) 1^, genius, 
the tutelar spirit of any one ; also wit, lit. 
* inbora nature.* Allied to genus. 

genteeL (F. - L.) M. E. gentil. - L. 
gentilis, belonging to the same clan, a 
gentile (afterwards applied to mean well- 
bred, &c.) — L. genti', crude form of gens, 
a clan, tribe. Allied to genus. 

gentile. (F. - L.) O. F. genHl, - L. 
gentilis (above). 

gentle. (F.-L.) O. F. ^^«/t7 (above). 

gentry. (F.-L.) M. E. ^^«/«V, high 
birth; corruption of M. E. gentrise, the 
same. — O. F. genterise, another form of 

fentilise, rank (=sLow L. gentilitia*),^ 
*. gentilis ; see genteel above. 

genuine. (L.) L. genuinus, of the 
true genus or stock. —L. genus. 

gin (2), a trap, snare. (F.-L.) M. E. 
gin, short for M. E. engin, a contrivance ; 
see engine above. Prob. confused with 
Icel. ginna, to dupe. 

indigenous, native. (L.) L. indigenus, 
native. — L. indi'=^0. Lat. indo, within; 
and gen-ui, pt. t. ofgignere. 

ixigenlous. (F. — L.) F. ingenieux 
(Cot.) — L. ingeniosus, clever. — L. ingen- 
ium, natural capacity; see engine above. 

ingenuous. (L.) "L.ingenuus, mham, 
free-bom, frank. — L. in, in ; gen-ui, pt L 
oigignere, to beget. 

progenitor. (F.-L.) Formerly /n>- 
genitour. — F. progeniteur. — L. progeni- 
torem, ace. of progenitor, an ancestor.— 
la. pro, before; genitor, a parent, from the 
supine oi gignere, to beget 

progeny. (F. - L.) O. F. progenie. — 
L. progeniem, ace of progenies, lineage, 
offspring.- L./n7-, forth; gen-us, kin. 



regenerate. (L.) From pp. of re- 
generarCf to produce anew. 

Geography. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
geographic, — L. geographia, — Gk. 7fa)- 
ypcuf>ia, lit. earth-description. — Gk. 7*0;- = 
71710-, for yffios, relating to 7^, earth ; 
•ypa^la, description, from ypd<p€ip, to write. 
Cif. Skt. go, the earth. 

apogee, point of the moon*s orbit 
furthest from the earth. (Gk.) From Gk. 
dv6, away from ; 7^, earth. 

geometry. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. 
geometric. ^1^, geometria.^GV.. y€Oj fifrpia, 
land-measurement. — Gk. 7€a;- (as above) ; 
-fKTpia, measurement, from fi€Tp4oj, I mea- 
sure, fxirpov, a measure ; see Metre. 

georgic. (L. — Gk.) L. gcorgicus, re- 
lating to husbandry. — Gk. ytatpyiK6st the 
same. — Gk. ytcupyia, tillage. — Gk. 7<a>- 
(as above) ; l^pytiv^ to work. See "Work. 

perigee, point of the moon's orbit 
nearest the earth. (Gk.) From Gk. vtpi, 
about, here * near ;* 7^, earth. 

Oeranium, a plant. (L. — Gk.) L. 
geranium, Latinised from Gk. ytpdviov, a 
geranium or crane's bill (from the shape 
of the seed-pod). — Gk. yipavoif a crane; 
allied to Orane. 
Gerfalcon; see Gyrfaloon. 
G^rm, a seed. (F -L.) F. gerffte.-^'L. 
germen (stem gemtin), a sprout, germ. 
Dep. germinate (from the stem). 

german, germane, akin. (F.-L.) 
Cousins ger man are cousins having the 
same grandfather. Formerly spelt gertnain. 
— O. F. germain. — L. germanum^ ace. of 
germanus, fully akin. Allied to Germ. 

Gtorund, a part of a Lat. verb. (L.) L. 
gerundium, a gerund. — L. gerundus, that 
which is to be done or carried on; fut. 
part. pass, oi gerere, to carry on, perform, 
bring. (^GAS.) 

congeries a mass of particles. (L.) L. 
congeries f a heap. — L. con-gerere, to bring 

congestion, accumulation. (L.) From 
L. ace. congestionem.'^'L. congestus, pp. of 
con -ge re re (above). 

digest, to assimilate food. (L.) M. E. 
digest, used as a pp. «= digested. — L. digcs- 
tus, pp. oi di-^crcre, to carry apart, separate, 
dissolve, digest. 

exaggerate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
exaggcrare, to heap up, amplify. — I*, ex, 
very; agger, a heap, irom ag- =» ad, to, 
gercre, to bring. 

gestation, the carrying of the young in 


the womb. (F.— L.) O. F. gestaium.^'L. 
ace. gcsfationcm, a carrying. — L, gestatus, 
pp. oi gcstare, to carry, frequent, form of 
gercre, to bring. 

gesticulate, to make gestures. (L.) 
From pp. of gesticulari, to make mimic 
gestures.- L. gesticulus, a gesture, doable 
dimin. of gcstus, a gesture. — L. gestus, pp. 
oi gercre. 

gesture. (L.) Low L. gesture, a mode 
of action. — L. gcstus, pp. o^ gercre, 

jest, a joke. (F.— L.) Grig, a stoi)% 
merry tale. M. E. geste, a story. — O. F. 
geste, an exploit, romance, tale of exploits. 

— L. gesta, put for res gcsta, 2l thing done, 
an exploit. -• L. ^<fj/«j, pp. o(gerere. 

register. (F. — L.) F. registre, *a 
record ; * Cot — Low L. registrum, more 
correctly regestum, a book in which things 
are recorded (L. rcgcruntur).^!^, reges- 
tum, neut. of pp. of rC'gercre, to bring 
back, record. 

suggestion. (F. — L.) F. suggesticn. — 
L. ace. sug^cstioncm. — L. suggcstus, pp. of 
suggcrere, to bring under, supply, suggest. 

— L. sug- (for sub), under; gercre, to 

Get. (E.) M. E. getcn, pt. t. gat, pp. 
gcten. A. S. gitan, pt. t. gcct, pp. gitcn, to 
get, obtain. + Icel. geta, Goth, gitan ; L. 
-hendcre (base hed), in prehenderc, to 
seize ; Gk. x^^^di^ftv (base x**')» ^^ seize. 

beget. (E.) A. S. bigitan ; see Be-. 

forget. (E.) A. S./orgitan ; see Por- 

Gewgaw, a plaything, specious trifle. 
(E.) Formerly gugaw, corruption of M. E. 
giuegoue ( = givegove, a gewgaw), Ancren 
Riwle, p. 196. Cf. North E. giffgaff, 
mutual donation and reception. A redu- 
plicated form of A. S. gifu, a gift, from 
gifan^ to give. Gewga^v was orig. a small 
gift, a present, toy, trifle, &c. See Give. 

Geysir ; see Gush. 

Ghastly, terrible. (E.) M. E. gastly. 
A. S. gastlic, terrible, allied to Goth, us- 
gaisjan, to terrify. See Aghast. Allied 
words are gasted, terrified, K. Lear, ii. 
I. 57, gastness, 0th. v. i. 106. 

Gherkin, small cucumber. (Du. — Pers.) 
Short for agherkin. — Du. agurkje, a gher- 
kin (of which an older fonn was doubtless 
agurken * ( = agurkkcn), because O. Du. 
used the dimin. suflix -ken where mod. Du. 
uses -jc. Without the final n, we have Du. 
agurkc ^Sewel). The word is thus based 


upon a form agur*, due to a (put for a/, 
the Arab. def. article) prefixed to Pers. 
khiydrj a cucumber. 

Ghost, a spirit. (E.) M. E. gost^ goost. 
A. S. gdst. + Du. geesty G. geist. Allied 
to Goth, us-gaisjan, to terrify, and to E. 

Ghoiil, a kind of demon. (Pers.) Pers. 
ghol, an imaginary sylvan demon. 

Giant. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. geant, 
geaunt.'^O. F. geant.-^'L. gigantem, ace. 
of gigas, — Gk. 7/705 (stem yiyavr-), a 
giant. {^ GAN.) Der. giganl-ic, from 
L. gigant-t stem of gigas (above). 

Giaour, an infidel. (Ilal. - Pers.) Giaour 
is an Ital. spelling usual among the Franks 
of the Levant (Byron), — Pers. gJwn an 

Gibbeiiflh, idle talk. (E.'^ Formed from 
the old vb. gibber ^ to gabble, frequent, of 
gibe^ q. v. Compare /a^/vr, and gabble. 

Gibbet. (F.) M. E. gibbet, gibet, - O. F. 
gibbet (F. gibet)^ a gihbet. Prob. allied to 
O. F. gibet, a large stick, perhaps a dimin. 
of O. F. gibbe, a sort of arm, an implement 
for stirring up earth. Root unknown; 
prob. allied to Jib (.0. 

Gibbon, a kind of ape. (Unknown.) Cf. 
F. gibbon, in Bufl'on. 

Gibbous, humped, swelling. (F. — L.) 
F. gibbeux.'^'L. gibbosus, humped (whence 
the E. gibbose).'»h. gibba, a hump, hunch ; 
cf. gibbusy bent. Allied to Skt. kubja^ 

Gibe, Jibe, to mock. (Scand.) From 
Swed. dial, gipa, to gape, also to talk 
foolishly and rashly (Rietz) ; cf. Icel. geifa, 
to talk nonsense, Icel. geip, idle talk. 
Hence Gibberish, q. v. 

Giblets, the internal eatable parts of a 
fowl, removed before cooking. (F.) M. E. 
gibclet.'^O. Y. gibe let y which, according to 
Litlre, answers to mod, F. gibelotte, stewed 
rabbit. Of unknown origin, not neces- 
sarily related to F. gibier, game. Cf. 
Gael, giaban, a fowrs gizzard. 

Giddy. (E.) M. E. gidi, adj. Formed 
from A. S. giddian, to sing, be merry; so 
that the orig. sense oi giddy was mirthful. 
— A. S. gidf gidd, gied, a song, poem, 

Gier-eagle, a kind of eagle. (Du. and 
F.) The first syllable is from Du. gicr, a 
vulture; cf. G. geier, M. H. G. gir^ a 
vulture. See Gyrfaloon. 

Gift ; see Give. 

Gig, a light carriage, light boat. (Scand.) 



In Shak., a gig is a boy's top. M. E. gigge, 
apparently a whirling thing, Ch. Ho. Fame, 
iii, 852 (whence E. whirligig). Prob. of 
Scand. origin ; cf. Icel. geiga, to take a 
wrong direction, to rove at random, gjogra^ 
to reel, stagger ; allied to Jig. 

jig, a lively tune or dance. (F. — M. H. 
G.) O. F. giget gigue, a fiddle, dance.— 
M. H. G. gige (G. geige), a fiddle. Prob. 
from the rapid motion of the player, and 
allied to Gig. 

Gigantic ; see Oiant. 

Giggle, to titter. (E.) A weakened form 
of M. E. gageleUy to cackle, or 'gaggle;* 
where again gaggle is a weakened form of 
Cackle. Cf. Icel. gagl, a goose, G. kichem, 
to giggle. 

Giglet, Giglot, a wanton woman. 
(Scnnd.) Dimin. of gigle, a flirt, used by 
Cotgrave (s. v. gadrottillette). — Icel. gikkr, 
a pert person, Dan. giek, a wag. Perhaps 
allied to Qig. 

Gild ; see Gold. 

Gill (i), organ of respiration in fishes. 
(Scand.) M. E. gille. — Dan. gialle, Swed. 
giily a gill; Icel. gfolnar, pi., gills. Cf. 
Icel. gin, mouth. Allied to Yawn. 


Gill (2), a ravine, chasm. (Scand.) Also 
^//y//. — Icel. gill, geil, ravine. (-^GHI.) 
Allied to QUI (i). 

Gill (3), with ^soft, a quarter of a pint. 
(F.) M. E. gille. '^O. F. gelle, a sort of 
wine-measure. Low L. gella ; Low L. gillo, 
a wine-vessel. Allied to F. Jale, a large 
bowl ; see Gallon. 

Gill (4), with g soft, a woman's name, a 
pitcher, ground-iN'y. (L.) Short for Gillian^ 
1. e. L. Juliafiaf a fem. name due to L. 
Julius ; see July. Der. flirt-gill or gill- 

jilt, a flirt. (L.) Y ormtxXy jillet, dimin. 
of jill, a flirt, orig. Jill or Gillian^ a per- 
sonal name (as above). 

Gillyflower, a flower. (F.— L. — Gk.) 
Formerly gilofer, geraflour. Corrupted 
from O. F. giroflk, 'a gilloflower;' Cot. 
From F. clou de girofley the same. — Low 
L. caryophyllum. Latinised from Gk. «a- 
pv6(pv\XoVy a clove tree, lit. 'nut-leaf.' — 
Gk. Kdpvo-v, a nut ; ^AAoi^, leaf. 

Gimbals ; see Gemini. 

Gimlet, Gimblet ; see Wimble. 

Gimmal-ring ; see Gemini. 

Gimp ; see Wimple. 

Gin (i), to begin. (E.) Obsolete; often 
needlessly written 'gin, as though bC' were 



omitted. M. E. ginnen. A. S. ginnan^ 
to begin, commonly on-ginnan (pt t. 
ongann, pp. ongunnen), 4* Goth, gitt- 
naftt in tne comp. du-ginnan, to begin. 

begin. (£.) M. £. beginnen. A. S. be- 
gintian; from gtnnan, with prefix ^-^E. 
iy ; see By.-f-Do. G. beginmn. 

Oixi (3), a trap, snare ; see G^nos. 

Oin (3), a kind of spirit ; see Juvenile. 

Oinger, the root of a certain plant. (F. 
•- L. •- Gk. — Skt.) M. E. ginger, gingeuere 
{^gingevere),^0, F. gengibre (F. ging- 
embre).^!^, zingiber. ^Gk. Ciyyifi€pts,^ 
Skt. fri^gavera, ginger ; lit. * horn-shaped,* 
from the horns on it. « Skt. ftiflga, a horn ; 
vera, a body. 

Oingerly ; see Qro. 

Qingham, a kind of cotton cloth. (F.) 
Modem. — F. guingan ; corruption of 
Guingamp\ the name of a place in Brit- 
tany where such fabrics were made. 

Oingle ; the same as Jingle. 

Gipsy ; the same as Gypsy. 

Giraffe, a long-legged animal. (F. — 
Span. — Arab. — Egypt.) F. giraffe. — Span. 
giraffa, •- Arab, zardf, tardjat. From 
Egypt, soraphi, i. e. long neck (Mahn). 

Gird (i), to enclose, bind round. (E.) 
M. E. gurden^ girden, A. S. gyrdan, to gird. 
+Du. gorden^ Icel. gyr^a, to gird (cf. 
ger^, to fence in), Dan. giorde, G. nirten. 
Cf. Goth, bi'gairdan, to begird. Allied to 
Garth, Garden, and Yard. {^ GH AR.) 
girdle. (E.) A. S. gyrdel, that which 
girds. •- A. S. gyrdan, to gird. +Du. gordtl, 
Icel. gyr^ilh Swed. gUrdel^ G. gUrtel, 

girth. (Scand.) M. E. gerth. - Icel. 
g/orfSf a girdle, girth ; ger^t girth round the 
waist ; Van.giord.^Ooi'h, guirda, a girdle. 

Gird (3), to jest at ; see Yard. 

Girdle, Girth ; see Gird (i). 

GirL (O. Low G.) M. E. girl, ^erl, 
gurl, often used to mean * a boy ;' a child. 
Formed, as a dimin., from O. Low G. gor, 
a child. Cf. Swiss giirre^ gurrli, a de- 
preciatory term for a girl (Sanders, Ger. 

Gist ; see Jet (i). 

Gittem ; see Cithern. 

Give. (E.) M.E.^(p«^«,^^«^« (Southern), 
^^ (Northern) ; pt. yaf or gaf^ pp. yiucn, 
gifen^ yauen, A. S. gifan, pt. t. geaf, pp. 
gifen.J^'DM. geven, Icel. g^a, Dan. give, 
Swed. gifva^ Goth, giban^ G. geben. 

gift. (E.) M. E. gift, yift, - A. S. gift, 
a gift (rare) ; conunon m the pL gifta, nup- 


tials.- A. S. gifan, to give.-|-IceL gifU I>n. 
gift^ G. 'gift (in mit-gift, a dowxy>. Der. 


Gizzard. (F.-L.) M. E. ginr (the d 
being added). — O. F. gezier,jugier,juisier 
(F.gifsier), ^l,.gigerium, only in ^gignia, 
cooked entrails 01 poultiy. 

Glabrous, smooth. (L.) ¥iom'L,giaber, 

Glacial, icy. (F.-L.) F. giadai.^'L, 
facialis, icy. — L. giacies^ ice. Allied to 
L. gelu^ cold ; see Gelid. 

glacier, a mountain ice-field. (F.—L.) 
F. glacier (a Savoy word). — F. gktce^ ice.— 
L. glaciem, ace. oi glades, ice. 

glacis, smooth slope. (F. — L.) F. 
glacis.mkO,Y, glacer, to cover with ice — 

F. glace (above). 

GUad. (E.) A. S. glad, shining, bright, 
cheerful, glad, -f* I^u. glad, smooth, bright, 
Icel. gla^r, bright, glad, Dan. Swed. glad, 

G. glatt, smooth, polished. Cf. Russ. 
gladkie, even, smooth. Orig. sense • shin- 
ing.' or •bright* (VGHAR.) 

glade, an open space in a wood. (Scand.) 
The orig. sense was an opening for light, 
passage through a wood. — Icel. g^afSr, 
bright, shining. Cf. Swed. dial, glad-yppen, 
completely open, said of a lake whence the 
ice has all melted away. Also Korw^. 
glette, a clear spot among clouds. 

Gladiator, a swordsman. (L.) 'L.gla" 
diator.'^lj. gladitts, a sword. 

claymore, a Scottish broadsword. 
(Gael.) Gael, claidheamh mor, a great 
sword. Here claidheamh is cognate with 
W. cleddyf cleddcu, a sword, and with L. 
gladiiis. The Gael, ffior, great, is allied 
to W. tnawr, L. magnus, great. 

glaive, a sword. (F. — L.) O. F. glaive, 
— L. gladium, ace. of gladius, a sword. 

Glair, white of an tgg ; see Clear. 

Glaive ; see Gladiator. 

Glance, a swift dart of light, quick look. 
(Scand.) — Swed. glans, lustre, whence 
gldnsa, to shine ; Dan. glands, lustre, gloss, 
whence glandse, to glaze. +Du. glans, G. 
glanz, splendour, p. The Swed. glans, 
put for giants *, is from the pt. t. giant of 
the strong verb glinta, to shine, still found 
in Swed. dialects (Rietz). See Glint. 

Gland, a fleshy organ in the body, secret- 
ing fluid. (F. — L.) O.F. gland, lit. an acorn 
(hence a kernel, gland). — L. glandcm, ace 
oi glans, an acorn. -f>Gk. /SdAavos, an acorn ; 
from fidWftv, to cast, let fall. (-/ GAL.) 
Der. gland-ers, a disease of glands. 


Glare, to shine brightly. (E.) M. E. 
glaren ; cf. A. S. glctr^ a pellucid substance, 
amber. + 1^- glortn^ to glimmer, M. H. G. 
glosen, to glow. Allied to Glass. Cf. 
iDan. glar^ glass. 

Glass. (E.) A. S. ^<w.+Da. glas, Dan. 
glas.giar, Swed. glas, O. Swed.^/c?r, Icel. 
gUr^ glasy G. g!as. Grig, sense •shining.' 
:3ee Gleam. (-/ GH AR.) 

glaze, to furnish with glass. (£.) M.E. 
glasen, — M. E. glas^ glass. 

Glaucous, grayish blue. (L.— Gk.) L. 
glaucus. •- Gk. 7Xaw/cos, gleaming, blueish. 

Glaze ; see Glass. 

Gleam, a beam of light. (E.) A. S. 
glctm \ cf. A. S. glimo^ the same.+O. Sax. 
gliino, brightness. Allied to Gk. x^'-^poJ, 
warm ; Skt. ^An', to shine. (-^GHAR.) 

glimmer, verb. (Scand.) M. E. gli- 
meren. — Dan. glimre ; cf. giimmer, sb., 
glitter; Swed. dial, glimmer, verb, ^/iw- 
///^r, sb. , glitter. Frecjucnt. of Dan. glimme, 
Swed. ghmma^ to shine. — Swed. dial, ^/iw, 
a glance ; closely allied to Gleam. 

glimpse, a slight gleam. (Scand.) For- 
merly glimse ; M. E. glimsen, to glimpse ; 
formed with suffix -j-from Swed. diviX.glim, 
a glance (above). 

Glean. (F. - Teut.) M. E; glertm, - 
O. F. glerur, glaner (F. glaner), to glean ; 
Low L. glenare (a.d. 561). — Low L. glena, 
gelina, gelima, a handful. Of Teut. origin ; 
best preserved in A.S. giimj a handful, 
whence prov. E. yelm, to provide handfuls 
of straw ready for a thatcher. % We also 
find the form to gleame (Levins), also 
spelt gUme ; this is likewise due to A. S. 
gilm, but is a purely E. word. 

Glebe, soil. (F. - L.) O. F. gUhe, 
•glebe, land belonging to a parsonage;' 
Cot. — L. gUba^ soil, a clod of earth. AUied 
to Globe. 

Glede (i). a kite (bird); see Glide. 

Glede (2), a glowing coal ; see Glow. 

Glee, joy, singing. (E.) A. S. gleS^ 
^eow^ gliw^ joy, mirth, musicJ+Icel. gly, 
glee, gladness ; Swed. dial, gly^ mockery. 

Glen, a narrow valley. (C.) Gael, and 
Irish gUann, W. gfyn, a valley, glen. 

Glib (i), smooth, voluble. (Du.) Du. 
glibberig, slippery, glibberen^ to slide.— 
Du. glippcn, to slip away. Allied to 

Glib (3), a lock of hair. (C.) Irish and 
Gael, glib, a lock of hair. 

Glib (3), to castrate. (E). The same as 
lib, with prefixed g- « A. S. ge-^ a common 



prefix. Cognate with Du. lubben^ to cas- 
trate, O. Du. luppen. See Iiop. 

Glide. (E.) M. E. glidcn, pt. t. glood. 
A. S. gUdan, + Du. glijden, Dan. glide^ 
Swed. glida, G. gleiten. AUied to GiBd. 

glede (I), a kite, a bird so called. (E> 
M. E. glede, A.S. glida, a kite, lit. * glider,' 
from its smooth flight. — A. S. glid-^ base of 
pp. oiglldan, to glide. 

Glimmer, Glimpse ; see Gleam. 

Glint ; see Glitter. 

Glisten, Glister ; see Glitter. 

Glitter. (E.) M.E. gliteretif to shine. 
— Icel. glitra, to glitter, frequent, of glita, 
to shine ; Swed. glittra, to glitter ; glitter, 
sb., a sparkle. Cf. O. SsLX.glltan, G. gleis^ 
sen, to shine. (-^ GHAR.) 

glint, to shine, glance. (Scand.) Swed. 
dial, glinta, to shine ; nasalised from Icel. 
glita, to shine. 

glisten, glister, to glitter. (E.) Ex- 
tended from base glis- of M. E. glisicn^ to 
shine. A. S. glisian ♦, only in the comp. 
glisnian, to shine. We also find M. £. 
glisteren^ glistrcn, to glitter. Cf. Du. glin- 
steren, to glitter. 

Gloat ; see Glow. 

Globe. (F.— L.) O.Y,globe.^'L.globum, 
ace. of globus, a ball ; cf. glomus, a ball, 
clue, gleba, a clod. Allied to Clew. 

conglobe, to form into a globe. (L.) 
L. coft-globare. — L. eon- {cum), with; globus, 
a globe. And see below. 

Glomerate. (L.) Yxom^^.oi glomerare, 
to collect into a ball. — L. glomer-, stem of 
glomus, a ball or clew of yam. See Globe, 
conglomerate. (L.) From pp. of con- 
glomcrare, to wind into a ball, heap 

Gloom ; see Glow. 

Glory. (F.-L.) M.E. glorie, - O. F. 
glorie (F. gloire).^^^. gloria. -J^Gk, k\4os, 
Skt. fravas, Russ. slava, glory. (-^ KRU.) 

Gloss (i), lustre ; see Glow. 

Gloss (2), a commentary, explanation. 
(F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. glose, - O. F. glose, 
' a glosse,* Cot. — L. glossa, a difficult word 
requiring explanation. — Gk. yXStaaa, the 
tongue, a tongue, language, word needing 
explanation. Der. gloss, verb. 

glossary. (L.— Gk.) L. glossarium, & 
glossary ; formed with suffix -arium from 
L. gloss-a (above). 

glossographer. (Gk.) Coined from 
glosso; put for Gk. ykSftraa, a hard word ; 
ypcupuy, to write. 
glottis. (Gk.) Gk. yXurns, the mouth 



of the windpipe. oGk. yKQrra, Attic form 
of ykSxraa, the tongue. Der. epi-glotiis. 

gloze, to interpret, flatter. (F. — L. — Ok.) 
M. £. glosen^ to make glosses. •- M. £. ^se^ 
a gloss; see Gloss. 
Glove. (E.) A. S. gUf, a glove; cf. 
Icel. gUfiy prob. borrowed from A. S. gUf, 
Perhaps from g- (put for ^-), prefix ; and 
Icel. I6fi, Goth, lofa, the palm of the hand. 
"Dqt fox-glove. 
Glow. (E.) M.'E.glowen. PL.S.glhuan, 
to be ardent, to shine brightly. + Icel. ^i^^a, 
Dan. ghe, to glow, stare, Swed. gh, to 
stare, Du. gheijen, G. gliihen, Cf. Skt. 
gharmaj warmth. {^ GHAR.) 

glede (a), a glowing coal. (E.> A. S. 
gUd (where / is from 6^ by vowel-change). 
— A. S. glikuan, to glow. 

gloat, to stare, gaze with admiration. 
(Scand.) Formerly giote (XVI cent.) — 
Icel. g/o/la, to grin, smile scornfully; Swed. 
dial, g/offa, giutta^ to peep, connected 
with Swed. dial, gloa^ to glow, stare ; cf 
Swed. glo, to stare, T>zxi. gloe, to glow, to 

gloom. (E.) A. S. glSm, gloom, twi- 
li;^ht.+Swed. 6\dX. gl&mug, staring, woful, 
wan, from the vb. glo, gloa, to glow, shine, 

gloss (i), lustre. (Scand.) Icel. glossif 
a blaze, glys, finery ; Swed. dial. glAsa^ a 
glowing, glossa, to glow ; extended from 
Swed. dial, gloa, Icel. gl^a, to glow. 

glum, gloomy. (Scand.) M. E. glom- 
mcfiy to look gloomy. — Swed. A\?X. glomma, 
to stare, from gloa, to stare ; cf. Swed. 
glamug^ gloomy ; and see Gloom. 
Gloze ; see Gloss (2). 
Glue. (F. - L.) O. F. glu. - Low L. 
glutem, ace. of glus (gen. glutis), glue ; 
allied to L. gluten, glue, glutus, tenacious. 

agglutinate. (L.) Frompp. ofo^/^- 
tinare, to glue together. •- L. ag- {^ad), 
to ; glutin-f stem oiglulen, glue. 

conglutinate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
con-glut inare, to glue together ; see above. 

glutinous, gluey. (L.) 'L. glutinosuSf 
sWzVy.^'L. glutin-, stem oi gluten, glue. 
Glum ; see Glow. 

Glume, a floral covering of grasses. (L.) 
L. gluma, a husk, hull. •- L. glubere, to 
peel, take off the husk. 

Glut, to swallow greedily. (L.) L. glu- 
tire, gluttire, to swallow ; cf. gula, the 
throat. + Skt. gvi, to devour, gal, to eat. 

iloglutition, swallowing. (L.) From 


L. de, down ; glutiius, pp. of gUUirtt to 


glutton. (F.-L.) M.£.^/^.-O.F. 
gloton, — L. ace gluiomm, a glutton. « L. 
glutire, to devour. 

Glutinous ; see Glue. 

Glutton ; see Glut. 

Glycerine, a viscid fluid, of sweet taste. 
(F. — Gk.) F. glycirine ; from Gk. yXimm- 
P<5y, sweet ; from Gk, 7\i/*i/y, sweet. {/J 

Glyptic, relating to carving in stone. 
(Gk.) Gk. 7\imT««os, carving. — Gk. 7\inr- 
Toj, carved. — Gk. y\v<puv, to hollow out, 
engrave. Allied to Grave (i). 

Gnarl, to snarl, growl. (E.) Frequen- 
tative ofgnar, to snarl, an imitative word. 
+ Du. knorren, Dan. knurre, to growl, 
Dan. knarre, to creak ; Swed. knorra, G. 
knurrcn, to growl, G. knarren, to creak. 
Allied to Gnash. 

Gnarled, knotty, twisted. (E.) Gnarled 
is full of gnarls, where gnar-l is a dimin. 
of gnar or knar^ M. E. knarre, a knot of 
wood. See Knurr. 

Gnash. (Scand.) M. E. gnasten, to 
gnash the teeth. — Swed. knastra, to crash 
(between the teeth) ; Dan. knaske, to gnash ; 
Icel. gnastan., sb., a gnashing, gnesta, a 
crack.+G. knastem, to crackle. Cf. Gael. 
cnac, to crack, crash ; allied to Crack. 

Gnat. (E.) A. S. gnat. Said to be 
named from the whirring of the wings; 
cf. Icel. gnata, to clash, gnat, clash of 

Gnaw. (E.) yi.Y..gnawen,^\,.\^gn€w, 
gnow. A. S. gnagan, to gnaw ; put for ge- 
nagcn*, ihtge- being a prefix. +Du. knagcn, 
O. Icel. knaga, mod. Icel. naga, Dan.gnave, 
Svfed.gnaga. Without the^, we have G. 
nagen, Dan. nage, to gnaw, Swed. nagga, 
prov. E. nag, to worry. See Nail. 

nag (2), to worry, tease. (Scand.) Swed. 
nagga, to nibble, peck ; Dan, nage, Icel. 
naga, to gnaw ; see above. 

Gneiss, a rock. (G.) G. gneiss. 

Gnome, a kind of sprite. ^¥. — Gk.) 
F. gnome, a gnome ; a word due to Para- 
celsus. — Gk, yvdffiij, intelligence, from the 
notion that gnomes could reveal secret 
treasures. — Gk. yvwvau, to know. (-^GAN.) 
diagnosis, scientific determination of 
a disease. (Gk.) Gk. iidyvaxris, a dis- 
tinguishing. — Gk. Sia, between ; yvucis, 
enquiry, from yvwvau, to know. 

gnomon, index of a dial. (L. — Gk.) 
h. gnomon, — Gk. yvwfuoy, an interpreter 


(one who knows), the index of a dial. — 
Gk. yvSfvoL (as above). 

gnostic, one of a certain sect. (Gk.) 
Gk. yvoiirriic^t wise, good at knowing. •- 
Gk. yvoioroif from yyon6if known. — Gk. 
yvSntm, to know. 

prog;no8tio, a presage. (F. • L. • Gk.) 
F. prognostique ; Cot. — L, prognosticon. •- 
Gk. mpcrfvwiTiK6Vf a token of the future. •- 
Gk. itp6, before ; yvwrriKos, good at know- 
ing (above). 

Qnu, a kind of antelope. (Hottentot.) 
Found in S. Africa. Said to belong to the 
Hottentot language. 
Gk>, to move about, proceed, advance. 
(E.) M. "E. gum, goon. A. S. ^j«, a con- 
tracted form oigangan, to go.+Du. ^<m«, 
Iccl. ganga^ Dan. gaae^ Swed. gi, Golh. 
gaggan (put for gangun), G.gehen. 

begone, beset. (E.) Woe degvm ^he- 
set with grief. M. E. digon, pp. of digottt 
to beset. — A. S. ^igdn, Acgdn, in'gangan, to 
go about (surround, beset). — A. S. l/i-, be- ; 
gdn^ to go. The prefix bi- « E. by. ^ In 
t^e phr. * begone I ' we really use two words, 
i.e. be gone. 

gang (i), a crew of persons. (Scand.) 
Icel. gangr, a going ; also, a gang (as 
\j6fagangr, a gang of thieves) ; from Icel. 
ganga, to go. 

gang ( 2), to go. (Scand.) IceL^«^, 
to go ; see Qo above. 

gingerly, with soft steps. (Scand.) 
Properly with tottering or slow steps.— 
Sw^. dial, gingla, gdngla^ to go gently, 
totter ; frequent, form from Icel. ganga, to 
go. % It appears to have been oddly con- 
fused with ginger ! 

Gk>ad. (E.) M. E. gode. A. S. gdd. 
Apparently put for gasd* ; cf. Icel. gaddr, 
a goad (apparently put for gasdr*)t Goth. 
gazds, a goad. -f> L. ^sta, a spear. See 

gad ( I ), a wedge of steel, goad. (Scand.) 
M. E. gad, a goad. — Icel. gaddr, a goad, 
spike, sting; cognate with A. S. gdd 

gad (a), to ramble idly. (Scand.) In 
Levins. The orig. sense was to drive 
about. — Icel. ^ztt/(d^, to goad. — Icel. ^a^fc/r 

ged, the fish called a pike. (Scand.) 
Icel. gedda, Swed. gcidde, a ged ; allied to 
gaddr, a goad. Named from the sharp 
thin head ; it is therefore also called pike. 
Qoal, the winning-post in a race. cF.— 
O. LuwG.) Formerly goU, — F. gauU, a 



pole, big rod; in O. F. spelt waule.^ 
O. Fries, walu. North Fries, waal, a staff. 
+ Icel. voir, Goth, walus, a staff. Orig. 
a round stick, and named from its round- 
ness ; cf. Russ. vaC, a cylinder. Allied to 
Volute, and to "Wale. 

Gk>at. (E.) M. E. goot. A. S. gdt. + 
Du. geit, Dan. ^d, Swed. get, Icel. geit, 
G. geiss, geisse, Goth, gaitsa, L. hadus. 

Gobbet, a mouthful, a small piece. 
(F. — C.) M. E. gobet, a small piece.— 
O. F. gobet, a morsel of food (see Littre). 
Dimin. of O. F. gob, a gulp (in swallow- 
ing). — O. F. gober, to devour. — Gael, gob, 
beak, bill, mouth ; Irish gob, mouth, beak ; 
W. gwp, head and neck of a bird. 

gobble. (F. — C.) Frequentative, with 
suffix -le, from O.F. gober, to devour (above>. 

job (1), to peck, as a bird. (C.) M. E. 
iobbyn, to peck. From Gael, and Irish 
gob, the beak (above). 

job (2), a small piece of work. (F. — C.) 
Also spelt gob, a portion, lump, job of 
work (Halliwell). — O. F. gob, lit. a mouth- 
ful, also a lump, portion. — Gael, and Irish 
gob, the mouth (above). 

Qobelin, a French tapestry. (F.) Named 
from Giles Gobelin, wool-dyer of Paris, 
about A. D. 1520-30. 
Goblet ; see Coop. 
Goblin ; see Cobalt. 
Goby, a fish. (L. — Gk.) For 1.. gobius, 
orig. applied to the gudgeon. — Gk. icoi^ios, 
a kind of fish, gudgeon, tench. 

gudgeon. (F. — L. — Gk.) M. E. go/one. 

— F. goujon. — L. gobionem, ace. oi gobio, a 

by-form of gobius (above). 

God. (E.) A. S. ^r/. -4-Du. god, Icel. 

gu^, "Dan. gud, Swed. gud, Goth. gut/t, G. 

gott. fl" Not allied to good, adj. 

goddess. (E. ; wit/i F. sujix.) M. E, 
goddesse {god esse). Made Irom god by 
adding the O. F. suffix -esse ( = L. -issa = 
Gk. -laaa). 

godfather. (E.) M. E. godfader, 
father in baptism ; from god 2d\^ fader. 

godhead. (E.) M. E. godhcd, also 
godhod ; the suffix answers to A. S. hdd, 
office, state, dignity ; see -hood (suffix). 

goodbye, farewell. (E.) A familiar, 
but meaningless, contraction of God be 
with you, the old form of farewell (very 

gospel, the life of Christ. (E.^ M. E. 
gospel. A. S. godspell. — A. S. god, God, 
i.e. Christ; spell, a story. Lit. 'narrative 
of God,' i.e. life of C^hnst. ^ Early mis- 



xtnderstood as meaning good spell, as if 
meant for a translation of Gk. ^tay^kKiov ; 
but this seems a mistake; for theE. word was 
early introduced into Iceland in the form 
gt^spjall (where ^«tS- =» god, as dis- 
tinguished from gd^' « gooid), and into 
Germany as O. H. G. gotspcll (where got = 
god, as distinguished from^iM?/, good). And 
see below ; where ppj- agam « god, 

gossip. (E.) Now a crony; formerly 
a sponsor in baptism. M. K. gossib^ also 
godsib, lit. ' related in god.* — M. E. god, 
god ; sib, related, from O. Northumb. sibbo, 
pi. relatives, allied to Goth, sibja, relation- 
ship, G. sippCf affinity, sippatt kinsmen. 
Cf. Skt sabhya, fit for an assembly, trusty, 
from sabhd, an assembly. 

Godwit, a bird ; see Qood. 

Gk>ggle-eyed, having rolling and staring 
eyes. (C.) M. E. gogil-eyid. * They gog^e 
with their eyes hither and thither ; * Holin- 
shed, Descr. of Ireland, c. i.«- Irish gogor, 
light (in demeanour), lit. wavering, gogach, 
wavering, reeling, Gael, gogach, nodding, 
fickle; n-om Irish and Gael, gog, to nod, 
move slightly. Clearly shewn in Irish and 
Gael, gogshuilcack, goggle-eyed, having 
wandering eyes, from gog, to move slightly, 
and suit, a glance. 

Goitre ; see Guttural. 

Gk)Id. (E.) A. S. gold, -f Du. goud (for 
gold), Icel. gull, Swed. Dan. guld, G. gold, 
Goth, gulth, Russ. zlato, Gk. ypvaor, Zend 
zaranu, Skt. hixana, (J^ GHAR.) Allied 
to Yellow. Der. mari-gold. 

gild, to overlay with gold. (E.) M. E. 
gilden. A.S. gyldan, to gild (Ettmiiller) ; 
ci. A.,S. gylden, golden. Formed (by regular 
change from o ioy) from gold, gold. 

Gou, a game. (Du.) First mentioned 
A.D. 1538. The name is from that of a 
Du. game played with club and ball. — Du. 
kolf, a club used to strike balls with. 4' 
Icel. kSlfr, clapper of a bell, kylfa^ a club ; 
Dan. kolbe, butt end of a weapon, kolv, bolt, 
shaft, arrow, Swed. kolf, butt-end, G. koibc, 
club, mace, knob. 

Gk>lo8h ; the same as Galoche. 

Gondola. (Ital.-Gk.) Ital. gondola, 
dimin. of gonda^ a boat.<-Gk. kMv, a 
drinking vessel ; from the shape. 

Gonfanon, Gonfalon, a kind of ban- 
ner. (F. — M. H. G.) M. E. gonfanon. — 
O. F. gonfatton. •- M. H. G. gundfano, lit. 
' battle-flag.* - M. H. G.gund, gunt, battle ; 
fano (fj.fahne), a banner, flag. Here gu fit 
is allied to A.S. ^5 (for gunfS*), battle. 


war, and to Skt. Man, to kill. Fano is 
allied to Vane. 

Gong. (Malay.) Malay ag^ng" or g^ig, 
the gong, a sonorous instrument. 

Good. (E.) M.E. good. A.S. ^.-f 
Du. goed, Icel. gifSr, Dan. Swed. god, Goth. 
gods, G. gut. Allied to Rnss. jvk/im;, suit- 
ably, godnuii, suitable. Der. goods, s. pi., 
i.e. good things, property; good-vnll, &c 
Also good-man, i. e. master of the house, 
good-wifcy mistress of the house. 

godwit, a bird. (E.) Lit 'good 
creature.* A. S. g6d wiht, a good wight, 
good creature i^iht being often applied to 
animals and birds). See Wight. 

Gk>odbye ; see God. 

Goodman ; see Good. 

Goose, a bird. (E.) A.S. gSs, pi. gcs 
(the long is due to loss of n, and g6s » 
gans*). + Du. gans, Dan. gaas, Swed. gis, 
Jcel. gdsy G. gans, L. anser, Gk. x^''. SkL 
hamsa, Russ. gus\ ( -/ GHA, GHAN ?) 

gander. (E.) M.E. gandre. A. S. 
gandra, also spelt ganra (the d being, in 
fact, excrescent). + G. gdnserich ( »- gans- 
er-icK), From the base gan- or (in G.) 

gannet. Solan goose, a sea-fowl. (E.) 
A. S. ganot. +, a gander ; M.H.G, 
ganu, a gander. From a base^w-. 

goshawk. (E.) Lit. 'goose-hawk.' 
A.S. gifshafuc.^ A.S. gds, goose; hafuc, 

gosling. (E.) Formed from A. S. g6s, 
goose (M. E. gos)^ with double dimin. 
suffix -I'ing. And see Gossamer. 

Gooseberry. (F.-M. H. G. ; and E.) 
In Levins. Put for grooseberry (as gaffer is 
for graffcr). The r is retained in North. E. 
grosers, gooseberries ; Burns has grozct^ a 
gooseberry. (The suffix -berry is English.) 
— O. F. grose*, groise*, a gooseberry, not 
recorded, but occurring not only in the 
O. F. dimin. form groisele, grosele, a goose- 
berry, but also in Irish grois aidy Gael. 
grois-eid, W. gnoys^ a gooseberry, all 
borrowed from M. E. The spelling 
groisele is as old as the 13th century 
(Bartsch). p. The orig. O. F. groise* or 
grose* was borrowed from M. H. G. knis^ 
curling, crisped, wlience G. krausbeere, a 
cranberry, a rough gooseberry. Cf. Swed. 
krusbdr, a gooseberry, from krus, crisp, 
curled, frizzled. The name was first given 
to the rougher kinds of the fruit, from the 
curling hairs on it ; similarly. Levins gives 
the Lat name as uua crispa (frizzled grape). 


Gopher, a kind of wood. (Heb.) Heb. 
^Spher^ a wood ; perhaps pine or fir. 

Gorbellied, G<)rcrow ; see Oore (i). 

Gordian. (Gk.) Only in the phr. 
' Gordian knot/ i. e. intricate knot. Named 
from the Phrygian king Gordius^ who tied 
it. An oracle aeclared that whoever loosed 
it should reign over Asia. Alexander cut 
the knot, and applied the oracle to himself. 

Gore (I), clotted blood. (E.) It for- 
merly meant filth. A. S. gor^ filth, dirt. 4- 
Icel. gOTf gore ; Swed. gorr^ dirt. 

gorbeUied, having a fat belly. (£.) 
Compounded of E. gore^ lit. filth, dirt (also 
the intestines) ; and b€lly. So also Swed. 
dial. g&Mlgf a fat paunch, from gdr^ dirt, 
contents of the intestines, and b&lgt belly. 

gorcrow, carrion-crow. (E.) 1. e. 
gore-crtrw ; see above. 

Gk)re (a), a triangular piece let into a 
garment, a triangular slip of land. (E.) 
M. E. gore, A. S. gdra, a spear, project- 
ing piece of land; from gir, a spear. 
Named from the shape. So also Icel. 
gcirif a triangular slip of land, from gcirr, 
a spear ; G. gehrc^ a wedge, gusset, gore ; 
Du. geer, a gusset, gore. 

Gore (3), to pierce. (E.) From gdr^ a 
spear (with the usual change from d to 
long 6). 

garlic, )» plant. (E.) A. S. gdrUdc, lit. 

* spear-leek.* •- A. S. gdr^ a spear (above), 
hdc, a leek, plant. 

Gorg^, the throat, a narrow pass. (F. • 
L.) O. F. gorge f throat — Low L. gorgia^ 
the throat ; also gorga, gf*KS^t variants of 
L. gurges, a whirl-pool, hence (in late L.) 
the gullet, from its voracity. Cf. L. 
gurgulio^ gullet. + Skt, gargara^ a whirl- 
pool (VGAR.) 

gargle. (F. — L.) Modified from O. F. 
gargouiller^ *to gargle;' Cot. — O. F. 
gargouilUt the weasand of the throat, also 
a gargoyle, or mouth of a spout. Formed 
from gorge, the throat (above). So also 
Span, gargola, a gargoyle ; Ital. gargozsa, 
gorgoxzo, gullet, from gorga, the throat. 

gargoyle, a spout (F. -L.) O. F. 
gargouilU (above). 

gorgeous, showy, splendid. (F.— L.) 
O. F. gprgias, 'gorgeous ;* Cot The O. F. 
gorgias also meant a gorget ; the sense of 

* gorgeous * was orig. proid, from the swell- 
ing of the throat in pride. Cotgrave gives 
F. se rengorger, * to hold down the head, 
or thrust the chin into the neck, as some 
do in pride, or to make their faces look the 



fuller; we say, to bridle it' Hence the 
derivation is from F. gorge, throat 

gorget, armour for the throat (F. -L.) 
From^y^, i.e. throat. 

gurgle, to purl. (Ital. -L.) In Spenser, 
Thestylis, 3. Imitated from Ital. gorgo* 
gliare, to purl, bubble, boil ; gorgoglio, 
gureling of a stream. — Ital. gorgOy a whirl- 
pool. — L. gurges, whirlpool ; cf. gurguiio, 

€k>rgon, a monster. (L.-Gk.) L. Gor- 
gon, Gorgo.^G\i. Topy&, the Gorgon.— 
Gk. yopyoSf fearful. 

Gorilla, a kind of large ape. (O. Afri- 
can.) An old word revived. In the Peri- 
plus of Hanno, near the end, some creatures 
are described * which the interpreters called 

Gormandise ; see Gourmand. 

Gorse. (E.) Formerly gorsi, — A. S. 
gorsi, gorse. 

Goshawk, Gosling; see Goose. 

Gospel ; see God. 

Gossamer. (E.) M. E. gossomer, gose- 
somer, lit. * goose-summer^ The prov. E. 
name (in Craven) is summer-goose. Named 
from the downy appearance of the film. 
Also called summer-colt (Whitby); also 
summer-gauze (corruptly). Cf. G. som- 
merfdden (lit. summer-threads), gossamer ; 
Du. zomerdraden, Swed. sommeririid, the 
same. But in G. it is also called mcidchen- 
sommer, lit. Maiden - summer, der alte 
Weiber sommer, the old women's summer. 
It would appear that summer is here used 
in the sense of • summer-film,* so that 
gossamer = goose -summer -film. (Better 
spelt gossomer or gossummer), 

Go^p ; see God. 

Gk>uge, hollow- bladed chisel. (F.— Low 
L.) F. gouge. — Low L. guvia (Span. 

Gourd. (F.—L.) F. gourde y formerly 
gouhourde zxiA eougourde (Cot.) — L. cucur- 
bita, a gourd. 

Gourmand, a glutton. (F.'i F. gour- 
mandf 'a glutton, gormand, belly-god;* 
Cot. Etym. unknown; but perhaps of 
Scand. origin, and really for 'gore-man ; ' 
see Gore (i ), Gorcrow, &c Hvs. gormand- 
ise {far gourmand-ise). 

Gout (i), a drop, disease. (F. — L.) 
M. E. goute, a disease supposed to be due 
to defluxion of humours. — O. F, goute, 
goutte, a drop. — L. gutta, a drop. 

gutter. (F.-L.) M. E. ^/rnf.-O. F. 
gutierct goutier^ (Littr^, s. v. gouttUrtt a 



gutter). £sp. used for catching drops from 
the eaves of a roof. — L. gutta^ a drop. 

Gout (2), taste ; see Giut (a). 

Govern. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. gouemen, 

— O. F. gtrvemer.'^'ia, gubcmarc^ to steer 
a ship, rule.— Gk. Kv$€pyqv, to steer. 

Gowan, a daisy. (Gael.) Gael, and Irish 
gtigan^ a bud, flower, daisy. 
Gown, a loose robe. (C.) M. E. goune. 

— W. gwn, a loose robe ; Irish gunn^ Gael. 
and Com. gun ; Manx goon. 

Grab, to seize. (Scand.) Swed. grabba, 
to grasp. Allied to Gripe. 
Grace. (F. - L.) O. F. grace. - L. gratia, 
^h.gratus, dear, pleasing. Allied to Gk. 
X^^^ joy» X'^f^^* favour, Skt. hary, to desire, 
and to E. Yearn. (-/GHAR.) Der. 

agree, to accord. (F. - L.) O. F. 
agreer, to receive favourably. — O. F. a gre^ 
favourably. — O. F. a (L. ad), according to; 
gre, gret, pleasure, from L. gratum, neut. 
oi grains (above). Der. dis-agree, 

congratulate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
congraiuiari, to wish much joy. — L. con- 
{cum), with ; gratuiari, to wish joy, from 
adj. grains. 

grateftil, pleasant. (Hybrid; F.-L. 
and E.) The first syllable is from O. F. 
grai, pleasing, from L. grains; with E. 
suffix 'ful. 

gratifir. (F. - L.) O. F. gratificr. - L. 
gratificare, graiificari, to please. •- L. graii-, 
for grains, pleasing ; and -ficare, ioifaccre, 
to make. Der. graii/ic-ai-ion, 

gratis, freely. (L.) L. gratis, adv., 
freely ; put for gratiist abl. pi. of gratia, 
grace ; see Graoe. 

gratitude. (F.-L.) F. gratitude.^ 
Low L. graiiindinem, ace. of gratitndo, 
thankfulness. — L. graitis, pleasing. 

gratuitous, freely given. (L.) L. gra- 
tniins, freely given. From grains. 

gratuity, a present. (F. — L.) O. F. 
graiuiitf, 'a free gift;' Cot. — Low L. 
gratuiiatem, ace oi gmiuiias.^L. gratui- 
ins (above). 

gratulate, to congratulate. (L.) From 
pp. of L. gratnlariy to wish a person joy. 
As if from an adj. gratulus*, joyful ; from 
L.. grains, pleasing. 

ingratiate, to conmiend to the favour 
of. (L.) Coined from L. in, in ; gratia, 
favour, grace. 

ingrate, ungrateful. (F.-L.) F. ingrat. 
» L. ingrains, not pleasing. 
Grade, a degree. (F.-L.) F. grade, a 


degree. — L. gradum, ace of gradus, a 
degree, step.—L. gradi (pp. gressus), to 
step, walk, go. (-/GARDH.) 

aggress, to attack. (F. — L.) F. ag- 
gresser.'^h. aggressus, pp. of aggredi {^ 
ad'gradi), to assail. 

cong^ss, a meeting together. (L.) L. 
congressus. — L. congressus, pp. of con-grtdi, 
to meet together. 

degrade. (F.-L.) O. F. degrader, to 
deprive of rank or office. — L. degradare, the 
same. — L. de^ from ; gradus, rank. 

degree. (F.-L.) O. F. degre, dcgret, a 
step, rank; orig. a step down (used of 
stairs). — L. ^, down ; gradus, a st^. 

digress, lit. to step aside. (L) L. 
digressus, pp. of digredi ( » dis-gradi), to 
go aside. 

egress, a going out. (L.) L. egressus. 

— L. egressus, pp. of e-gredi, to go out. 
graidient, a gradually rising slope. (L.) 

L. gradient', stem of pres. pt of gmdi, to 
walk, advance. 

gradual, advancing by steps. (L.) 
Orig. gradual, sb., a service-book called in 
Lat. graduate, and in E. gradual or grayl. 

— Low L. gradnalis, only in neut. graduale, 
a service-book of portions sung ingradibus, 
i. e. on the steps (of the choii).^!^ gradu-s, 
a step. 

graduate. (L.) Low L. graduatus, 
one who has taken a degree. — L. gradu-s, 

gH^ail (i), a gradual, a service-book. (F. 

— L.) M. E. graile, grayle.'^O. F. greet. 

— Low L. gradate, also called graduale ; 
see gradual. 

grallatory. (L.) A term applied to 
wading birds.— L. grallaior, a walker on 
stilts. — L. grallo! (short for gradulce), stilts. 

— L. gradus, a step. 

ingredient, that which enters into a 
compound. (F. — L.) F. ingredient (the 
same). — L. ingredient-, stem of pres. pt. 
of in-gredi, to enter upon, begin (hence to 
enter into).— L. in, in ; gradi, to go. 

ingress. (L.) L. ingressns, an entering. 

— L. ingressns, pp. of in-gredi (above), 
progress, advancement. (F.-L.) O.F. 

progrez (F. progrh).^\a. progressum, ace. 
oi progressns, an advance. — L. progressus, 
pp. oi prO'gredi, to go forward. 
regress, return. (L.) L. regressus, sb. 

— L. regressus, pp. of re-gredi, to go 
back. — L. re-, back ; gradi, to go. 

retrograde, going backwaS. (L.) L. 
retrogradus, adj., used of a planet.— L. 


retro-gradi, to go backward. Hence retro- 
grade^ verb. 

retrogp:*e8Sion. (L.) Coined from pp. 
of L. retro-gradi (above). 

transgncession. (F. — L.) F. trans- 
gression. — L. ace. transgressionem^ a pas- 
sage across, in late Lat. a trans|;ression. •> 
L. transgressus, pp. of trans-gredi, to go 

Gradient, Graduate ; see Grade. 
Graft, Graff; see Graphic. 
Grail (i) ; see Grade. 
GraU (2), the Holv Dish at the Last 
Supper. (F. •- L. — Gk.) The etymology 
was very early falsified by an intentional 
change from San Greal (Holy Dish) to 
Sang Real (Royal Blood, perversely taken 
to mean Real Blood). — O. F. graalj greal, 
grasal, a flat dish ; with numerous other 
fisrms, both in O. F. and Low L. It 
would appear that the word was corrupted 
in various ways from Low L. cratella^ a 
small bowl, dimin. of crater^ a bowl ; see 

Grail (3), fine sand. (F. — L.) In Spen- 
ser, F. Q. i. 7. 6 ; Vis. Beliay, st. 1 2. - 
O. F. graile, fine, small (F. grSle), — L. 
gracilis, slender. 

Grain. (F.-L.) M. E. gretn.^0, F. 
grain, — L. granum, a grain, com. Cog- 
nate with E. Corn. (-^GAR. ) 

engrain, in^nrain, to dye of a fast 
colour. (F. — L.) M. E. engreynen, to dye 
in grain, i. e. of a fast colour. Coined 
from F. en (L. in) ; and O. F. graine, * the 
seed of herbs, also grain, wherewith cloth 
is died in grain, scarlet die, scarlet in 
graine ; * Cot. From L. granum, 

gamer. (F. — L.) M. E. garner.^ 
O. F. gemier, variant of grenier, a gra- 
nary. — L. grqnaria, a granary. — L. 
granum, com. 

garnet. (F.— L.) M. E. garnet, also 
spelt granat.^O.Y, grenat, 'a precious 
stone called a granat or gamet. Cot; 
Low L. granatus. So called from its 
resemblance to the seeds of the pomegra- 
nate, or malum granatum, lit. seeded apple. 
«■ L. granum, a grain, seed. 

granary, store-house for grain. (L.) 
L. granaria ; see gamer above. 

gprange, a farm-house. (F. — L.) O. F. 
grange, a bam, a farm-house. •- Low L. 
granea, a bam. — L. granum, com. 

granite, a hard stone. (Ital. •- L.) Ital. 
granito, granite, speckled stone. * Ital. 
granitOt pp. oigranire, to reduce to grains 



(hence, to speckle). -< l\z\.grano, a grain. •- 
L. granum^ a grain. 

granule, a little grain. (L.) L. gra- 
nulum, dimin. oi granum. 

g^nade, a war-missile. (F.^Span.— 
L.) Formerly also granado, which is the 
Span. form. Named from its likeness to a 
pomegranate, being filled with combus- 
tibles as that is with seeds. — O. F. grenade, 
* a pomegranet, a ball of wild-fire ; * Cot. 
^Sii9iL. granada, the same; granado, full 
of seeds. — L. granatus, full of seeds. •- L. 
granum. "Det. grenad-ier. 
GraUatory; see Grade. 
Gramercy ; see Grand. 
Gramineous. (L.) From 'L.gramin-, 
stem oigramen, grass. (-^ GAR.) 
Grammar. (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. 
grammere. — O. F. gramaire (XIII cent.) •- 
ho'w'L.grammaria*, not found, but regularly 
formed from Low la. gramma, a letter of 
the alphabet. — Gk. ypafifxa, a letter. — Gk. 
ypa<p€iv, to write. See Graphic. 

anagram, a change in a word due to 
transposition of letters. (F. — L. • Gk.) F. 
anagramme. •- L. anagramma. — Gk. avd- 
ypanfia. — Gk. dvct, up, here used distribu- 
tively; ypdfjtfM, a letter of the alphabet 

diagrc^m* (L. •- Gk.) L. diagram ma, 
a scale, gamut (hence, sketch, plan). * Gk. 
StdypafAfUL, a figure, plan, gamut. « Gk. 
diaypd<puv, to mark out by lines, describe. 
•> Gk. Iki, through ; ypA^uv, to write. 

epigram, a short poem. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
F. epigramme. •- L. epigramma. •- Gk. Iir<- 
ypanna, an inscription, epigram. * Gk. Wi- 
ypd<p€iy, to inscribe. — Gk. ivi, upon ; ypd' 
^(tv, to write. 

grammatical. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. 
grammatical; from L.^ira»i»ia/»rt/j, gramma- 
tical. •- Gk. ypafAftarucos, versed in one's let- 
ters. — Gk. ypafiixar-, stem of 7pd/i/ia, a letter. 
Grampus ; see Grand. 
Granary ; see Grain. 
Grand, great. (F . — L.) O. F. grand, 
'mh. grandem, ace. oigrandis, great. Prob. 
allied to Grave. 

aggrandise. (F. - L.) F. aggrandis-, 
stem of pres. pt. of aggrandir, to enlarge. 
Put for agrandir (with one g).^Y. a (for 
L. ad) ; and grandir (L. grandire), to in- 
crease, from grand, great (above). 

gaffer, an old man, grandfather. (F. »» 
L. ; and E.) Put for gramfer, West E. 
form oi grand-father, 

gammer, an old lady, grandmother. 

1 84 


<F. - L. ; andE.) Put for grammer, West. 
E. form oi grand-mother, 

gpramercy, thanks. (F.-L.) Formerly 
graund vurcy^ Chaucer, C. T. 8964. - F. 
grand merci^ great thanks ; see Grand and 

grampus, a large fish. (Ital. or Span. 

— L.) Spelt ^TWOT/fljj^, A. D. 1655. A cor- 
ruption, either of Ital. gran ptsce or Span. 
gran peZf i.e. great fish., *^h. grafidts pz'scif, 
great fish. 

grandee, a Spanish nobleman. (Span. 

— L.) Span, grandgf great ; also, a noble- 
man. -i L. ^raff</(?/7/, ace. oi grandis, great. 

grandeur, greatness. (F. - L.) F. 
grandeur \ formed with suffix -eur (L. 
-orem\ from grand^ great. 

gH^andiloquent, pompous in speech. 
(L.) Coined from L. grandi-, crude form 
of grandis^ great ; and hquent-, stem of 
pres. pt. of loqui, to speak. The true L. 
form is grandiloquens. 

Grange, Granite ; see Grain. 

Grant ; see Creed. 

Granule ; see Grain. 

Grape. (F. - M. H. G.) O. F. grappe, 
• bunch, or cluster of grapes ; * Cot. [In 
E., the sense has changed, from cluster to 
single berry.] The orig. sense of grappe 
was 'a hook,* then clustered fruit. — 
M. H. G. krapfcy O. H. G. chrapho^ a hook. 

— M. H. G. kripfcn, to seize, clutch ; see 
Cramp. The senses of • hook * and * clus- 
ter* result from that of 'clutching.* 

grapnel, a grappling - iron. (F. — 
M. H. G.) M. Y., grapenel. Dimin. of O. F. 
grappin^ a grapnel. — O. F. grappe^ a hook 

grapple,, to clutch. (F. - M. H. G.) 
Properly to seize with a grapnel. — O. F. 
grappil, sb., * the grapple of a ship ; * Cot. 

— O. F. grappe f a hook (above). 
Graphic, descriptive, pertaining to writ- 
ing. (L. — Gk.) L. grapkicuSf belonging 
to painting or drawing. •- Gk. ypa(f>iKu^, the 
same. •- Gk. ypatptiv, to write. Allied to 
Qra^e (i). 

graft, grafif, to insert buds on a stem. 
(F. — L. — Gk.) Gra// is a corrupt form 
for graj^, and due to confusion with graffed^ 
pp. Shak. has pp. grafts Rich. Ill, iii. 7. 
127. M. E. graffen^ to graff, from graffe^ 
sb. — O. F. graffCf a sort of pencil, also a 
slip for grafting, because it resembled a 
pointed pencil in shape. — L. graphiunit a 
style to write with.— Gk. ypatpiov^ ypa^iov, 
the same. — Gk. ypdtpttv, to write. 


programme, progtaan* (F< * L.« 

Gk.) Now spelt as if from Y, programme ; 
ianosAy programnia (1706), from \^pro- 
gramma,^Q)/i, mpdypaniuif a public notice 
in writing. — Gk. irfN$, beforehand ; ')ip6iinia, 
from 7pd^ctr, to write. 

Grapnel, Grapple ; see Grape. 

Grasp. (E.) M. E. graspen, used in the 
sense ' to grope.* Put for grapsen (like 
clasp ^-lA, E. clapsen), an extension from 
a base grap-, closely allied to &rope, q. v. 

Grass. (E.) M. E gms, gres, also gers. 
A. S. gars^ grces. 4- Du. IceL Goth. G. 
graj\ Swed. and Dan.^raj, 

graze (2), to feed cattle. M. E. grasen^ 
vb. — M. E. gras^ grass (above). Der, 
graz-i-er (cf. bow-y-erf law-y-er). 

Grate (i), a framework of iron bars; 
see Crate. 

Grate (2), to rub, scrape. (F.— Scand.) 
O. F. grater (F. gratter) ; Low L. craitLre, 

— Swed. kratia, Dan. kratte, to scrape. 
Grateful, Gratify ; see Grace. 
Gratis, Gratitude ; see Grace. 
Gratuitous, Gratulate ; see Grace. 
Grave (i), to cut, engrave. (E.) M. E. 

grauen. A. S. grafan^ pt. t. grSf, + Do. 
graven, Dan. grave, Icel. grafa, Swed. 
grafva, Goih. graban, G. graUn^ Gk. yp&^ 
tiv, L scribcre. (V SKARBH.) Der. 
grave, sb., a thing cut or dug out. 

engrave. (Hybrid ; F. and E.) From 
E. grave, with prefix en- (F. en, L. . in) ; 
suggested by F. engraver, in which graver 
is of Teut. origin. 

groove. (Du.) 'Dvi.groef,groeve^viffnt\t, 
a channel, a groove. — Du. graven (above). 

grove, a collection of trees. (E.) M. E, 
groue (with «=z/). — A. S. grdf, a grove; 
properly a glade. Allied to Grave (i). 
Grave (2), sad. (F. — L.) F.grave.^ 
L. grauem, ace of grouts, heavy. + Gk. 
jSapi'y, Skt. guru, heavy. 

aggpcavate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- 
grauare, to add to a load. — L. ag- ( — ad), 
to ; grauare, to load, from grauis, heavy. 

aggrieve. (F.— L) m.Y. agretun.'^ 
O. F. agrcver, to overwhelm. — O. F. a, to ; 
grever, to burden. — L. ad, to ; grauari, to 
burden, grauare, to weigh down, from 
grauis, heavy. 

grief. (F. - L.) M. E. gnef, gref, - 
O. F. grief, gref, burdensome, sad, heavy. 

— L. grauis, Der. grieve, vb. , O. F. grever^ 
L. grauare, to buixien ; from grauis. 

Gravel. (F.-C.) M.E.,^rw«ftr/.-O.F. 
gravele, dimin. of O. F. grave, graveL Of 


Celtic origin ; cf. Ilrct. groiiait, ^^lavcl, 
Corn.^rt/tt/, gravel, W. gro, pebbles. 

Gravy; see Greaves (i). 

Gray. (E.) M. E. gray, grey. A, S. 
^<ff-+Du. graauWy Icel. grdr, Dan. graa, 
Swed. gm, G. grau, L. rauus, Gk. ypdios, 
aged, gray. 

Graze (i), to scrape slightly. (F.?-L.?) 
Formerly grase. Apparently a coined 
word, founded on rasg, i.e. to scrape ; the 
initial g may have been suggested by the 
verb to graie. See Base. 

Graze (a) ; see Grass. 

Grease ; see Crass. 

Great. (E.) M. E. gret, greet. A. S. 
great. '^Dm. groot, G. gross. 

fiproat, a coin worth 4//. (Du.) M. E. 
grote. •- O. Low G. grote, a coin of Bremen ; 
meaning * great,* because large in compa- 
rison with the copper coins {Schtuaren) 
fonnerly in use there ; cf. Du. groot, great, 
coqnate with E. great. 

Greaves ( i ), Graves, sediment of melted 
tallow. (Scand) O. Swed. gre/war, dirt ; 
//'uS'grt/war, lit. • light-dirt, refuse of tal- 
low in candle-making ; Swed. dial, grevar, 
pi., greaves. + Low G. greven, greaves, G. 

gravy. (Scand.) FonntTly greavy, orig. 
an adj. formed from greave i^oT greaves)^ 
refuse of tallow. Hence gravy is (i) 
tallowy, (3) fat, gravy. 

Greaves (2), leg-armour. (F.) O. F. 
grevest 'boots, also greaves;* Cot Cf. 
Span, grebas, greaves, pi. of greba. •- O. F. 
greve, the shank, shin. Origin unknown. 

Grebe, a bird. (F. - C.) F. gribe. 
Named from its crest. — Bret, krib, a comb, 
kriben^ a tuft of feathers on a bird's head. 
So also Com. and VV. crib, comb, crest, 
Com. criban, W. cribyn, a crest, tuft. 

Greedy. (E.) A. S. gradig, gridig. + 
Du. gretig. Icel. grd^ugr, Dan. graadigt 
Goth, gredags \ Skt. gxidhra^ Rreedy, from 
^ri^-4, to be greedy. (VGARDH.) Der. 
greed, hunger; answering to Icel. grdfSr, 
Goth, gredtis, hunger. 

Green. (E.) M. E. green, A. S. grhte. 
+ jyn.groen^ Icel. grann, Dan. Svfed.gron, 
G. griin, Gk. x^^P^h Skt. hari^ green or 
yellow. (VGHAR.) Allied to Yellow and 
Grow. Green is the colour of growing 
herbs. Der. greens, pi. sb. 

Greet (i), to salute. (E.) M. E. greten. 
A. S. grJtan, to visit, address, -j* ^u* 
groeten, Q.grussen. 

Greet (2), to cry, weep. (E.) M. £. 



grctcn. A. S. i;ra:!any gKtaii. -{- Iccl. 
grdta^ Dan. gr<xdc, Swed. grata, Goth. 
gretan. Cf. Skt. hrad^ to sound, roar. 

Gregarious. (L.) 'L.gregarius, belong- 
ing to a flock. • L. greg-em^ ace. of grex, a 

aggregate. (L.) From pp. of L. ag- 
gregare, to collect into a flock. — L. ag- (for 
ad), to ; greg; stem oigrex, a flock. 

congregate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
con-gregare, to collect into a flock. 

egregious, excellent. (L.) L. egregius, 
chosen out of a flock, excellent. • L. e, 
out ; greg-, stem oi grex, a flock. 

8egp:*egate, to separate from others. 
(L.) From pp. of se gregare, to set apart 
from a flock. — L. se-, apart ; greg-, stem of 

Grenade ; see Grain. 

Grey; the same as Gray. 

Greyhound. (Scand.) M. E. greihound. 

— Icel. greyhundr, a greyhound. •- Icel. 
grey, a dog; hundr, abound. The Icel. 
grey is also used alone in the same sense of 
greyhound ; cf. greybaka, a bitch. % Not 
allied to gray, which is spelt grdr in 

Griddle, a pan for baking cakes. (C.) 
Also called girdle. M. E. gredil, •- W. 
gredyll, greidell, gradell, a circular iron 
plate to bake on, griddle ; from greidio, to 
scorch, singe. -^ Irish greideal, griddle; 
from greadaim, I scorch. Der. Hence 
M. E. gredire, a griddle, afterwards turned 
into gridiron, by confusion with M. £. ire 
m E. iron. 

Gride, to cut through. (E.) See Yard. 

Griel; Grieve ; see Grave (2). 

GrifOn, Griffon. (F. - L. - Gk.) Bet- 
ter griffon. M. E. griffon. — F. griffofi ; 
formed from Low L. griffus, a griffon. — 
L. gryphus, extended form of gtyps, a 
griffon. — Gk. 7/)v^ (stem 7/wir-), a griffon, 
a fabulous animal supposed to have a 
hooked bcak.<-iGk. ypvvof, curved, hook- 

Grig, a small eel, a cricket. (Scand.) 
Weakened form of crick, still preserved in 
crick-et', cf. Lowl. Sc. crick, a tick, louse. 

— Swed. dial, krik, krdk, a creeping crea- 
ture. — Swed. dial, krdka, to creep ; cf. G. 
kriechen, to creep, fl" In phr. *as merry 
as a grig^ grig is for Greek (Troil. i. 2. 
118) ; Merygrcck is a character in Udall's 
Roister Doister; from 'L. grcecari, to live 
like Greeks, i. e. luxuriously. 

Grill ; ^ee Crate. 

1 86 


Grim, fierce. (-£.) A. S. grim; allied 
to gram, fierce, angry, furious. 4* I^^^* 
grimmr, grim, gramr^ angry ; Dan. grim, 
grini, grants angry ; G. grimm^ fury, grants 
hostile. Allied to Gk. ypofxtf, XP^I*^* noise. 
(VGHARM, from VGHAR.) 

Qrimaoe. (F.-Scand.) F, grimace, *sl 
crabd looke,' Cot<*Icel. grima^ a mask, 
hood ; whence grimuma6r, a man in dis- 
guise. K grimace disguises the face. Cf. 
A.S. grima, a mask. Perhaps allied to Orin. 

G-nmaUdn, a cat. (E. ; partly O. H. G.) 
Prob. for gray Malkin, the latter being a 
cat's name. Malkin » Maid-kin^ dimin. of 
Mald^Maud^ i.e. Matilda ; from O. H.G. 
Alahthilt, Here maA/s might ; hilt means 

Qrime. (Scand.) Swcd. dial, grima, a 
smut on the face ; Dan. grim^ griim, lamp- 
black, soot, grime ; Icel. grima, a disguise, 
mask. Allied to Grimaoe. 

Orin, to snarl, grimace. (£.) M. £. 
grennen, A. S. gretmian^ to grin. + Du. 
grijfuny to weep, fret ; Icel. grenja, to howl, 
Dan.^nW, to grin, simper, Swed. grina, G. 
greinen. Allied to Qroan, and to Grim. 

Grind. (E.) A. S. gritidan^ pt. t. grand, 
pp. grunden. Allied to 'L.fri-are^ to rub, 
Gk. xpi-««v. to graze, Skt. ghxish, to grind. 

gprist, a supply of com to be ground. 
(E.) A. S. grist. From the base gri- of 
grind \ cf. blast from blow. 

gristle. (E.) A. S. gristle, cartilage ; 
allied to grist , and A. S. gristbltan, to gnash 
the teeth. From the base of griftd, with 
reference to the necessity of crunching it if 
eaten. So also Du. knarsbeen, gristle, 
from knarsen, to crunch. 

Gripe. (E.) A. S. gri pan, pt. t. grdp, 
"^.gripen, to seize. + Du. grijpen, Icel. 
gripa, Swed. gripa^ Dan. grihe, Goth. 
greipan, G. greifen, Russ. grabite, Skt. 
grah {VtdXc^^h), to seize. (-/GARBH.) 
Allied to grab, grasp, 

grip. (F.-Teut.) A late word.-F. 
gripper ; of Teut. origin. 

grope. (E.) A. S. grdpian, to seize, 
handle ; hence, to feel one's way. — A. S. 
grdp, pt t. oi grlpan (above). See Grasp. 

Grisette, Grisled ; sec Gnssly. 

GriskixL (Scand.) The lit sense is 
* little pig.' now spine of a hog. Dimin. 
from M. E. gris, a pig. — Icel. grlss, a 
young pig ; Dan. griis, Swed. gris, pig. + 
Gk. xoipos, a young pig. 

Grisly, terrible. (K.) A. Sw gr^slic, 


terrible. Fonned with suffix -Uc (tike) 
from gr^san, only formd in comp. 4gKh^'h 
to shudder with horror. Allied to G. 
grausig, causing horror, and to Qr a eso ms . 

Grist, Grisue ; see Grind. 

Grit, coarse sand. (K) Fonnerly gred, 
A. S. gredt, grit. + O. Fries, greit IceL 
grfSt, G. gries. (From a base GRUT.) 

groats, grain of oats. (E.) M. £. 
grotes. A. S. grdtan, pi. groats, A. S, Leech- 
doms, iii. 293. Allied to Grit. 

grout, coarse meal; grouts, dr^s. 
(E.) M. E. grut. A. S. gnit, coarse meU. 
+ Du. grut ; Icel. grautr, porridge, Dan. 
grod, Swed. grdt, boiled groats ; G. grUtu, 
groats ; Lithuan. grudas, com ; L. rudus, 
rubble. Allied to Grit. 

gruel. (F.-O. Low G.) O. F. grmel 
(F. gruau.) — Low L. grutcUum, dimin. of 
grutum, meal.oO. Low G. and T>ii.grut, 
grout (above). 

Grizzly, Grizzled, grayish. (F.— M. 
H. G.) From M. E. grisel, a gray-haired 
man. — F. gris, gray. •- M. H. G. gris, 
gray ; cf G. greis, a gray-haired man. 

grisette, a gay young Frenchwoman of 
the lower class. (^F. — M. H. G.) F. gris' 
ette\ named from the cheap gray dress 
which they used to wear. •- F. gris, gray 

Groan. (E.) M. E. gronen, A. S. 
grdnian, to groan. Allied to Grin. 

Groat ; see Great. 

Groats ; see Grit. 

Grocer ; see Gross. 

Grog, Grogram ; see Gross. 

Groin, the fork of the body, where the 
legs divide. (Scand.) The same as prov. 
E. grain, the place where the branch of a 
tree forks, the groin. — Icel. grcin, a branch, 
arm ; Dan. green, Swed. gren, branch, arm, 
fork.>/«-^</, having angular curves 
WizX. fork off , 

Groom. (E.) Prob. for goom. We find, 
indeed, O. Du. grom, Icel. gromr^ a boy, 
lad ; but these have no obvious etymology, 
and may be the same as O. Du. gom, IceL 
gumi, a man. If the r can thus be dis- 
posed of, the etym. is from A. S. guma, a 
man, allied to Icel. gumi, Goth, guma, L. 
homo, a man. In the comp. bridegroom, 
it is quite certain that the r is intrusive ; 
see Bridegroom. 

Groove; see Grave (i). 

Grope ; see Gripe. 

Gross. (F.-L.) O.Y.gros {Y.grosse), 
gross, gceJii.^'L. grossus, fat, thick. 


engroaSy to write in large letters, to 
occupy wholly. (F. — L.) The former 
(legal) sense is the older. From F. en gras, 
in large, i. e. in large characters. — L. in, 
in ; grossus, large. 

grocer. (F. — L.) Formerly grosser or 
engrosser^ a wholesale dealer. •- O. F. gros- 
sUr, a wholesale dealer. --O. F. gros, great 
(above). "Dvs. grocer-y^ {oTmerly grossety, 

grog, spirits and water. (F. --L.) Short 
from gregram; it had its name from 
Admiral Vernon, nicknamed 0/d Grog, 
from his grogram breeches (ab. a. d. 1745) ; 
he ordered the sailors to dilute their rum 
with water. 

Sn^gram, a stuff. (F. — L.) Formerly 
grogran, so called from its coarse grain. •- 
O. F. grosgrain, grogram. — O. F. gros^ 
coarse ; grain, grain. 
Grot^ Grotto, Grotesque ; see 

Ground. (E.) A. S. grund, (Very 
likely from A. S. grund-en, pp. oigrindan, 
to grind ; the orig. sense being fine dust) 
+ Da. grond, icel. grunnr^ Dan. Swed. 
G. grund \ Lithuan. gruntas. Cf. Irish 
grunnt, ground, base. 

groundling, a spectator in the pit of a 
theatre. (£.) From ground, with double 
dimin. suffix 4'ing, with a contemptuous 

grounds, dregs. (C.) This peculiar 
sense appears to be Celtic. •- Gael.grunndas, 
lees ; from grunnd, bottom, ground ; Irish 
grunt€U, dregs, from grunnt, the bottom. 
So called from being at the bottom. 

groundsel, a small plant (£.) Also 
groundsweli (Holland's tr. of Pliny). A. S. 
grundestoelge, lit * ground-swallower,* i. e. 
abundant weed. — A. S. grund, ground ; 
swelgany to swallow. 

groundsill, threshold. (E.) From 
ground and sill, q. v. Also spelt grunsel 

Group ; see Crop. 

Grouse, a bird. (F.) Grouse appears 
to be a false form, evolved from the old 
word grice, which seems to have been 
taken as a pi. form (cf. mousey mice), — 
O. F. griescke^ gray, speckled ; perdrix 
griisclu^ the gray partridge, pcule griesche, 
' a moorhen, the hen of the grice or moor- 
game ; ' Cot. The oldest form is greoches 
(13th cent., in Littr^, s. v. gri^chc\ Per- 
haps grouse may answer to this O. F. 
greockes. Origin unknown. 
Grout; see Grit. 



Grove ; see Grave (i). 

Grovel, to fall flat on the ground. 
(Scand.) Due to M, E. groveling, properly 
an adv., signifying flat on the ground ; also 
spelt gn>fling, groflinges, where the suffixes 
'ling, 'linges are adverbial; cf. head-long, 
dark-ling. — Icel. gnifa, in phr. liggia d 
grtlfu, to lie grovelling, symja dgnyfu, to 
swim on the belly ; ct also gnifa, grtljla, 
to grovel ; Swed. dial, gruva^ flat on one*s 
face, ligga d gruve, to lie on one's face. 
Perhaps allied lo Groove. 

Grow. (E.) A. S. gr&wan, pt. t. grehv, 
pp. grdwen.J^Tyn. groeijen, Icel. grda, Dan. 
groe, Swed. gro. Esp. to produce shootf , 
as herbs ; allied to Green. Der. grow-ih, 
from Icel. gr6^r, growth. 

Growl, to grumble. (Du.) Du. grollen, 
to grumble. 4- G. grollen, to rumble ; Gk. 
ypvXXlffiy, to grunt, ypv, grunting. Allied 
to Grumble. 

Grub, to grope in dirt (E.) M. E. 
grobben. Prob. allied to A. S. grdpian, 10 
grope ; see Grope. % Not allied to 
grave (i). 

Grudge, to grumble. (F.- Tent.) M.E. 
grochen, grtuchen, to murmur. — O. F. 
grocer, groucer, to murmur. Of Tcut. 
origin ; cf. Icel. krutr, a murmur, G. 
grunzen; to grunt. Clearly gru-dge, gru-nt, 
grow-l are all from the same imitative 
base ; cf. Gk. TpD, a grunt. 

Gruel; seeOrit. 

Gruesome, horrible. (Scand.) Dan.^rr/, 
horror; with suffix -som, as in virk-som^ 
active. Cf. Dan. grue, to dread, gruelig, 
horrid. + Du. gruwzaam, G. grausam. 
Allied to O. S&x,gruri, A, S.gfyre, horror, 
and to E. Grisly. 

Gruff, rough, surly. (Du.) Du. gro/, 
coarse, loud, blunt. + Swed. grv/, Dan. 
grov, G.grob, coarse. 

Grumble, to murmur. (F. — G.) F. 
grommeler (Cot.) •- O. and prov. G. 
grummelen, to grumble ; frequent, of 
grummen, grommen, to grumble (Du. 
grommen). Allied to G. gram, anger, 
grimmen, to rage ; and to E. Qrim. 

Grume, a clot of blood. (F. - L.) Rare. 
O. F. grume, a clot. — L. grumus, a little 

Grunsel ; see Groundsill. 

Grunt. (,E.) M. E. grunten ; extension 
of A. S. grunan, to grunt. + Dan. gryntc, 
Swed. grymta, G. grunzen*, so also L. 
grunnire, Gk. ypi6(,*iv. All imitative ; cf. 
Gk. 7/>t/, the noise made by a pig. 



Guaiacuxily a kind of resiii, from lignum 
Titac (Span. «- Ha}ti.) Span, fi^uayaco, 
guayacan, lignom vit^e. From the language 
of HajtL 

Guano, (Span,<-PeruT.) Span, guano, 
huana.^Ftmv, huanu, dang. 

Ooarantee, Guaranty; see "War- 

Guard; tee "Ward. 

Guava. (Span.-W. Ind.) Span. ^Mir- 
aba ; no doubt borrowed from the W. Indies. 

Gudgeon ; see Qoby. 

Guelder-rose. (Do.) Here guelder 
stands for Gueldre, the F. spelling of the 
province of Celderland in Holland. 

Guerdon, recompense. (F. — O. H. G. 
and L.) O. F. guerdon. (Ital. guidar^ 
done.)'»how L. widerdonum, a singular 
compound of O. H. G. widar, back, again, 
and L. donum^ a gift. The word is really 
a half- translation of the tipe form O. H. G. 
widarl<htf a recompense. Here widar=^ 
G. tvieder^ back again ; and ion is cognate 
with £. loan. So also A. S. wiQer-ledh, a 
recompense, lit. ' back-loan.' 

Guerilla, Guerrilla, irregular warfare ; 
see "War. 

Guess. (Scand.) M. E. gessen. Dan. 
gisse, Swed. gissa, to guess. -4- Du. gisscn, 
Icel. giska. Allied to Dan. gjette, to guess ; 
the Ictl. giska stands for git-ska^ ^ i.e. to 
try to get, from geta, to get. Thus guess 
is the dcsiderative o^ get ; see Get. 

Guest. (E.) Vi.Y..gest. A,,gest, 
^j/.+Iccl. gestr, Dan. giest^ Swed. gast, 
Du. gastf Goth, gasts, G. gasi ; L. hostis, 
a stranger, also an enemy. (^^GHAN.) 
Allied to HostUe. 

Guide. (F.-Teut.) M. E. ^(/^« (also 
gyeh). — O. F. guidcr, to guide. Cf. Ital. 
guidarct Span, guiar. The gu (for w) 
shews the word to be of Teut. origin; it must 
be from a source allied to Goth, ivitan^ to 
watch, observe, and to ^A. S. witan^ to 
know. The orig. sense was * to shew ;' cf. 
Icel. vitif a leader, signal, A. S. witan, to 
observe. Allied to Wit. 

guy-rope, guy, a guide-rope, used to 
steady a weight in heaving. (Span. — Teut.) 
Span, guia^ a guy-rope, guide. •- Span. 
guiar, to guide (above). 

Guild, Gild. (E.) The spelling guild 
is as false as it is common. M. E. gilde. 
•-AS. gildf a payment ; whence gegilda^ 
a member of a gild. — A. S. gildan, to pay, 
yield ; sec Yield. 

Guile ; sec Wile. 


Guilloftliie. (F.) NamedsAera 
aan,J,I. Guillotin, dM. a.9, 1814. Fiist 
used, 179a. 

Guilt, crime. (E.) M.E. gilL A.S. 
gylt, orig. a fine for a trespass ; hence, a 
trespass. Allied to A. S. gUdam (pC t. pi 
guldoH\ to pay, yield ; see Yield. 

Guinea. (African.) Fust coined of 
African gold from the GuUua coast, aj>. 
1 66 ju I>er. pdnea-fowL % The gutma- 
pig is from S. America; so that it may 
mean Guiana pig. 

Guise ; see Wise, sb. 

Guitar ; see Ciihem. 

Gules ; see Gullet. 

Gul£ (F.-Gk.) Formeriy goulfe.^Y. 
golfe.^ijaX'^ Gk. «uX^, a variant of Gk. 
iroXvof, the bosom, also, a deep hollow, 
bay, creek. Der. en-gulf. 

Gull (i), a bird. (C.) Com. guUan^ a 
gull ; \V. gwylan. 

gull (2), a dupe. (C.) The same ; from 
the notion that a guU was a stupid bird. 

Gullet, the throat (F. - L.) M.E. 
golet, — F. goulet (Cot.) ; dimin. of O. F. 
gole, goule (F. gueuU\ the throat. — 'L.gulOf 
the throat. (VGAR.) 

gules, red. (F.— ll) HL'E. goules^^m 
F. gueulesy gules, red ; answering to Low 
L. gula (pi. of gula\ meaning (i) mouth, 
(2) gules. Prob. from the colour of the 
open mouth of the heraldic lion. — L. ^ifiSi, 
the throat. 

gully, a channel worn by water. (F. — 
L.) Formerly gullet. — F. goulet, * a gullet, 
a deep gutter of water ;* CoL The same 
word as gullet (above). 

Gulp. (Du.) Du. gulpen^ to swallow 
eagerly. •- Du. ^tfij^, a great billow, wave, 
draught, gulp. Perhaps borrowed from 
O. F. golfe ; see Gulf. 

Gum (I), flesh of the jaws. (E.) M. E. 
gonu. A. S. gSma, jaws, palate. + Icel. gdmr^ 
Swed. gom^ G. gaumen, palate. (-^ GH A.) 

Gum (2), resin of certain trees. (F. —L. 
— Gk.) M. E. gomme. — F. gomme, -• L. 
gumtni. — Gk. xo/i/xi, gum. (Prob. of 
Eastern origin.) 

Gun. (C. ?) M. E. gonne. — W. gwn^ a 
bowl, a gim (in the latter sense as early as 
the 14th cent.) Of obscure origin ; per- 
haps orig. the * bowl * of a war-engine, in 
wliich the missile was placed. 

gunwale, upper edge of a ship's side. 
(G. and E.) See gunwale or gunnel in 
Kersey (171 5). A wo/^ is an outer timber 
on a ship's side ; and the gun-wale is a 


wale from which guns were pointed. A 
wale is a * beam ;* see Wale. 

Ourgle ; see Qc^ge. 

Gurnard, Oumet, a fish. (F. — L. ; 
with Teut suffix,) Gurnard is the better 
and fuller form. The word means *a 
^ranter/ from the sound which the fish 
makes when taken out of the water. •> O. F. 
grongnard (F. grognard)^ grunting, grunter, 
whence O. F. gmmauld, grougnaut, gur- 
nard (Cot.) — O. F. grogn-er^ to grunt ; with 
suffix -ard ( — G. Aar/). — L. grunnire, to 
grunt ; see Orunt. 

OuBh. (Scand.) Icel. gusa^ to gush; 
allied to the strong verb gj6sa (pt. t. gauss), 
to eush. Allied to Icel. gjdtay to pour, 
Goth. ^Wan, 'L.fundere. Cf. Dn.gudsen, 
to gush, (y GHU.) See Out, Geysip. 

geysir. (Icel.) Icel.,^«ryrtr,lit. 'gusher.'— 
Icel. geysa, to gush; allied XogjSsa (above). 
g^llBt (i), a sudden blast, gush of wind. 
(Scand.) Icel. gustr, gj^sta^ a gust. » Icel. 
gj6sa, to gush (above). So also Swed. dial. 
gust, stream of air from an oven. 

G-usset. (F.— Ital.) Y.gousset, *a gus- 
set,* Cot. Also * the piece of armour by 
which the arm-hole is covered,* id. Named 
from its supposed resemblance to a husk 
of a bean or pea; dimin. of F. gousse, husk 
of bean or pea. — Ital. guscio, a shell, 
husk ; of unknown origin. 

Gust (i), a blast ; see Guah. 

Gust (a), relish, taste. (L.) L..gusfus, 
a tasting ; cf. gustare, to taste. {^ GUS.) 
Allied to Choose. 

disgust) vb. (F. - L.) O. F. desgouster, 
' to distaste, loath ;* Cot - O. F. des- ( «=L. 
dis'), apart ; gousler, to taste, from L. gus- 
tare (above). 

gotlt (a), taste. (F. - L.) F. goi^, 
taste.— L. gusius (above). 

ragout. (F. — L.) F. ragoi^t, a sea- 
soned dish. •- F. ragoHter, to coax a sick 
man's appetite. — F. re-, again ; a, to ; 
goUter, to taste. — L. re-; ad; gustare. 

Gut, the intestinal canal. (£.) The 
same word as prov. R.gut, a water-course, 
channel. M. £. gutte, A. S. gut ; pi. gut' 
fas ; orig. ' a channel.' — A. S. gut-, stem of 
pt. t pL oi gedtan, to pour. (y'GHU.) 
+ Swed. |7«/fl, a milMeat, Dan. gyde, a 
lane, O. Du. gote, a channel, G. gosse, a 
drain. % No connection with gutter. 

Gutta-percha. (Malay.) The spell- 



inggutta is due to confusion with h.gutta, 
a drop, with which it has nothing to do. — 
Malay gataA, guttah, gum, balsam ; percha, 
the name of the tree producing it. 

Gutter ; see Gout (i). 

Guttural. (F. - L.) F. guttural, - L. 
gutturalis, belonging to the throat. — L. 
guttur, the throat. Perhaps allied to gutta, 
a drop ; see Gout (i). 

goitre. (F. — L.) F. gottre^ a swelled 
throat. —L.^/Z^r, debased form ofguttur, 

Guy, Guy-rope ; see Guide. 

Guzzle. (F.) O. F. gouziller, to swill 
down, swallow greedily (in the compound 
des-gouziller. Cot.) Allied to F. gosier, 
the throat, Ital. gozzo^ the crop of a bird, 
throat. Remoter source unknown. 

Gymnasium. (L. — Gk.) L. gymna- 
sium, — Gk. yvftvdffiov, an athletic school, 
where men practised naked. — Gk. yvfivd- 
Cctv, to train naked, exercise. — Gk. yvfivSi, 
naked. Dep. gymnast = yvfwaaiiqs, a 
trainer of athletes ; gymnast-ic. 

Gypsum. (L. — Gk. — Pers. ) L. gypsum, 
chalk. — Gk. yxAffov*, not found, by- form of 
yiflf^f, chalk. Prob. from Vtrs.jabsln, lime, 
Arab.y/^x, plaster, mortar. 

Gypsy. (F.-L.-Gk.- Egypt.) Spelt 
gipsen, Spenser, M. Hubbard, 86. Short 
for M. E. Egypcien, — O. F. Egyptien, — 
Late L. j^gyptianus ; from L. yEgyptiuSy 
an Egyptian. — Gk. Myimnoi. — Gk. 
hlyvnrw, Egypt, fl" The supposition that 
they came from Egypt was false ; their orig. 
home was India. 

Gyre, circular course. (L. — Gk.) L. 
gyrus, — Gk. Tv/wy, ring, circle. Der. 
gyr-ate, from pp. of L. gyrare. 

gyrfialcon, gerfalcon, bird of prey. 
(F. — Gk. ? and L.) Formerly gerfaulcon ; 
girefaucon (used by Trevisa to translate L. 
gyrofalcd). Modified from O. F. gerfauit, 
a gyrfalcon. — Low L. gerofalco, better gyro- 
falco, i.e. a falcon that flies in gyres. — L. 
gyrus, a gyre ; falco, a falcon. % Others 
make gero- stand for M. H. G. gir (G. 
geier), a vulture ; but M. H. G. ^ris itself 
derived from gyrare (Diez). 

Gyves, fetters. (C.) M. E. giues, gyues. 
Of Celtic origin ; cf. W. gefyn, Gael, geimh- 
eal {mh = v), Irish geimfual, geibheal, a 
fetter, gyve, bondage, captive. — Irish ^«M- 
im, I get, obtain, gabh, I take ; cf. L.capere, 



.'^ exclxmutory soand. 
^.^ :j iimoce laughter; 

iT. 1 idler of small wares. 

••o, - '^'^t t'rom his selling 

. . -.-i '.s^- Jx O. F. ; see Liber 

. .*. 'jL iif, 231.-0. Icel. 

j> .;■ small \-alue (Gud- 

,_•&« 1 >uspect that the true 
-^.i> ■*'a.-tt,* named from the 
. -_i.^: jcy were carried; from 
.. .. ^ -. jL.yr, a haversack ; orig. 
A^ ^ IvxL Aj/r, oats ; ias^a, 
— j. uiiC.ic, a pouch;. Sec 

_ s« Hauberk, 

c^ '.. : lutajis . ace Habit, 
c ^ i . . « a-- -Of, custom, dress. (F. - L. ) 
«... _t»» A custom. — L. /w^/Vi/w, 
•4. . i rendition, dress. — L. /ladi- 
. -.t'i. to have, keep. 
*i^, .. -;; yvwcr, skilful. (F.-L.) 
^30 «aV. — O. F. habile J abU^ 
.Hi. « 1. kjibilis, easy to handle, 
, ^ , .j-'w. Der. abil-i'ty (from 

• ««-^«. i yrojx>rtionate amount. (F. 

, . ir. li.sV ,L. avcragium, from 

i, . i. ^yXlt^ signifies service which 

... t. -II. .-^^ the king or other lord, by 

.^ ... ^.\ oc bv carriage with either,' &c ; 

..;. .. . :jiw £>ict.. ed. 1691. It meant 

..^ , b,v>^ carriage, payment for car- 

..j^x iw» jMvmcnt proportional to horses 

....;"..'. ysK .^c,'; at sea. payment propor- 

ii.w« ,v "..-^o*.^ of goods carried by a ship. 

•^- w.fA.-;»-nJs.v is French, answering to 

, rtv U JK%'nyx«/» above. - Low L. avc- 

. .♦/I.,, .tv^jxrrtv.goods, but esp. cattle, horses 

... ; oul. Sc'4m'w/-, a horse). - O. F. aver 

* A%vr\ to have, also, as sb., goods, pro- 

,N,.-;^.*L. habere^ to have, possess. 

^^umoole, a box for a ship's compass. 
T*,Mt,— L.) A singular corruption of the 
.hl^er woid bittack, by confusion with bin, 
« chest - Port, bitacola, a bittacle (i. e. 
Jusuiade); Vicyra. Cf. Span, bitacora, 
>'. kabitacU, the same. The Port, bitacola 
J.^.\\& for kabitacola*^ the first syllable 
Sfing lost.-L. hajbitandum, a little dwell- 
iJ^e. ' the frame of timber in the steerage 
^M \ ship where the compass stands ' 
Bailey), and prob. (at first) a shelter for | 

the steersman. •> L. habitant to dwell, fre- 
quent, oi habere, 

cohabit. (L.) L. cohabitare, to dwell 
together with ; see habitation below. 

debenture, acknowledgment of a debt 
(L.) Formerly debentur (Bacon). —L. dt- 
beiiittr, lit 'they are due,* because such 
receipts began with the words debentur 
niihi (Webster) ; pr. pi. pass, of debeo, I 
owe ; see debt (below). 

debilitate. (L.) From pp. of L. debili- 
tare,\o weaken. — L. debiiis, weak ; put for 
de-hibi/is*, 1.0. not active. — L. de, away, 
not ; hiibi/is, active ; see able (above). 

debt. (F. - L. ) A bad spelling of dett. 
M. E. dcf/e. — O. F. det/e (afterwards mis- 
spelt dcb/e). — L. dcbi/a^ a sum due ; fem. 
of debitus, owed, pp. of debere, to owe. 
Debcre = de'hibcre*, i.e. to have away, have 
on loan. — L. de, down, away; habere, to 
have. Der. debt -or, M. E. dettur, from 
O. F. detcur, L. ace. debitorem, 

deshabille, careless dress. (F. — L.) 
F. dJshabiHe, undress. — F. deshabiller, to 
undress. — F. di's (L. dis-), apart, away, un- ; 
habillcr, to dress ; see habiliment (below). 

devoir, duty. (F.-L.) U.Kdeuoir. 
— O. F. devoir, dever, to owe. — L. deben, 
to owe ; see debt (above). 

due. (F. -L.) M. E. dewe. - O. F. deu, 
masc, deue, fem.; pp. of devoir, to owe 

duty. (F. - L.) M. E. duetee, in the 
sense ' debt due.* A coined word, formed by 
analogy with E. words in -tjf (of F. origin), 
from the adj. due (above). 

endeavour, to attempt (F. - L.) 
Coined from the M. E. sb. dever, devoir, 
duty, with F. prefix en- ( = L. in). Due to 
the old phr. ' to do his dever' =■ to do his 
duty (Ch. C. T. 1600) ; see devoir (above). 

exhibit, to shew. (L.) L. exhibit us, 
pp. of cx-hibere, to hold forth. 

habiliment, dress. (F.-L.) F. hab- 
illement, clothing. — F. habilier, to clothe, 
orig. * to get ready.* — F. habile, ready. — 
L. habilis ; see able (above). 

habitable. (F. - L.) F. JmbitabU. - 
L. habitabilis, that can be dwelt in. — L. 
habitare^ to dwell, frequent, of habere. 

habitant, (F.-L.) Y. liabitant, ^rts. 
pt. of habiter, to dwell. — L. habitare, fre- 
quent, of habere. 


habitat, the natural abode of a plant. 
(L.) L. habitat, it dwells (there) ; pres. 
s. of habitarCt to dwell (above). 

habitation, abode. (F.-L.) F.Ao^'- 
tation, — L. ace habitationtm. ■- L. habi' 
tattis, pp. of habitare, to dwell, frequent, 
of habere, 

habitude. (F.-L.) Y. habitude, tm- 
torn. — h.habitudOfCOJi<\ition.^h.habitu-mf 
supine of habere, 

inhabit. (F. - L.) F. inhabiter.^U 
in-habitare, to dwell in; see habitation 

inhibit, to check. (L.) L. inhibittis, 
pp. of in-hibere, to keep in, hold in. 

prebend. (F. — L.) O. F. prebende 
{Y.pribende\ — L,. prabenda, a payment, 
stipend from a public source ; orig. fem. 
of fut. part, of prcebere, to afford, give. 
— L./n7, before, habere, to have; whence 
prcthibere, contr. to prabere, Der. pre- 

prohibit, to check. (L.) L. prohibitus, 
pp. oi pro'hibere, to hold before one, put 
in one's way, prohibit. 

provender. (F. - L.) The final r is 
an £. addition, as in lavender ; it is prob. 
due to M. E. provendi, a trisyllabic word. 
-• F. provende, 'provender, also, a pre- 
bendry ; * Cot — L.. prabenda, a payment ; 
in late L., an allowance of provisions, also 
a pr ebend ; see prebend (above). 
Habitable, Habitant, &c.; see Habit. 
Hack (I), to cut, mangle. (E.) M. E. 
hakken, A.S. haccan (Bosworth ; unautho- 
rised). + Du. hakken, Dan. Iiakke, Swed. 
hacka, G. hacken, to chop, hack. 

ha^^gle (i). to hack awkwardly, mangle. 
(E.) A weakened form of hackle, frequent. 
of hack, to cut 

hash, a dish of meat cut into slices, &c. 
<F. - G.) O. F. hachis, hash. - F. hachcr, 
to hack. •- G. hacken, to hack (above). 

ha1;oh (3), to shade by minute lines, 
crossing each other. (F. — G.) F. hacher, 
to hack, also to hatch or engrave; see 

hatchet. (F. - G.) M. E. hachet. - F. 
hachctte, dimin. of hoc he, an axe. — ¥, hacher, 
to cut.«-G. hacken, to cut. 
Hack (2) ; see Haokney. 
Hackbut. (F. - Du.) Also hagbut.^ 
O. F. haquebuie, * a haquebut, a odiver ' 
f i. e. a sort of musket) ; Cot. So called 
from the bent form of the gim ; the bent 
stock was a great improvement on the 
orig. straight one. A conuption of Dn. 



haakbus, an arquebus ; due, apparently, to 
some confusion with O. F. buter, to thrust. 
— Du. hcuik, hook ; bus, gun. See Arqne- 


Hackle (i), Hatchel, an instrument 
for dressing flax; see heckle, under Hook. 

Hackle (2) ; see heckle, under Hook. 

Hackney, Hack, a horse let out for 
hire. (F.-Du.?) M. E. hakmey. - O. F. 
haquenee, * an ambling horse ; * Cot. (Cf. 
Span, hacanea, Ital. chinea, short for ac- 
chinea, the same.) — O. Du. hackeneye, a 
hackney (Hexham). Of obscure origin; 
but prob. from Du. hakken, to hack, chop, 
v^ ^^ggff & nsLg. Perhaps Du. hakken 
may have meant ' to jolt ;' cf. Swed. hacka, 
to hack, hew, chatter with cold, stammer, 
stutter. % Hack is short for hcuknty, and 
quite a late form ; hence hctck, verb, i. e. to 
use as a hack or hackney. 

Haddock, a fish. (£.?) lA.Ys. haddoke 
( 1 6th cent.) Orig. doubtful ; the Irish for 
' haddock * is codog. 

Hades, the abode of the dead. (Gk.) 
Gk. 9817s, 018175 (Attic), 4/817S (Homeric), 
the nether world. 'Usually der. from a, 
privative, and I8ci>, to see [as though it 
meant ' the unseen '] ; but the aspirate in 
Attic makes this very doubtful;* Liddell 
and Scott. 

Hsmatite, Hemorrhage; see He- 
matite, Hemorrhage. 

Haft ; see Have. 

Hag. (E.) M. E. hagge ; with same 
sense as A. S. hcegtesse, a witch, a hag. -f> 
G. hexe, M. H. G. hacke, a witch, O. H. G. 
hdzissa [prob. short for hc^a*is5a*\ a 
witch. Most likely from A. S. haga, a 
hedge, bush ; it being supposed that witches 
were seen in hedges by night See Hag- 
gard (i) below. ^ We may particularly 
note Du. hcuigdis, haagedis, a lizard (plainly 
from Du. haag, a hedge), which strikingly 
resembles A. S. hcegtesse, . Cf. urchin, 

haggard (a), lean, meagre. (£.) Orig. 
hagg-ed, i.e. hag-like, from hag. 'The 
ghostly prudes with hagged face,* Gray,. 
A Long Story, near end. Alisspelt by con- 
fusion with the word below. 

Haggard (i), wild, said of a hawk; 
see Haw. 

Haggard (a), lean ; see Hag. 

Haggle (i), to mangle; see Hack (i). 

Haggle (a), to be slow in making a bar- 
gain. (E.) In Cotgrave, s. v. harcekr. 
Doubtless a weakened form of hackle; fre- 
quent of hack (i), to hew, cut, hence to 



mangle, stammer, and so to wrangle, cavil. 
This appears more plainly by Du. hakkeUn, 
'to hackle, mangle, faulter,* i.e. stammer 
(Sewel) ; hakketeren^ to wrangle, cavil. It 
is ultimately the same word as Haggle (i). 
higgle, to bargain. (£.) Merely a 
weakened form of the above. 

Hagiographa, holy writings. (Gk.) 
Gk. hrfiiiTf^a^ (3(/3Aia), books written by 
inspiration, i- Gk. 0710-;, holy ; ypd«p-€tv, to 

Ha-ha, Haw-haw ; see Haw. 

Hail (1), frozen rain. (E.) M. E. ^ia^Jiel, 
hayl, A. S. hagal, hagol. + Icel. hagl^ Du. 
Dan. Swed. G. hagcU Cf. Gk. koucKtj^, a 
round pebble. 

Hall (a), to greet; see Hale (i). 

Hail I (3) an exclamation; see Hale (i). 

Hair. (E.) M. E. Aeer. A. S. Aar, hir. 
+ Du. hoar, Icel. hdr^ Dan. haar, Swed. 

HaJce, a fish ; see Hook. 

Halberd; see Helm (i). 

Halcyon, a king-fisher; as adj. serene. 
(L. wm Gk.) Halcyon days = calm days ; 
it was supposed that the weather was calm 
when king-fishers were breeding. — L. 
halcyon^ alcyon, a king-fisher. » Gk. &\kvuv, 
AkKv^f a king-fisher. Allied to L. alcedp, 
the true L. name. 

Hale (I), whole. (Scand.) M. E. heil. 
— Icel. heiilf Dan. heel, Swed. hel^ hale. 
Cognate with A. S. hdl, whole, Goth, kails, 
Gk. «aX<$r, fair. See whole (below). 

hail (2), to greet. (Scand.) M. E. 
hiiUn ; a verb coined from Icel. heill, hale 
(above) ; this word is common in greeting 
persons, z.% far heill ^izx^vftW, kom heill, 
welcome, hail I The Scand. verb is Icel. 
heilsa, Swed. helsa, Dan. hilse, to greet. 

hail (.^), an exclamation. (Scand.) Icel. 
heill, hale, sound; used in greeting; see 

halibut, holibut, a fish. (E.) So 
called because excellent eating for holidays ; 
the lit. sense is * holy (i. e. holiday) plaice.* 
From M. E. kali, holy (see holy), and 
hutte, a plaice (Havelok, 1. 759). So also 
Du. heilbot, halibut, from heilig, holy, bot^ 
a plaice ; Swed. helgHundra, a halibut, 
from helg, holidays, y?y;i^nz, a flounder. 

hallow, to sanctify. (E.) M. E. halwen^ 
halewen, halowen. A. S. hdlgian, to make 
holy, from hAlig^ holy ; see holy (below). 

hallowinaas, feast oi All Hallows, i.e. 
All Saints, (Hybrid; E. and L.) Short 
for All Hallows^ Mass, mass (or feast) of 


All Saints. Here hallow^ is the ges. 
of hallows^ pL of M. E. halowt or htuwt, 
a saint a A. S. hdlga, a saint, deC foim 
of the adj. hdlig, holy ; see holy (below), 
and Maas. 

heaL (E.) M. E. heUn. A. S. MtUm^ 
to make whole; formed from hdl^ whole, 
by the usual change from d to «^; see 
whole (below). 

health. (E.) A. S. h&VS, health; firom 
hdl, whole ; see heal above. 

holiday, a festival. (E.) Put for Aojr 

hollyhock, a kind of mallow. (Hybrid; 
E. and C.) M. E. holihoc, L e. holy hock. 
A S. holihocce, the same. Compounded 
oi holy, and a word hock, meaning 'mal- 
low,* borrowed from Celtic We find W. 
hocys, mallows, hocys bendigoid, hollyhock, 
lit. 'blessed mallow,' where bendigaid'^ 
L. benedictus. So called because indi- 
genous to Palestine, the Holy Land. 

holy, sacred. (E.) [This word is merely 
the M. E. hool, whole, with sufhx -y ; and 
therefore closely allied to hale,"] M. £. 
holi, holy, A. S. hdlig, holy; from A S. 
hdl, whole. The orig. sense was 'perfect* 
or 'excellent.* -f- Du. heilig, holy, from 
fuel, whole; so also Icel. heilagr, htlgr, 
from heill \ Dan. heilig, from heel\ Swed. 
helig, firom hel\ G. heilig, from hdl. See 
whole (below), and Hale (above). 

wassail, a festive occasion, festivity. 
(E.) Orig. a pledge or wishing of health 
at a feast. The A. S. form was wes hdl, 
lit. ' be whole ; ' where wes is the imper. 
of wesan, to be ; and hdl is the £. whole. 
But the Scand. (Icel.) heill has been sub- 
stituted, in this expression, for the A. S. 
hdl, causing a jumble of dialects. 

whole. (E.) M. E. hole (without w). 
A. S. hdl, whole. Cognate with Hale (i), 
Goth, hails, Gk. KdK6s, 
Hale (2), Haul, to drag, draw violently. 
(F.— Scand.) M. E. halien, halen. ^ ¥, 
halcr, to haul a boat, &c. (Littre). — IceL 
hala, Swed. hala, Dan. hale, to hale, hauL 
4- A. S. holian, geholian, to acquire, get ; 
G. holcn, to fetch, haul; L. calare, to 
summon. (^KAR.) 

halliard, halyard, a rope for hoisting 
sails, (F. — Scand. and E.) Short for 
hale-yard, because it hales the yards into 
their places. 

Half. (E.) M. E. half. A S. htalf + 
Du. half, Icel. hdlfr, Swed. half, Dan. 
halv, Goth, halbs, G. halb. Allied to 


A. S. htalf, sb., Icel. Ulfa, GotL halha, 
G. halby side. Der. hahoe, verb. 

behalf^ interest (K) Formerly in the 
M. K phrase on my behtdue » on my 
behalf, on my side; substituted for the 
A. S. phr. on healfe^ on the side of, by 
confusion with be healfe^ used in the same 
sense. From A. S. healft sb., side (above). 
Be « by, prep. 

Halibut ; see Hale. 

Haa (E.) M. E. halle, A. S. heall, 
heal, a hall, orig. a shelter. — A. S. hal, pt. 
t. of helan, to hide. -f> Du. hal, Icel. hall^ 
h'dll, O. Swed. hall Allied to CeU. 

Hallelidahy AUeluia, an expression of 
praise. (Heb.) Heb. haleM jdh, praise ye 
Jehovah. •- Heb. htilelii, praise ye (from 
kalalf to shine, praise) ; jdhf God. 

Halliard, Halyard ; see Hale (a). 

HalloOy Halloa, a cry to call attention. 
(E.) M. E. haiow. A. S. eald, inteij. 
(veiy common). Prob. often confused with 
Holla, q. V. 

Hallow, HaUowmass ; see Hale. 

Hallucination, wandering of mind. 
(L.) L. hallucinatio, a wandering of the 
mind. ■■ L. hallucinari, alludnarif aiuci- 
nari, to wander in mind, dream, rave. 

Halm ; see Haulm. 

Halo, a luminous ring. (L. — Gk.) L. 
ace halo, from nom. halos.^GV, Si\an, a 
round threshing-floor, in which the oxen 
trod out a circular path. (-/WAL, WAR.) 
Allied to Voluble. 

Halaer; see Hawser. 

Halt, lame. (£.) M. E. hall. A. S. 
Aea/i, + IceL halfr, Dan. Swed. ha/l, 
Goth. haHs, O. H. G. halg. Der. half, 
verb, A. S. healtian. 

Halt I (F. - G.) F. halte. - G. halt, hold ! 

Halter. (E.) M. E. halter (an / has 
been lost). A. S. healfter, halftre, a halter. 
•f O. DiL and G. halfter. 

Halyard; see Hale (a). 

Ham. (£.) M. E. hamme, A. S. hamm. 
•4- Prov. G. hamme. Lit. 'bend of the 
1^ ; * allied to W. cam, bent, L. camurus, 
crooked. (^^KAM.) Allied to Qafnmon 
(i), Oambol. 

Hamadryad ; see Dxyad. 

Hamlet ; see Home. 

Hammer. (£.) A. S. hamor. -f Icel. 
hamarr, Dan. hammer, Swed. hammare, 
Dn. hamer, G. hammer. Thought to be 
allied to Russ. kamene, a stone, Skt. 
Ofmam, a stone, thunderbolt. 



Hammercloth. (Du. and E.) The 
cloth which covers a coach-box ; lit. cover- 
cloth; adapted from Du. hemel, heaven, 
also a cover, tester, canopy. 'Den hemel 
van een koetse, the seeling of a coach ; ' 
Hexham. Dimin. of A. S. hama, Icel. 
hamr, a coverings (^KAM.) Allied to 

Hammock, a slung net for a bed. (W. 
Ind.) Formerly hamaca; Span, hatftaca. 
A West Indian word. 
Hamper (i), to impede. (E.) M. E. 
hamperen, hampren ; a variant of hamelen 
(later hamble), to mutilate, esp. used of 
' expeditation,' i. e. the cutting out of the 
ball of a dog*s fore-foot, to hamper him 
from pursuing game. A. S. hamelian, to 
maim. 4* IceL hamla, G. hammeln, to 
maim; allied to Goth, hamfs, maimed, 
Gk. Koxpif, blunt, dumb, deaf. (y^SKAP.) 
Hamper (1), a kind of basket. (Low L. 
•- F. — G.) Formerly spelt hanaper,^ 
Low L. hanaperium, orig. a vessel to keep 
cups in. — O. F. hanap (Low L. lianapus), 
a drinking-cup. — O. H. G. hnapf, M. H. G. 
napf, a cup. ^ A. S. hn<tp, Du. nap, a 
cup, bowl. 

nanaper, old form of Hamper (above). 
Hence Hanaper office, named from the 
basket in which writs were deposited. 
Hand. (E.) A. S. hand, hond, 4> Du. 
hand, Icel. hond, hand, Dan. hcutnd, Swed. 
hand, Goth, handus, G. hcutd. Lit. * seizer ;* 
from hanth, base of Goth, hinthan, to seize. 

handcuff. (£.) A cuffiox the hand\ 
but really an adaptation otM. E. handcops, 
a handcuff. ^ A. S. handcops, a handcuff. — 
A. S. hand, hand ; cops, a fetter. 

handicap, a race for horses of all 
ages. (E.) From hand f cap, hand in the 
cap, a method of drawing lots ; hence, a 
mode of settlement by arbitration, &c. 

handicraft. (E.) A.S. handcraft, a 
trade ; the i being inserted in imitation of 
handiwork (below). 

handiwork. (E.) M.E. handtwert-, 
A. S. hcmdgeweorc, * A. S. hand, hand ; 
geweorc, the same as weorc, work. The 
f is due to A. S. ge. 

handle. (E.) A..S. handlian; formed 
with suffix •/ and causal -tan from hctnd, 
hand. So also Du. handelen, Icel. hbndla, 
Dan. handle, Sw. handla, G. handeln, to 
handle, or to trade. Der. handle, sb. 

handsel, hansel, first instalment of a 
bargain. (Scand.) Icel. handscU, the con- 
clusion of a bargain by shaking hands; liL 




* hand-sale ;* so also Dan. Mandrel, Swed. 
Aandioi, a handsel. See Sale. 

handBome. (£.) M. £. Aandnim, our. 
tractable, or dexterous. — A. S. Mand, hand ; 
•sum, suffix, as in myn-sum, winsome.+Du. 
handzaam^ tractable, serviceable. 

handy (i), dexterous. (£.) M. E. 
h€ndt (never handt), A. S. hendig^ skilful ; 
formed from hand, hand, with suffix -ig 
and vowel-change. -f> Du. kandig, Dan. 
handig, hehctndig^ Swed. hdndig, dexterous ; 
Goth. handugSf clever. 

handy (a), near. (E.) Vi.'E.hmde. A.S. 
gehtnde, near, at hand. — A. S. hand, hand. 

Hang, to suspend, to be suspended. (£.) 
The original strong verb was intransitive ; 
the weak verb was transitive ; they are now 
mixed up. The weak verb is from A. S. 
Aangian, pt t. hangode, to cause to hang ; 
derived from the base of the A. SL strong 
verb h6n (contracted form of Aangan), pt. 
t. AAtg, pp. Aangen.^lcel, hcngja, weak 
verb, trom hanga (pt t hikk, for hMt *, 
pp. Aafigiftn) ; G. Mngtn, weak verb, from 
G. h€Mgm (pt t. king, pp. gehangeri). 
Allied to L. cunctaH, to delay, Skt. fonkf 
to hesitate. (VKAK.) 

hank, a parcel of skeins of yam. 
(Scand.) Icel. hanki^ a hasp, clasp, hbnkf 
hangTf a hank, coil ; Swed. hank, a string, 
G. henkelf a handle, ear of a vessel. The 
orig. sense seems to have been 'a loop' to 
hang up by. From the verb above. 

hanker, to long after. (E.) Cf. prov. 
E. hank, to hanker after, of which it is a 
frequent, form ; cf. the phr. • to ^«^ about.* 
From the verb above. Verified by O. Du. 
hengelen^ to hanker after (from hangen) \ 
O. Du. honkeren (Du. hunkeren), to hanker 

hinge. (Scand.) M. E. henge, that on 
which the door hangs ; from M. £. hengen, 
to hang. — Icel. hengfa, to hang (above). 

Sanseatio, pertaining to the Hanse 
towns in Germany. (F.-O. H. G.) O.F. 
hanse, the hanse, i. e. society of merchants. 
— O. H. G. hansa (G. hanse), an association ; 
cf. Goth, hansa, A. S. h6s, a band of men. 
(About A.D. I T40.) 

Hansel ; see Handsel. 

Hansom, a kind of cab. (E.) From the 
name of the inventor (no doubt the same 
word as handsome). 

Hap. (Scand.) M. E. hap. - Icel. happ, 
hap, chance, good luck; cf. A.S. gehap, 
fit The W. hap must be borrowed from 
£. Der. happy, i.e. lucky; hap-less, i.e. 


luckless ; hap-fy, by Indk (ht^f^^ 
in the same sense). 

happen. (Scand.) M. E. happtmm, 
hapnen, extended from happem, i.e^ to hap. 
From the sb. above. 

mishap. (Scand.) M. £. miskappen, 
verb, to fall out ill ; from Kia- (1) and Hap. 
perhaps. (L. and Scand.) A dumsf 
hybrid compound.— L. per, by (as in /ff^ 
chance, where /^r is, strictly, F*/*'') » *€^» 
pi. of hap. 

Harangue; seeBing. 

Harass. (F.) O.F. harasser, to tire 
out, vex, disquiet Perhaps from O.F. 
harer, to set a dog at a bowt.-»0. H.G. 
haren, to call out, cry out (heoce cry to a 
dog). (VKAR.) 

Harbinger; see Harbour. 

Harbour, shelter. (Scand.) M. E. i/r- 
derwe. — \ct\.h€rbergi, a harbour, lit 'army- 
shelter.* - Icel. herr, an army; barg,jX,\^ 
of bjarga, to shelter ; O. Swed. kirverge, 
an inn, from har, army, berga, to defiend; 
O. H. G. herebefga, a camp, lodgine, from 
O. H. G. heri (G. heer), an army, bergam, 
to shelter (whence Y.auberge, \taX.aiiergo). 
(V KAR ; and see Borough.) Dor. Aor- 
hour, verb. 

harbinger, a forerunner. (F. — O. H.G.) 
M. E. herbergeour, one Who provided lodg- 
ings for a man of rank.-»0. F. herberg^er, 
to lodge, to harbour; with suffix 'Our (L. 
•atorem).^0. F. herherge, a lodging, har- 
bour.— O. H. G. hereberga (above). 

Hard. (E.) A.S. ^^an/. + Du. hard\ 
Icel. hardr, Dan. haard, Swed. hdrd, Goth. 
hardus, G. hart. Perhaps allied to GL 
Kparw, strong. 

hardy, stout, brave. (F. — O. H. G.) 
M. E. hardi. — O. F. hardi, brave ; orig. 
pp. of hardir, lit. to harden. -■ O. H. G. 
hartjan, to harden, make strong. -■ O. H. G. 
harti (G. hart), hard (above). 

Hare. (E.) A. S. ^anx.-f Du. haas, Dan. 
Swed. hare, Icel. hiri, G. hctse, W. ceinach 
(Rhys), Skt fWfa, orig. pzxa, a hare. The 
Skt word means 'jumper,* from f«^ (for 
fOf), to jump, leap along. 

harebell. (E.) From hart and belL 
(Other derivations are fables.) 

harrier (i). (E.) Formerly harUr\ 
from hare. Cf. bow-yer from bcw. 

Harem, set of apartments for females. 
(Arab.) Also haram. ■- Arab, haram, 
women's apartments, lit. 'sacred,* or 'prohi- 
bited.'— Arab, root harama, he prohibited 
(because men were prohibited firomenterin^^ 


Haricot (i), a stew of mutton, (a) 
kidney bean. (F.) F. haricot, 'mutton 
sod with little tumeps,' &c ; Cot. The 
sense of ' bean * is late ; that of ' minced 
mutton with herbs* is old. The oldest 
spelling is herigpte, 14th cent Origin un- 

Hark ! see Hear. 

Harlequin. (F.) F. arlequin, harlequin^ 
a harlequin ; cf. Ital. arUcchino, a buffoon, 
jester. The Ital. word seems to be derived 
from F. ; the O. F. phrase was li maisnie hicr- 
lekin (Low L. harUquini familias), a troop 
of demons that haunted lonely places. This 
I believe to be derived from O. Fries, helle 
kin (A. S. htlU cyn, Icel. heljar kyn), i. e. 
the kindred of hell, host of hell, troop of 
demons. The change from hellequin to 
harlequin arose from a popular etymology 
which connected the word with CharUs 
Quint \ Max Miiller, Lect. ii. 581. 

Harlot (F. - Teut.) Grig, used of 
either sex, and not always in a very bad 
sense ; equiv. to mod. E. * fellow ;' Ch. 
C. T. 649. •- O. F. herlots arlot, a vagabond ; 
Prov. arlot, a vagabond ; Low L. arhtus, 
a glutton. Of disputed origin ; prob. from 
O. H. G. karl, a man. Hence also carloty 
As You Like It, iii. 5. loS, and the name 

Harm, sb. (E.) M. E. harm, A.S. hearm, 
grief, also harmu-f>Icel. hamir, grief, Dan. 
harme, wrath, Swed. harm, anger, grief, 
G. harm, grief, Russ. sratne, shame ; Skt 
crama, toil, from ^ram ; to be weary. (^ 
KARM.) Der. harm, verb. 

Harmony, concord. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
M. E. harmonie. — F. harmonie, — L. har- 
monia.^Qi\i, dpfiovla, a joint, proportion, 
harmony. * Gk. dpfi6s, a joining. — Gk. 
£p€iy, to fit. (-/AR.) 

Harness ; see Iron. 

Harp. (E.) M. E. harpe. A. S. hearpe. 
+Du. harp, Icel. harpa, Swed. harpa, 
Dan. harpe, G. harfc. Perhaps allied to 
L. crepare, to crackle ; if so, it meant 

harpsichord. (F.-Teut.a/i^Gk.) For- 
merly harpsechord, with intrusive j.— F. 
harpechord, 'a harpsichord,* Cot. From 
Teutonic and Greek ; see Harp and Chord. 

Harpoon. (F. — L.) Formerly also har- 
pan, which is the F. spelling. — F. harpon, 
a cramp-iron, a grappling-iron; whence 
also Da. harpoen,''(>,¥, harpe, a dog's 
daw or paw; cf. se harper, to grapple. 
Qi, also Span, arpon, a harpoon, arpar, to 



claw, rend; ItaL arpa^one, a harpoon, 
arpese, cramp-iron ; arpino, a hook. The 
Ital. arpagone is plainly from L. ace harpa' 
gonem, a hook, grappling-iron ; so also L. 
harpaga, hook, harpax, rapacious. All 
from Greek ; cf. Gk. o/nraTi}, a hook, ifnra^, 
rapacious, afymj, a bird of prey ; from d^-, 
base of dfyird{fiv, to seize, cognate with L. 
rapere. See Harpy. 

Harpsichord ; see Harp. 

Harpy. (F.-L.-Gk.) O. F. har^, 
— L. harpyia, usually in pi. harpyia. — Gk. 
pL apirvicu, lit. 'spoilers.' — Gk. dfnr-, base 
of d/wafciv, to seize, cognate with L. rapere. 
See Bapacious. 

Harquebus ; see ArquebuB. 

Harridan, a jade, a worn-out woman. 
(F.) A variant of O. F. hqridelle, * a poor 
tit, Icane ill-favored jade,* Cot. ; i.e. a 
worn- out horse. Prob. from O. F. harer, 
to set on a dog, hence to vex ; see Harass, 

Harrier (i)t a hare-hound ; see Hare. 

Harrier (a), a kind of buzzard; see 

Harrow, sb. (E.) M. E, harwe. Not 
found in A. S.+Du. hark, a rake; IceL 
herfi, Dan. harv, a harrow ; Swed. harka, 
a rake, harf, a harrow ; G. harke, a rake. 

Harry, to ravage. (E. ) M. E. harwen, 
herien, her^icn. A. S. hergioft, to lay waste, 
as is done by an army. •- A. S. herg-, base 
of here, an army. ^ Icel. herja, to ravage, 
from herr, army ; Dan. harge, from har. 
The sense of here is ' destroyer.* {^ KAR.) 
harrier (a), a kind of buzzard. (E.) 
I.e. harry-er, because it destroys small 
birds. And see Heriot. 

Harsh. (Scand.) M. E. harsk, ■■ Dan. 
harsk, rancid ; Swed. hdrsk, rank, rancid, 
rusty. ^ G. harsch, harsh, rough. Cf. 
Lithuan. kartus, harsh, bitter (of taste); 
Skt kvitf to cut. 

Hart. (E.) M. E. hart. A.S. heort, 
heorot.+'DvL, hert, Icel. hjortr, Dan, hiort, 
Swed. hjort, G. hirsch, O. H. G. hirus. 
Allied to L. ceruus, W. carw, a hart, homed 
animal ; cf. Gk. K^pa;, a horn. See Horn. 

Harvest. (E.) A. S. harf est , autumn ; 
orig. 'crop.* + Du. herfst, G. herbst, 
autunm ; Icel. haust, Dan. Swed. host (con- 
tracted forms). Allied to L. carpere, to 
gather. (-/ KARP. for SKARP.) 

Hash; see Hack (i). 

Hasp. (E.) A. S. hapse, bolt, bar of a 
door.^Icel. hespa, Dan. Swed. G. haspe, 
hasp. Lit * that which fiti / cC A. S. 
gehap, fit ; see Hap. 



(C.) M. E. hassok, ang, coarse 
pass or sedge, of which the coTering of 
haw o ckn was made. — W.^ppp; adj., sedgy, 
from hag, s. pL» sedges ; <£ W. hes^, a 
sieve, hesor, a hassock, pad. Allied to 
Irish seisg, a sedge, bog-reed. 

Hastate, spear-shai^ (L.) L.hasta£us, 
spear-like. — h. karta, a spear. Allied to 

Haste, verb and sb. (Scand) O. Swed. 
hasia, to haste, hut, haste; Dan. haste, 
to haste, hast, haste, -f O. Fries, hast, sb., 
Do. haastm, G. hasten, vb.. Da. haast, G. 
hcut, sb. Allied to Skt fOf (for fas\ to 
jnmp; see Hare. (V KAS.) J>er. hmst-tn, 
XVI cent 

Hat. (£.) A.S. ^/.-l-IceL^^/r, Swed. 
hatt, Dan. hat. Cf. L. ^ojjtr, a helmet. 

Hatch (0, a half-door. (E.) M. E. 
hatche ; a hatch also meant a latch of a 
door. North £. heck, A. S. hcua, bolt or 
bar of a door ; also hacce, a hoolc+Du. 
hek, fence, rail, gate, Swed. hiUk, coop, 
rack, Dan. hah, hakke, rack. Allied to 
Hook. The orig. sense was prob. a latch 
or a catch of a door ; hence, varions modes 
of fastening. Der. hatch-es, pL sb., a 
frame of cross-bars over an opening in a 
ship's deck ; hatch-way, 

natoh (2), to produce a brood by incn- 
bation. (E.) From the coop or hatch in 
which the mother-bird sits. Thos Swed. 
hikka, to hatch, from hikk, a coop ; Dan. 
hakkibuur, a breeding-cage, from hakke, a 

Hatch (3), to shade by lines, in engrav- 
ing ; Hatchet, axe ; see Hack (i). 

fiatchee ; see Hatch (i). 

Hatchment, escutcheon ; see Capital (i). 

Hate, sb. (£.) M. £. hate, A.S. hete, 
hate ; tiie mod. E. sb. takes the vowel 
from the verb hatian, to hate.^Du. haat, 
IceL hatr, Swed. hat, Dan. had, Goth. 
hatis, G. hass, hate. Cf. W. cas, hate, 
casau, to hate. (V KAD.) 

hatred. (£.) M. £. hatred, hatreden. 
The suffix is A. S. -rJeden, law, mode, con- 
dition, state, as in htw-raden, a household ; 
and see kindred. 

Hauberk, a coat of ringed mail. (F. — 
O. H. G.) M. E. hauberk. - O. F. hauberc. 

— O. H. G. halsberc, lit. neck-defence. — 
O. H. G. hals, neck ; bergan, to protect. 
See Collar and Bury. 

habergeon, armour for neck and breast. 
(F. — O. H. G.) M. E. habergeon, hauber- 


Miinf.-O.F. hamierfm, a small Imibedc; 
dimin. of hauherc (above). 

Haughty ; see Al t i t oda 

Haul ; see Hale (s). 

TT ^iiliw^ Halm, stalk. (E.) A.S. 
healm. + Du. halm, loA. hdimr^ Dio. 
Swed. halm\ Rnss. soloma, stimw; L 
culmus, stalk, Gk. «tXiVM»> i«ed. ADied 
to Culminate. 

Haunch, hip, bend of the thigh. (F. - 
O.H.G.) F. hanche, also anche.^OMS^. 
enchd, einchd (also asuha, aca to Dies), 
the leg, joint of the 1^ ; whence O. H. G. 
en^hila, ankle. Orig. ' bend ;* cf. Gk. 
^7*17, bent arm ; allied to Ancle. 

Haunt, to frequent. (F.) M.E.Awift», 
haunten. - O. F. hanUr, to hannt^ freqoaiL 
Origin disputed. 

Hautboy; see Altitude. 

Have. (E.) M. E. hauen, pt t kadde, 
pp. had. A. S. habban, pL t. keefde, pp. 
gehafd.'^'T^, hebben, Icel. haja, Swed. 
hafva, Dan. have, Goth, haban, G. haheH\ 
L. capere, to seiie. (-/ KAP.) Allied to 

behave. (E.) I. e. to be-have oneself, 
or control oneself; from have with prefix 
be-, the same as prep. by. 

behaviour. (E. ; with F. stiffix.) 
Formed abnormally, from the ▼crb to 
behave. It was often shortened to hanumr, 
and seems to have been confused with F. 
sb. avoir, (i) wealth, (a) ability. CI 
Lowl. Sc. havings, (1) wealth, (a) be- 

haft, handle. (E.) A. S. haft, a handle. 
— A. S. haf', base of habban, to have, hold. 
+Du. heft, Icel. hepti (pron. heftt), G. 
heft, a handle. Lit * that which is held.' 
hiaven, harbour. (E.) A.S. haftne.'^ 
Du. haven, Icel. hofn, Dan. h4ivn, Swed. 
kamn, G. haftn, a harbour. Lit. 'that 
which holds.* From the base of the verb 
to have. 

Haversack, soldier's provision -bag. 
(F. — G.) F. havre€ac. — G. habetsatk, 
haftrscuk, lit. * oat-bag.* — G. haber, hafer, 
oats ; scuk, a sack. l£e Haberdasher. 

Havoc, destruction. (E. ?) It appears 
to be nothing but A. S. hafoc, a hawk ; the 
phr. ' cry havoc * seems to nave been a term 
in hawkii^ equivalent to ' ware the hawk,' 
used by Skelton. The phrase was prob. 
preserved after the sense was lost. ^ The 
W. hafoc, destruction, is almost certainly 
borrowed from E. See Hawk. 

Haw; a hedge ; hence, berry of hawthom. 


I. £. hawe, a yard, named from the 
>uDd it. A. S. haga, an enclosure, 
Icel. hagi, Swed. hage, enclosure; 
avi, garden ; Du. haag, G. hag. 

Allied to Oincsttire. (-/KAK.) 
'.w-haw, a sunk fence (a reduplicated 

l^ard (i), wild, said of a hawk. 
.) O. F. hagardf wild; esp. used 
i falcon, lit. hedge-falcon. Formed, 
ifix -ard (of G. origin), from M. H.G. 

hag), a hedge (above). 
pe. (E.) A. S. hege ; a secondary 
om kagUf a haw.+Du. hegge, heg\ 
lag, a haw ; Icel. h^ggr, a kind of 
d in hedges, from hagi, haw. 
k (i), a bird of prey. (E.) M. E. 
au€k ( = havek). A. S, hafoc, heafoc, 
.+Du. haviCf Icel. haukr, Swed. 

habicht, O. H. G. hapuh, Prob. 
r ;* allied to £. havCf L. capen ; see 

Ic (2), to carry about for sale. (O. 
.) A verb formed from the sb. 
; see Hawker. 

k (3), to clear the throat. (W.) 
u', to hawk ; hoch^ the throwing up 

ker, pedlar. (O. Low G.) Intro- 
rom the Netherlands ; Du. h€uker, 
er, O. Du. heukeren, to hawk, sell 
il ; hcukelaar, a huckster. So also 
iktr, a chandler, huckster, kbkre, to 
Swed. hbkcrif higgling, kbkare, a 
r, cheesemonger. See further below. 
Mter. (O. LowG.) M.E. huk- 
tester. Imported from the Nether- 
the suffix 'Ster is still commoner in 
in in E. Formed with this fem. 
or which see Spinster) from Du. 
a hawker, O. Du. hucker^ a stooper, 

one who stoops, also a huckster. 

hawker or htukster was so named 

i bowed back, bent imder his burden ; 

K Du. hucken, to stoop under a 

Cf. Icel. hokra, to go bent, 

also to live as a small farmer; 
\ka, to sit on one's hams. Low G. 
to crouch ; Skt. kuch, to bend. 

Hook, Hug. 

ler, HaLser, a small cable. 

1 Halser sometimes means a tow- 
[cel. hdls, hals, the neck ; also (as 
rm) part of the bow of a ship, the 
leet of -a sail, the end of a rope; 
hdlsa, verb, to clew up a sail ; Dan. 
:k, (as a sea-term) tack. The orig. 



sense is neck, then front of the bow of a 
ship, a hole in the front of the bow ; halser 
is a rope passing through such a hole, and 
halse, verb, is to clew up a sail. Allied 
to hauberk, % Not allied to haU or 

Hawthorn; see Haw. 

Hay. (E.) M. E. hey, A. S. hig. + Du. 
hoot, Icel. hey, Dan. Swed. ho, Goth, hawi^ 
grass ; G. heu. Properly ' cut grass ; ' 
from the verb to hew ; see Hew. 

Hasard. (F. -Span. — Arab. *Pers.) F. 
^arar((/.— Span, azar^ a hazard; the orig. 
sense must have been 'a die;* cf. O. 
Ital. zara, a game at dice. —Arab, al 
zdr, lit. the die (Devic).— Pers. zdr, a die 
(Zenker) ; al being the Arab. def. art. 

Haase, a mist. (Scand.?) Perhaps from 
Icel. hbsu, gray, dusky ; allied to A. S. 
hasu, a dark gray colour. It may have 
been applied to dull gray weather. (Doubt- 

HazeL (E.) M. E. hasel. A. S. hasel. 
+ Du. haze/aar, Icel. has/, hesli, Dan. 
Swed. hassel, G. hasel, L. corulus, W. coll. 
Root unknown. 

He. (E.) A. S. h^; gen. his, dat him, 
ace hine, Fem. sing. nom. heS, gen. dat. 
hire, ace. hl\ neut sing. nom. hit, gen. his, 
dat him, ace. hit, PI. (all genders), nom. 
ace. hig, hi, gen. hira, heora, dat. him, 
hcom, 4r Du. hij, Icel. hann, Dan. Swed. 
han. Allied to Gk. hcuvoi, KkXvos, that 
one. (Base KL) 

hence. (E.) M.E. hennes, older forn» 
henfu (whence henne-s by adding adv.. 
suffix -x). A.S. heonan, for hinan*, udv,, 
closely allied to A. S. hine, masc. ace of hJ, 

her. (£.) M. E. hire ; from A. S. hirer^ 
gen. and dat. of he^, she. Der. her-s, M. eI. 
hires (XIV cent.) ; herself, 

here. (E.) M. E. her, heer, A.-S. hSr^ 
adv. ; from the base of hi, he. ^ Du. hier, 
Icel. hir, Dan. her, Swed. hdr, G. hicr^. 
Goth, her, 

hither. (E.) M.E. hider, hither, 
A. S. hider, hi^er. From the base of he^ 
with Aryan suffix -tar. So also Icel. hi^ra, 
Goth, hidte, L. citra, 

it. (E.) M. E. hit, A. S. hit, neut. of 
he, ^ Icel. hit, neut. of hinn ; Du. het, 
neut. of hij. The old gen. case was his, 
afterwards it, and finally its (XVII cent.). 

Head. (E.) M. E. hed, heed, heued (•> 
heved), A. S. heafod, -^ Du. hoofd, Icel. 
hbfi((5, Dan. hcvea, Swed. hufvtii, Goth. 



hanbiik, G. haupt, O.H.G. kouHt, L. 
caput\ allied to Gk. irc<^aX4> bead, Skt. 
kqpdla, skulL Doublet, chief, Deop, be-head. 

neadlong, rashly, rash. (K) M. £. 
hidliit^, heuedlingf hedlinges. Thus the 
suffix IS adverbial, answering to A. S. suffix 
'I'ungat really a double suffix. Cf. A.S. 
grund^iuHga, from the ground, eall-unga, 
eRtirelWf fxr-inga, suddenly. 
Heal, Sealth ; see Hale (i). 
Heap, sb. (£.) M. £. Arep. A. S. Aed/>, a 
heap, crowd. -^ Da. A^p, Icel. Mpr, Dan. 
Aod, Swed. Aap, G. hau/e, O. H. G. Au/b, 
Lithuan. kaupas, a heap. Der. heap^ verb. 

lioi>e (a), a troop. (Du.) Only in the 
phr. ' a forlorn hope,* i e. troop. * Du. 
verloren hoop i- lost band, where hoop » 
£. heap (above). ' Een hoop krijghsvokk, a 
troupe or band of souldiers;' Hexham. 
(Now obsolete in Dutch.) 
Hear. (£.) M. £. heretic pt. t herde^ 
pp. herd. A. S. hyran^ hiran, pt. t. hyrde, 
pp. gehyred. + Du. hooreriy Icel. heyra, 
ban. hore, Swed. hora, Goth, hausjan, G. 
horen. (Not allied to ear.) 

hark, hearken. (£.) M. £. herien, 
also herknen. A. S. hyrcnian, to hearken ; 
an extended form from hyran^ to hear. Cf. 
G. horcheHf from horen. 

hearsay. (£.) From hear and sav, 
the latter being in the infin. mood. Cf. 
A. S. h^ secgan hyrde => he heard say 

Hearse. (F.-L.) M. E. herse^ hearse. 
The orig. sense was a triangular harrow, 
then a triangular frame for supporting 
lights at a church service, esp. at a 
funeral, then a funeral pageant, a bier, 
a carriage for a dead body. All these 
senses are found. — O.F. herce^ a harrow, 
a frame with pins on it. (Mod. F. herse^ 
Ital. erpice, a harrow.) — L. hirpicem^ ace. 
of hirpeXy a harrow. 

rehearse. (F.-L.) M.E. rehersen.^ 
O. F. reherser, rehercer, to harrow over 
again ; hence, to go over the same ground. 
— L. re-, again ; O. F. hercer, to harrow, 
from herce, sb. (above). 
Heart (£.) M. £. herte, A. S. heorte. 
+ Du. hart, Icel. hjaria, Swed. hjerta, 
Dan. hierie, Goth, nairto, G. herz^ Irish 
cridhe, Kuss. serdtse, L. cor (crude form 
cordi')t Gk. icapdia, /r^p, Skt. hrtd, hxidaya. 
Lit ' that which quivers ; * cf. Gk. KpaSdtiy, 
to quiver, throb ; Skt. hurd, to jump. 

heart's-ease, a pansy. (£.) Lit. case 
of hearty Le. giving pleasure. 


hearty. (E.) yL,^htrty\ alto^Mij^; 
from M. £. htrtCt heart. 

Hearth. (E) M. E. hniK tirtie. 
A. S. hcor^S, -h Da. hoard; Swed. Jkifd, a 
hearth, a forge, G.Am/. C£. Goth. AM17S, 
burning coaU. 

Heart's-ease, Hearty ; lee Haul 

Heat ; see Hot. 

Heath. (£.) M. E. Aetk. A.S, A4X, 
+ Du. G. heu&, IceL hcitir, Dan. hnk, 
Swed. h€d, Goth. heUthi, a waste; W. coed, 
a wood ; L. -cetum, a pasture (in h&-cetum, 

heathen, a pagan. (E.) Orig. a 
dweller on a heatk AS. hdif&m^ tdj. 
from hJkfS, a heath. Similarly L. pagamu 
meant (i) a villager, (a) a pagan. So alto 
G. heiden, a heathen, from hade, a heath. 

heather. (£.) Lit. heath-er^ Le^ xi^ 
habitant of the heath. 

hoiden, hoyden, a romping girL 
(O. Du.) Formerly applied to males, and 
meaning a rustic *0. Du. heyden (Do. 
hciden), a heathen; also, a gipsy, vaga^ 
bond. — Q. Du. heydc, a heath. See Hea^ 
% The W. hoeden is borrowed from 

Heave. (E) M.E. heuen (— heven), 
A. S. hebban, pt. t. hSf pp. hafen. + Du. 
heffen, Icel. hefja, Swed. hafva^ Dan. A«xv, 
Goth, hafjan, G. heben. 

heavy. (£.) Hard to heave, weighty. 
M.E. heui {^ hevi). A. S. hefig, heavy, 
hard to heave.— A. S. hef, stem formed 
from hcbban (pt. t. hSf), to heave. ^ IceL 
hhfigTy heavy ; from hefja^ to heave. 

heft, a heaving. (E.) In Wint. Tale, 
ii. I. 45. Formed from heave, just as kt^ 
from have. 
upheave. (E.) To heave up. 

Heaven. (£.) M.E. heuen\^ hemtC^, 
A. S. hcofon, hefon. + O. Icel. hifinn ; 
O. Sax. hevan. (Perhaps related to heave, 
but the connection has not been made oat ; 
not allied to G. himfnel.) 

'H.ea.vy' ; see Heave. 

Hebdomadal ; see Heptagon. 

Hebrew. (F. - L. - Gk. - Heb.) F. 
hSreu {hibrieu in Cotgrave). — L. Hebrtnu. 
Gk. 'EiS/wros. - Heb. * ibrC a Hebrew vGen. 
xiv. 13), a name supposed to be applied to 
Abraham when he crossed the Euphrates. * 
Heb. *&bart he crossed over. 

Hecatomb. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. heca- 
(ombe.^h. hecatomb?. ^ Gk. ixarSfifitj, a 
sacrifice of a hundred oxen. >- Gk. iaarbv, a 
hundred ; 0ovs, ox. 


Heckle, Hackle, Hatchel ; see Hook. 

Hectic, continual, as a fever. (F. — Gk.) 
F. htctiaue (as if from Low L. hecticus*), 

•>Gk. kKTuksf hectic, consmnptiTe. i- Gk. 
t^tSt a possession ; also, a habit of body. 

»Gk. ijf-<v, fiit of ix^iVt to have, hold. 

JBCeotor, a bully. (Gk.) From Gk. ffectOTy 
'EcTttp, the celebrated hero of Troy. Lit. 
' holding fast ; * from tx^*^* ^ hold. 

Hedge ; see Haw. 

Heed,vh.(£.) U.^.heden. A.S.A/dan, 
pt L MJddi. Formed as if from sb. M/*, 
care (not fomid) ; though we find the corre* 
spending G. sb. Auf, O. H. G. huota^ care. 
4- Da* Meden, from J^oedg^ care ; G. hUten, 
from kut (O.H. G. huota), care. Prob. 
allied to Hood. 

Heel (i), part of the foot. (E.) A.S. 
hJla^ heel. ^ Dn. hicl, Icel. hall, Dan. hal, 
Swed. hdl. Allied to L. calx^ Lithnan. 
kuifds^ heel ; and to L. -celUrif \n per-cellen, 
to strike, drive. 

Heel (a), to lean over, incline. (£.) 
Corrupted from M. £. heldetit hilden^ to in- 
dine on one side. A. S. heldan^ hyldan, to 
tilt, incline ; cf. nif^r-heald^ bent down- 
"wards. 4* IceL haUa (for haldd), to heel 
over (as a ship), from hallr (for haldr), 
sloping ; Dan. htldef to tilt, from held, a 
slope ; Swed. hdllat to tilt 

Heft ; see Heave. 

Hegira. (Arab.) Arab, hijrah, sepa- 
ration ; esp. used of the flight of Moham- 
med from Mecca, on the nignt of Thursday, 
July 15, 6a 3 ; the era of the Hegira begins 
cmTuly x6. Cf. Arab, hajr, separation. 

Heifer. (£.) M. K hayfare, hekfen. 
A. S. hidhforCt a heifer ; but the form b 
prob. corrupt 

Heigh-ho. (E.) AA exclamation ; heigh, 
a 07 to call attention ; ho, an exclamation. 

Height ; see High. 

Heinous. (F. - O. Low G.) M. £. hein- 
cttt, hainous. — O. F. hatnos, odious; 
formed with suffix -os (L. -osus) from hair, 
to hate. From an O. Low G. form, such 
as Goth* hatjan, to hate ; allied to Hato. 

BDair. (F.-L.) M. K heire, heir, also 
/yr. — O. F. heir, eir. ■- L. heres, an heir, 
tdlied to hems, a master. (^^GHAR.) 
f The O. F. heir is either from L. nom. 
heres, or for herem, a mistaken form of 
ace heredem, Der. heir-loom, where loom 
si^^es 'a piece of property,' but is the 
same word as £. loom. See Loom (i). 
hereditary, adj. (L.) h. hereditarius. 



— L. hcrcditare, to inherit. — L. hcrcdi-, 

crude form of hens, an heir. 
heritage. (F. - L.) O. F. heritage. 

Formed, with suffix -age (^L. -atieum), 

from O. F. heriter, to inherit *L. heredi-. 

tare, to inherit (which seems to have been 

corrupted to heritare*). See above, 
inherit. (F.-L.) Coined from L. /«, 

in ; and O. F. heriter (above). 
Heliacal, relatine^ to the sun. TL. — Gk.) 

Late L. helicuus. — Gk. i^Xicur^s, belonging 

to the sun. — Gk. ^Xi or, sun (see Curtius). 
aphelion, the point in a p]anet*s orbit 

farthest from the sun. (Gk.) Coined frt>m 

Gk. dir-, for dv<$, from ; ^Xior, the sun. 
heliotrope, a flower. (F. — L. — Gk.) 

F. heliotrope. — L. heliotrofium. — Gk. iJXio- 

Tp6ino¥, a heliotrope, lit. 'sun -turner;* 

from its turning to the sun. — Gk. ^Xto-r, 

sun ; rpov', base allied to rpivuv, to turn ; 

see Trope, 
perihelion, the point of a planet*s 

orbit nearest the sun. (Gk.) Gk. ircpf, 

round, near ; ^Xtof, the sun. 
Helix, a spiral flgnre. (L. — Gk.) Lw 
hlflix, a spiral. — Gk. ^Xi^, a spiral, a twist. 

— Gk. Ix/ffo'fi)', to turn round. Allied to 
Volute. (-/WAR.) 
HelL (E.) M. E. helle. A. S. hel, gen. 
helle ; orig. ' a hidden place,' from A. S. 
helian, to hide, secondary verb formed 
from helan (pt t haV), to hide. + Du. hel, 
Icel. hel, G. hblle, Goth, halja. Allied to 
Cell, Ck>xioeaL 

Hellebore. (F.-L.-Gk.) Also elk- 
dore. ^O.F. ellebore.^'L, helledoms. ^Gk. 
l\x4$opos, the name of the plant. 

Helm (i), an implement for steering a 
ship. (£.) Orig. the tiller or handle. 
A. S. helma. + Icel. hj'dlm, a rudder ; G. 
helm, a handle. Allied to Haulm. 

halberd, hc^bert, a kind of pole-axe. 
(F. - M. H. G.) O. F. haUbarde. - M. H.G. 
helmbarte, later helenbarte, mod. G. helle* 
barte, an axe with a lonc^ handle, from 
M. H. G. halm, a helve (helm), or handle ;^ 
though it seems to have been popularly 
interpreted as an axe for splitting a helm^ 
i.e. helmet p. The origin of O. H. G.' 
parta, G. barte, a broad axe, is obscure; 
see Partisan (2). 

helve, a handle. (£.) M. E. kelm 
( « helve\ A. S. hielf, also helfe, a handle. 
+ O. Du. helve, handle, M. H. G. halp^ 
handle ; allied to Helm (i) above. 

Helm (a), armour for the head. (E.) 
M. E. helm, A. S. helm ; lit ' a covering;' 

Skt. proa, hemp (or nit 
idnn of thii word). S( 
IceL kampr. Din. hamp 
It^tf-, all from L. etmna 

(Ona (by Towel-chingr) 
■ cock, lit. 'a singer,' I 
cf. L. naiert, to sing, ^ 
^mm, s cock ; Icel. Sam 
kBmt, Lofkani; Sired. 
G. Mttmt, f. d hahn, (. 
Henoe ; ice Bs. 

malj Anu-cKinn, hatikn 
u B proper name. Piol 
i. e. groom ; from M. E. 
no/, a hone; Cf. Da. ■; 
ka^t, a. hone, Icel. kesi 
borrowed from Dn. keng. 

Hendeoagon ; see I>< 

Sep, hip ; see Blp {% 
Hep&tlii, relating to t 
-Gt.) O.F. htpatiqut 
Gk. Ifwarut&t, belonging 
fftmti; crude form of ^»i 
. , - -— , iwwr, SkL MinV, theliw 
^L^Jf"- (f"-7L,- liTep-wort,aflowcr. 

ta-L (1, - Gk.) 

sof tbc fxntder. 

^^^, • QL •"'(••''frip, blood- 
. |^|- -^— ■•*'^— blood. 
™^T^^^^(^ s eat Bow of bloo'l. 
^. — ^^ aV in-«T*^.V. - 1.. 
-»^ -1a-C>-.i; wr i ' -.a vk,| 
^»> iaz al^, blo.xl;! 
. II". I boret, bn^ak ; Ihe | 
a bantsig ool of blood. | 


Her ; see He. 

Herald, (F.-O. H. G.) M. E. herald, 

— O. F. heralt (Low L. luraldus), - O. H. G. 
heroit (G. herold)^ a herald; ako O.H.G. 
Jlerioidf Hariold, as a proper name. Put 
for hari'Wald^ ie. anny-strength, a name 
for a warrior, esp. for an officer. — O. H. G. 
harif an army (G. heer) ; wold, wait, 
strength (G. gewalt). The limitation of 
this name to a herald seems to have been 
due to confusion with O. H. G. foraharo^ 
a herald, ixom forharat, to proclaim (allied 
to Gk. <f^pwf). 

Herb. (F.-L.) lA,^.herbe.^Y,herbe. 
^ L. Air6a, grass, fodder, herb; prob. 
allied to O.'L.forbea, Gk. ^opfi^, pasture, 
Skt. bkarb, to eat. 

Herd (i), a flock. (E,) M. E. luerde. 
A. S. hecrd, herd, hyrd, (i) care, custody, 
(a) a herd, flock, (3) family. + Icel. hjdr\ 
Dan. hiord, Swed. hjord, G. heerde, Goth. 

herd (2), one who tends a herd. (E.) 
Usually in comp. shepherd, cow-herd, &c. 
M. E. herde. A. S. heorde, hirde, keeper of 
a herd ; from A. S. heord^ a flock. (The 
final -^ marks the agent). + Icel. hir^ir, 
Dan. hyrde, Swed. herde, G. hirt, Goth. 
hairdeis ; all similarly derived. 

Here ; see He. 

Hereditary; see Heir. 

Heresy. (F.-L.— Gk.) Vi.Ys, heresy e. 

— O.F. heresie.^'L, haresis.^GV, a!p€<ns, 
a taking, choice, sect, heresy. — Gk. a//>ciV, 
to take. Der. heretic, L. haKeticus, Gk. 
alp9ruc6s, able to choose, heretical (from 
the same verb). 

aphaBreslB, the taking away of a letter 
or syllable from the beginning of a word. 
(Gk. ) Gk. dupaiptatf, a taking away. — Gk. 
i^, for dv6, away ; mptcis, a taking (above). 

diadreais, a mark (") of separation. 
(L. — Gk.) L. diaresis. — Gk. 9talp€(Tt9, a 
dividing.— Gk. 8<-a, apart; >-aipcai;, a taking 
(above). /* 

synsreBls, the coalescence of two 
vowels into a diphthong. (L. — Gk.) L. 
tyfueresis. — Gk. avyaip*<ns, a taking to- 
gether. — Gk. ir'iv, together ; oT/xais, a taking. 
Heriot, a tribute paid to the lord of a 
manor on the decease of a tenant. (E.) 
A S. heregeatu, lit. military apparel ; 
hence, equipments which, after the death 
of a vassal, escheated to his lord ; after- 
wards extended to include horses, &c — 
A S* hire, an army ; geatu,£^atwe, apparel, 
fuJommcnt. See :ELxtrf^ 



Heritage ; see Heir. 

Hermaphrodite, an animal or plant of 
both sexes. (L. — Gk.) L. hermaphroditus, 
— Gk. kppa<pp6Ziroi \ coined from 'Ejp/i^, 
Mercury (representing the male) and 
*A<ppoSlTTf, Venus (representing the female 

hermeneutio, explanatory. (Gk.) Gk. 
ipfjujytvTuc6s, skilled m interpreting. — Gk. 
kpiirjvtvHii, an interpreter; also Ipimv^if, 
the same. Supposed to be from 'EpiiTJis, 
Mercury, the tutelary god of skill. 

hermetic. (Gk.) Low L. hermeticus, re- 
lating to alchemy ; coined from Hermes, 
from the notion that the great secrets of 
alchemy were discovered hy Ilermes Trisme- 
gisttts,^Qt\i. *Ep/i^r, Mercury. % ffermeii- 
cally was a term in alchemy ; a glass bottle 
was hermetically sealed when the orifice 
was fused and then closed against any 
admission of air. 

Hermit. (F.-L.-Gk.) [M. K here- 
mite, directly from L. heremita.] — F. her^ 
/»iV^. — Low L. heremita, more commonly 
eremita. — Gk. iptfurrjs, a dweller in a 
desert. — Gk. iprf/ua, a desert. —Gk. Ip^fun, 
de>erted, desolate. Der. hermit-a^. 

Hem ; see Heron. 

Hernia. (L.) . L. hernia, a kind of 

Hero. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. heroi, - L. 
heroim, ace. of heros, a hero. — Gk. fipvn^ a 
hero, demi-god. ^ Skt. vira, a hero; L. 
uir\ A. S. wer. Allied to Virile. Ber. 
herO'ic, O. F. herotque, L. heroicus, 

heroine. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. heroine, 
L. heroine. ^Q\i, i^poitvrj, fem. of ^ipw, a 

Heron, Hem, a bird. (F.-O.H.G.) 
M.E. heroun, hairon, hern.^O. F. hairon 
(F. h^ron, Ital. aghirone), - O. H. G. 
heigir, heiger, a heron ; with suffixed 'On 
(Ital. -one), Prob. named from its harsh 
voice; cf. G. hdher, a iack-daw (lit. 
'laugher'), prov. E. heighaw, a wood- 
pecker, Skt. kcJtk, to laugh. (^ KAK.) 
+ Swed. hdger, Icel. hegri, Dan. heire, a 

heronshaw, hemahaw, a young 
heron ; also a heronry. (F.— O. H. G.) 
1. Spenser has hemeshaw, a heron ; this is 
M. E. heronserve, a young heron (still 
called heronsew in the North). It answers 
to an O.F. haironfeau* or heron^eau*, a 
young heron, but this word has not yet 
been found, though the form is admissible ; 
cf. lionfeau, lioneel, a young liozL The 


^r; see He. 

»ald. (F. -O. H. G.) M. E. herald. 
. F. heralt (Low L. Iieraldus). - O. H. G. 
It (G. herold), a herald; also O.H.G. 
iolJ, Hariold^ as a proper name. Put 
hari-wald, ie. army-strength, a name 
I warrior, esp. for an officer. — O. H. G. 
', an army (G. heer) ; wald, wait, 
igth (G. gcwalf). The limitation of 
name to a herald seems to have been 
to confusion with O. H. G. foraharo^ 
raid, (rom forharai, to proclami (allied 
k. icTipvO, 

jrb. (F.-L.) U.^.herbe.^T.hirbe, 
,. Jurba^ grass, fodder, herb ; prob. 
d to O.L..forbea, Gk. ^opfi^, pasture, 

bharbf to eat. 

ird (i), a flock. (E.) M. E. heerde, 

. hecrdf herd, hyrd, (i) care, custody, 

I herd, flock, (3) family. + Icel. >4/^ro, 

. hiord, Swed. hjord, G. heerde, Goth. 


9rd (2), one who tends a herd. (E.) 

illy in comp. shepherd, cow-herd, &c. 

i. herde. A. S. heorde, hirde, keeper of 

id ; from A. S. heordy a flock. (The 

-^ marks the agent). + Icel. hir^ir, 
. hyrde, Swed. herde, G. hirt, Goth. 
deis ; all similarly derived. 
ire ; sec He. 
ireditary; see Heir, 
iresy. (F. — L. — Gk.) I^.Y^ heresye, 
. F. heresie. •- L. haresis. — Gk. aipiais, 
ting, choice, sect, heresy. — Gk. alpti^, 
ike. Der. heretic, L. hai;eiicus, Gk. 
rucli, able to choose, heretical (from 
ame verb). 

^hflereslB, the taking away of a letter 
pliable from the beginning of a word. 
) Gk. d^fmiptais, a taking away. — Gk. 
for dw6, away ; dtptais, a taking (above). 
Aresis, a mark (") of separation. 
- Gk.) L. dtaresis, — Gk. Bialptais, a 
ling. — Gk. 8<-d, apart; -aipcatr, a taking 
ve). 5^ 

nsresls, the coalescence of two 
:1s into a diphthong. (L. — Gk.) L. 
rests. — Gk. awaip«<ns, a taking to- 
:r. — Gk. irvv, together; mptats, a taking, 
iriot, a tribute paid to the lord of a 
}r on the decease of a tenant (E.) 
. heregeatu, lit. military apparel ; 
e, equipments which, after the death 

vassal, escheated to his lord ; after* 
Is extended to include horses, &c.— 

hire, an army ; gecUu,gecUwe, apparel, 
^uneat. See Marry, 



Heritage; see Heir. 

Hermaphrodite, an animal or plant of 
both sexes. (L. — Gk.) \^ hermaphroditus. 
— Gk. ipfM<pp69iTot ; coined from 'Ejpfi^, 
Mercury (representing the male) and 
*A<ppoSlr7j, Venus (representing the female 

hermeneutio, explanatory. (Gk.) Gk. 
ipftfiywTucds, skilled m interpreting. — Gk. 
IplifjvtvHis, an interpreter; also ipfxifut^, 
the same. Supposed to be from *Ep/i^, 
Mercury, the tutelary god of skill. 

hermetic. (Gk.) Low L. hemteticus, re- 
lating to alchemy ; coined from Hermes, 
from the notion that the great secrets of 
alchemy were discovered by Hermes Trisme- 
gistus, — Gk. *Epptrit, Mercury. % Hermeti- 
cally was a term in alchemy ; a glass bottle 
was hermetically sealed when the orifice 
was fused and then closed against any 
admission of air. 

Hermit. (F.-L.-Gk.) [M. E. here- 
mite, directly from L. heremita,] — F. her^ 
mile. '^ how "L, heremita, more commonly 
eremita. — Gk. Ipt/xlrrfs, a dweller in a 
desert. — Gk. iprf/ua, a desert. — Gk. ip^pun, 
de^rted, desolate. Der. hermit-age. 

Hem ; see Heron. 

Hernia. (L.) . L. hernia, a kind of 

Hero. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. herof, - L. 
hero^m, ace. of heros, a hero. — Gk. ^pvi, a 
hero, demi-god. ^ Skt. vlra, a hero; L. 
«i>; A. S. wer. Allied to Virile. Ber. 
herO'ie, O. F. herotque, L. herotcus. 

heroine. (F. — L. — Gk.) F. heroine, 
L. heroim.^QV. i^fiottyrj, fern, of ijp^us, a 

Heron, Hem, a bird. (F.-O.H.G.) 
M.E. heroun, hairon, hern, ^O.F. hairon 
(F. hiron, Ital. aghirone). — O.H.G. 
heigir, heiger, a heron ; with suffixed "On 
(Ital. -one^,, Prob. named from its harsh 
voice; cf. G. hdher, a iack-daw (lit. 
'laugher'), prov. E. heignaw, a wood- 
pecker, Skt. kakk, to laugh. (^ KAK.) 
+ Swed. hdger, Icel. hegri, Dan. Juire, a 

heronshaw, hemahaw, a young 
heron ; also a heronry. (F.— O. H. G.) 
1. Spenser has hemeshaw^ a heron ; this is 
M. E. heronsewe, a young heron (still 
called heronsew in the North). It answers 
to an O. F. haironfeau* or heronfeau *, a 
young heron, but this word has not vet 
been found, tho^\i \h« loim. v& «dxGL>ais^sA:\ 
cf. lim^eaUy lumctl^ ». '^o'oaa.'^ \tfsou "\?Bfc 



from helan, to cover. +*Du. helm\ led. 
hidlmr, Dan. kielm, Swed. hjelm, G. helntt 
Goth, hilms^ Ross. shUnu, Lithuan. szal- 
mas, (^KAR.) Der. helm-et, dimin. 
fonn. Allied to Hell. 

Helminthology, history of worms. 
(Gk.) Coined from Gk. iKfuvOo', crude 
lorm of iKfuvs, a worm ; 'Xoyla, a discom^e, 
from k€y€iy, to speak. The sb. tkfuvs, 
also tXfus, means ' that which curls about ; * 
allied to Helix. 

Helot, a (Spartan) slave. (L.*Gk.) L. 
pi. Helotes, from Gk. cSXorrc;, pi. of tV^/m^ 
a helot, bondsman ; said to have meant an 
inhabitant of Elos (a town of Laconia), 
enslaved by the Spartans. 

Help, sb. (E.) M. E. helpen, pt. t. halp, 
pp. holpen, A. S. kelpan, pt. t. healp, pp. 
holpen, + Du. helpen^ Icel. hjdlpa, Dan. 
hielpe, Swed. hjelpa, Goth, hilpan, G. 
kelfen. Allied to Skt. kalpa, able, able 
to protect, Lithuan. szelpti, to help. {^ 
KARP.) Der. A^//, sb., A. S. helpe\ 
help-niate, a mistaken use of help meet 
(Gen. ii. i8). 

Helve ; see Helm (i). 

Hem (i), border. (E.) A. S. hemm^ 
hem. Allied to G. hamme, a fence, hedge. 
(VKAM.) Der. hem, verb, to enclose 
within a border, hem in ; cf. G. hemmen, to 
restrain, from hamme, a fence. 

Hem (a), a slight cough to call atten- 
tion. (E.) An imitative word; allied to 

Hematite, an ore of iron. (L. — Gk.) 
Named from the red colour of the powder. 
■- L. hamatites, — Gk. aliAarirqi, blood- 
like. — Gk. alftar-, stem of alfM, blood. 

hemorrhage, a great flow of blood. 
(F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. hemorrhagie.''L, 
hamorrhagia. — Gk. alf»oppayla, a violent 
bleeding. — Gk. at/AO-, for alfjui, blood; 
pay-, base of fiffywfu, I burst, break ; the 
lit. sense being a bursting out of blood. 

hemorrhoids, emerods, painful 
bleeding tubercles on the anus. (F. — L. — 
Gk.) F. hemorrhoide, sing., a flowing of 
blood. — L. hamorrhoides, pi. of hamor- 
rhois. — Gk. alfioppot^n, pi. of aliioppoU, 
adj., liable to a flow of blood. — Gk. aXiw-, 
put for aXiia, blood ; pi^iv, to flow, cognate 
with Skt. sru, to flow ; see Stream. 

Hemi-, half. (Gk.) From a Lat. spell- 
ing of Gk. ij/u-, half, cognate with L. semi-, 
half; see Semi-. Der. hemisphere, &c. 

hemistich, a half-line, in poetiy. (L. 
■■ Gk.) L. hemiitichium, — Gk. ijiuarixtoy, 

a half verse. — Gk. i}fu-, half; tfr^of, a 
row, verse. 

megrim, a pain affecting one side of 
the head. (F. — L.«-Gk.) F. migraine, 
* the megrim ; * Cot. — Low L. hemigranea, 
megrim. •- Gk. ^iuitp6viov, half of the 
skull. — Gk. ^lU; half; Kpaviov, cranimn. 

Hemlock. (E.) M. E. hem/ok, humlok, 
A. S. hemlic, hymlice. The origin of hem* 
is unknown ; the second syllable is a weak- 
ened form of A. S. Udc, a leek, plant ; as 
in^wr-Zir, char-lock. 

Hemorrhage, Hemorrhoids ; see 

Hemp, a plant. (L.-Gk.-Skt.) M.E. 
hemp (short for henep), A. S. kenep, 
hanep. Borrowed at a very early period 
from L. cannabis, so that the word suffered 
consonantal letter-change. — Gk. /rdwa/Sir. 
Skt. fona, hemp (or rather, from an older 
form of this word). So also Du. hennep, 
Icel. hampr, Dan. hamp, Swed. hampa, G. 
hanf; all from L. cannabis, 

H!en. (E.) A. S. henn^ hen, han ; a fem. 
form (by vowel-change) from A. S. hana, 
a cock, lit. 'a singer,' from his crowing; 
cf. L. canere, to sing. <^ Du. hen, fem. of 
haan, a cock; Icel. hana, f. ofhani; Dan. 
hone, f. of hane ; Swed. hana, f. of hane ; 
G. henne, f. of hahn, (y^ KAN.) 

Hence ; see He. 

Henchman, a page, servantr (E.) For- 
merly hensefftan, henshman ; cf. Hinxman 
as a proper name. Prob. for hengest-nuM, 
i. e. groom ; from M. E. hengest, A. S. hen* 
gest, a horse. Cf. Du. and G. hengst, Dan. 
hingst, a horse, Icel. hestr, a horse. % Or 
borrowed from Du. hengst. 

Hendecagon ; see Decade. 

Hep, hip ; see Hip (a). 

Hepatic, relating to the liver. (F.— L. 
— Gk.) O. F. hepatique. — L. hepcUicus. — 
Gk. ^iraTt«<5s, belonging to the liver. — Gk. 
iJiroTi-, crude form of ^ifap, the liver. + L. 
iecur, Skt. }fahTit, the liver. Der. hepatica, 
liver-wort, a flower. 

Heptagon, a plane seven-sided figure. 
(Gk.) Lit. ' seven-angled.' — Gk. iwrd, 
seven ; yojvia, an angle, allied to y6w, knee. 
See Seven and Knee. 

hebdomadal, weekly. (L.^Gk.) L. 
hebdomadcUis. •- Gk. J/SSo/xaS-, stem of 
kfiBonds, a week. •- Gk. Iirra, seven. 

heptahedron, a solid seven-sided figure. 
(Gk.) From Gk. ivra, seven ; Upa, a base, 
seat (allied to E. Sit). 
heptarchy ; see Arch-, prefix. 




■ Hot ; see Ho. 

Herald. (F. - O. H. G.) M. K herald. 

—O.F. ^/nx//(Low L./i/«zA/i«).-O.H.G. 
heroU (G. kerold)^ a herald; also O.H.G. 
Herioldf Hariold, as a proper name. Put 
for hari'Wald, ie. army-strength, a name 
for a warrior, esp. for an officer. —O. H. G. 
hari^ an army (G. keer) ; weUd, wait, 
strength (G. grwalt). The limitation of 
this name to a herald seems to have been 
due to confusion with O. H. G. foraharo, 
a herald, irom forharen, to proclami (allied 
to Gk. icjipvO, 

Herb. (F.-L.) llL.^.herbe,'^Y,herbe, 
mm L. Aerda, grass, fodder, herb; prob. 
allied to O.'L.forbta, Gk. ^/>^4> pasture, 
Skt. bharb, to eat. 

Herd (i), a flock. (E.) M. E. keerde. 
A. S. htcra, herd, hyrd, (i) care, custody, 
(2) a held, flock, (3) family. + Icel. hjSt%, 
Dan. hiard, Swed. hjord, G. heerde, Goth. 

herd (3), one who tends a herd. (E.) 
Usually in comp. shep-htrdf cow-herd, &c 
M. E herdi. A. S. heorde, hirde, keeper of 
a herd ; from A. S. heard, a flock. (The 
final -« marks the agent). <^ Icel. hir^ir, 
Dan. hyrde, Swed. herde, G. hirt, Goth. 
hairdeis ; all similarly derived. 

Here ; see He. 

Hereditary; see Heir. 

Heresy. (F.— L.— Gk.) Hl.Y., heresye. 
-• O. F. heresie. •- L. fueresis. — Gk. a!p€ffiSf 
a taking, choice, sect, heresy.— Gk. alpth^, 
to take. Der. heretic, L. hatielicus, Gk. 
aip9TtM6s, able to choose, heretical (from 
the same verb). 

apluaresiB, the taking away of a letter 
or syllable from the beginning of a word. 
(Gk.) Gk. d/ipaiptai9, a taking away. — Gk. 
^, for d'w6, away ; mptcit, a taking (above). 
disresis, a mark ('*) of separation. 
(L. — Gk.) L. dtaresis. — Gk. 9talp€cts, a 
dividing.— Gk. 8<-a, apart; (4upcais> a taking 
(above). /" 

ayiUBresiB, the coalescence of two 
vowels into a diphthong. (L. — Gk.) L. 
sytutresii, — Gk. avyalptais, a taking to- 
gether. — Glcdirv, together; oT/xair, a taking. 

Heriot, a tribute paid to the lord of a 
manor on the decease of a tenant. (E.) 
A S. heregeatu, lit. military apparel ; 
hence, equipments which, after the death 
of a vassal, escheated to his lord; after- 
wards extended to include horses, &c.— 
A. S. hire, an army ; geaiu,£^atwe, apparel, 
adonunent. See Harry. 

Heritage ; see Heir. 

Hermaphrodite, an animal or plant of 
both sexes. (L. — Gk.) "L. hermaphroditus, 
— Gk. ipfM<pp69iTos ; coined from 'E^/«^, 
Mercury (representing the male) and 
*A<ppobtTfj, Venus (representing the female 

hermeneutio, explanatory. (Gk.) Gk. 
ipfXTjytvTiKds, skilled m interpreting. — Gk. 
IpfxrjvivHit, an interpreter; also kp/irfutiit, 
the same. Supposed to be from *Ep/irjs, 
Mercury, the tutelary god of skill. 

hermetio. (Gk.) Low L. hermeticus, re- 
lating to alchemy ; coined from Hermes, 
from the notion that the great secrets of 
alchemy were discovered hyHermes Trisme- 
gistus. — Gk. *£f>/i^r. Mercury. % Hermeti- 
cally was a term in alchemy ; a glass bottle 
was hermetically sealed when the orifice 
was fused and then closed against any 
admission of air. 

Hermit. (F.-L.-Gk.) [M. E. here- 
mite, directly from L. heremita,"] — F. her- 
mite.^ljo^ L. heremita, more commonly 
eremita. — Gk. iotfilrijs, a dweller in a 
desert. — Gk. iprifua, a desert. —Gk. ip^fUK, 
de^rted, desolate. Der. hermit-age. 

Hem ; see Heron. 

Hernia. (L.) . L. hernia, a kind of 

Hero. (F. - L. - Gk.) O. F. hero^, - L. 
herotm, ace. of heros, a hero. — Gk. fipvn^ a 
hero, demi-god. .^ Skt. vira, a hero; L. 
uir-, A. S. wer. Allied to Virile. Der. 
herO'ic, O. F. hero'ique, L. heroicus. 

heroine. (F.-L.-Gk.) F. heroine, 
L. heroine. ''Gk. iipottyrj, fern, of ijpoits, a 

Heron, Hem, a bird. (F.- O.H.G.) 
M.E. heroun, hairon, hern.^mO. F. hoi ran 
(F. hJron, Ital. aghirottc). — O. H. G. 
heigir, heiger, a heron; with suffixed 'On 
(Ital. -one\ Prob. named from its harsh 
voice; cf. G, hdher, a iack-daw (lit. 
'laugher*), prov. E. heignaw, a wood- 
pecker, Skt. kakk, to laugh. (^ KAK.) 
+ Swed. hdger, Icel. hegri, Dan. hcire, a 

heronahaw, hemahaw, a young 
heron ; also a heronry. (F.— O. H. G.) 
1. Spenser has hemeshaw, a heron ; this is 
M. E. heronserve, a young heron (still 
called heronsew in the North). It answers 
to an O. F. hairon^u* or heronfeau*, a 
young heron, but this word has not yet 
been found, though the form is admissible ; 
cf. lionfeau, lioncel, a young liozL The 

H ^ 



usual fonn is F. fUronneau, O. F. hairon- 
neau. 2. But htronshaw^ a heronry, is 
compounded of heron, a heron, and shaw^ a 
wood ; Cotgrave has ' haironnieref a heron's 
neast, a bemeshaw, or shaw of wood 
wherein herons breed.* 
Herring, a fish. (£.) M. £. hering. 
A. S. luBrirug, haring. Prob. so named 
from appearing in large shoals ; from A. S. 
hertt a host, army ; see Harry. + I^u. 
haringf G. hdring. 

Hesitate. (L.) From pp. of L. hcmtare, 
to stick fast ; intensive form of harere^ to 
stick. ^ Lithuan. gaiszH, to tarry. (^ 

adhere. (L.) L. ad-Juirere, to stick to. 

cohere. (L.) L. co-httrere^ to stick 
together (pp. cohasus), Der. cohes-ion, 

inherent. (L.) L. inharenf; stem of 
pres. pt. of in-harere, to stick in. Hence 
inhere, as a verb. 
Heat, a command. (£.) M. £. hest, the 
final t being excrescent, as in whils-t, 
amongs-t, &c. A.S. ^<£r, a command.— 
A. S. hdtan, to command. So also Icel. 
heitf a vow, from heita, to call, promise ; 
O. H. G. heiz (G. geheiss), a command, 
from heizan (G. heissen\ to call, bid, 
copomand. Cf. Goth, haitan, to call, name. 

behest. (E.) M. E. behest From A. S. 
beh^f a command (see above) ; formed 
from hJks by help of the prefix be- (by). 

hight, was or is called. (E.) The only 
E. verb with a passive sense ; he hight = 
he was named. M.E. highie; also haite, 
hette. A. S. hdite, I am called, I was 
called ; pt. t. of A. S. hdian (i) to call (2) 
to be called, be named. So also G. ich 
heisse, I am named ; from heissen, to call, 
bid. B. Best explained from Goth, haitan, 
to call, pt t. (active) haihait^ pres. tense 
(passive) haitada, I am called; as in 
• Thomas, saei haitadaTM,ym\i&* = Thomas, 
who is called Didymus, John xi. 6. 

Heterodite, irregularly inflected. (L. - 
Gk.) L. heteroclitus. — Gk. 4t€/x$«Xitos, 
otherwise (i.e. irregularly) inflected.— Gk. 
irfpO'S, another ; -ifAtToy, formed from 
kXXvuv, to lean (hence, to vary as a case 

heterodox, of strange opinion, heret- 
ical. (Gk.) Gk. irtpo-s, another; 8<^-a, 
opinion, from boKtiv, to think. 

heterogeneous,dissimilarinkind. (Gk.) 
Gk. %r§po^, another; yiv-os, kind, kin, 


Hew. (E.) M. E. hezven. A. S. hiSwdn, 
to cut. + Du. houwen, Icel. hifrnfo, Swed. 
hugga, Dan. hugge, G. ha$t€n ; Russ. koottU^ 
to^mmer, forge. Allied to L. auUrt, to 
beat. (VKU.) 

hoe. (F. - G.) Formerly how. - V, 
hone, a hoe. — O. H. G. houwa (G. haue\ a 
hoe, lit. a hewer.-G.H. G. houwan,\.ii 
hew (above). 
Hexagon, a plane six-sided figure. (L.*- 
Gk.) L. hexagonum.^QiV. kiayeavcs, six- 
cornered.— Gk. t^, six; ywyia, an angle, 
from y6w, a knee. 

hexameter. (L. — Gk.) JL, hexameter. 

— Gk. k^afUTpot, orig. an adj., i. e. having 
six measures or feet. — Gk. ?£, six; {Urftw, 
a measure, metre. 

Hey, inter). (E.) M.E. hei, hay; a 
natural exclamation. + G. and Du. hei. 

heyday (i), inter). (G. or Du.) Also 
heyda (Ben Jonson). Borrowed either 
from G. heida, hey there ! hallo ! or from 
Du. hei daar, hey there I The G. da, and 
Du. daar, both mean ' there.' 

Heyday (2), frolicsome wildness; see 

Hiatus, a gap. (L.) L. hiatus, a gap; 
from pp. of hiare, to gape. Allied to 
Yawn and Ohasm. 

Hibernal, wintry. (F.-L.) T. hibernal. 

— L. hibemalis, wintry. — L. hibemus, 
wintry; allied to hiems, wmter. Also to 
Gk. x^-^t snow. Skt hi-ma, frost. (-^GHI.) 
Dep. hibem-ate. 

Hiccough, Hiccup, Hicket, a spas- 
modic inspiration, with closing of the 
glottis, causing a slight sound. (£.) The 
spelling hiccough seems to be due to a 
popular etymology from cough, certainly 
wrong; no one ever so pronounces the 
word. Properly hiccup, or, in old books 
hicket and hickock, which are still better 
forms. Hick-et, hick-ock, are diminutives 
of hick or hik, a catch in the voice, imita- 
tive of the sound. Cf. ' a hacking cough ; ' 
and see Hitch. ^ Du. hik, the hiccough, 
hikken, to hiccough; Dan. hikke, sb. and 
vb. ; Swed. hicka, sb. and vb. ; Bret, hik, 
hak, a hiccough ; W. ig, a sob, igio, to sob. 
And cf. Chincough. 

Hickory, a N. American tree; origin 

Hidalgo, a Span, nobleman of the lowest 
class. (Span. — L.) Span, hidalgo; an 
ironical name, lit. ' son of something,' not 
a nobody. — Span, hijo, son; de, of; aigo, 
something. — L. filium, ace. of JiliuSt son 


(whence O. Span, figp, later hijd) \ de,o{; 
aliquod^ something. 

Hide (i), to cover. (E.) M. E. htden, 
huden, A. S. hydan, -^ Gk. K*v0€ty, to 
hide. (ySKU.) 

hide (a), a skin. (E.) M. E. hide, hude, 
A. S. hfd^ the skin, i. e. ' cover ; * allied to 
A. S. hidan (above). ^ Du. huid^ Icel. 
hiVS, Dan, Swed. hud, O. H. G. htit, G. 
hatUf L. cutis, Gk. «iVor, atc^os, skin, hide. 

hide (3), to flog. (E.) Colloquial; to 
' skin * by flogging. So also Icel. Aytia, to 
fl^, from ^1/9, skin. 

dide (4), a measuze of land. (E.) Esti- 
mated at 120 to 100 acres, and less ; (Low 
L. Aida.) A. S. Md, a contracted form; 
the fall form is Aigid, Hlgid and hiwisc 
were nsed in the same sense, to mean 
enough land for one family or household. 
They are probably closely allied words, 
and therefore allied to hive ; since hiwisc 
is merely the adj. (lit. hivisK) formed from 
hiw-a, a domestic, one of a household ; see 
Hive. % Not connected with Hide (i). 

Hideous, ugly. (F. - L. ?) M. E. 
hidotis.'^O, F. kidos, hidus, later hideux, 
hideous; the earliest form is kisdos. The 
prob. original is L. hispidosus, roughish; 
from hispidus, rough, shaggy. 

Hie, to hasten. (E) M. E hien^ hyen, 
hi^en, A. S. higian, to hasten. Allied to 
Gk. Ki€iy, to go, L. cicre, to summon ; see 
Cite. (V^l.) 

Hierarchy ; see Arch-, prefix. 

Hieroglyphic. (L. » Gk.) L. hierogly- 
fkicust symbolical. * Gk. UpoyKwfmc6sf re- 
lating to sacred writings. — Gk. UpS-s, 
sacTMl; yKxnpfty, to hollow out, engrave, 
incise. See Glyptic. 

hierophant, a priest. (Gk.) Gk. Upo- 
^yrrjs, teaching the rites of worship. — Gk. 
■- l€p6-f, sacred ; ipalvnv^ to shew, explain. 

Higgle ; see Haggle (2). 

High (E.) M. E. htigh, hey, hy, A. S. 
kidh, hih, ^ Du. hoog, Icel. hdr, Swed. 
hog, Dan. hoi, G. hauhs, G. hoch. The 
orig. sense is bent, hence rounded, knob- 
like, as a mound or hill. Cf. G. hiigel, a 
bonch, knob, hillock, Skt. kucha, the female 
breast (^KUK.) 

height. (E.) A corruption of highth 
(Milton) ; but we And M. £. highte as well 
as h€i\e (Jteghihe). A.S. hedhtSu, hikfSu, 
height » A. S. hedh, Uh, high (above). -|- 
Dn. hoogte, Icel. ha^, Swed. hojd, Dan. 
koide, Goth, hauhitha. 



heyday (a), frolicsome wildness. (E.) 
The * heyday of youth' means the 'high 
d(^ of youth.' The spelling hey is a pre- 
servation of M. E. hey, the usual spelling 
of high in the 14th century. 

h^hland. (E.) From high and land\ 
cf. uP'land, low-land. 

how (2). a hiU. (Scand.) M. E. hogh. 
Icel. haugr, a hill ; Swed. hog, a mound ; 
Dan. hoi, a hill.— Icel. hdr, Swed. hog, 
Dan. hoi, high ; see High. 

Hight ; see Heat. 

Hilarity, mirth. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. 
hilariti. — L. ace. hilaritaiem ; from hilaris^ 
adj. cheerful, also spelt hilarus, — Gk. 
Ikap6s, cheerful. % Hilary Term is so 
called from the festival of St Hilary (L. 
Hilaris), Jan. 13. 

exhilarate, to cheer. (L.-Gk.; with 
L. prefix.) From pp. of L. ex-hilarare, to 
gladden greatly. — L. ex, very; hilaris,, 
glad (above). 

Hilding ; see Hind (3). 

Hill. (E.) M. E. hil, hul, A. S. hylL 
+ O. Du. hil; L. collis, a hill ; Lithuan.. 
kalnas, a hill. Allied to Culminate. Der.. 
down-hill, up-hill. 

Hilt, sword-handle. (E.) A. S. hilt, -h 
Icel, hjalt, O. H. G. helza, % Not alliedl 
to hold. 

Him; see He. 

Hin, a liquid measure. (Heb.) Heb. 
hin^ a hin ; said to be of Egyptian ori- 

Hind (I), female of the stag. (E.) A. S. 
hind. ^ Du. hinde ; Icel. Dan. and Swed. 
hind, M. H. G. hinde, O. H. G. hintd, a 
doe. Perhaps 'that which is caught by 
hunting ; ' allied to Hand. 

Hind (2), a peasant; see Hive. 

Hind (3), adj. in the rear. (E.) We now 
say * hind feet;' but the older form is. 
* hinder feet' We even find M. E. hync 
derere (as if hinder-er).— A. S. hindan, adv. 
at the back of, hinder, adv. backwards. ^ 
Goth, hindar, prep, behind ; hindana, be^ 
yond ; G. hinter, prep, behind, hinten, adv. 
behind. Extended from A. S. hine, hence ;. 
from hi; base of he ; see He. 

behind. (E) A. S. behindan, adv. and 
prep., after. -• A. S. be-, prefix (E. by) ;. 
hindan, adv. (above). 

hilding, a base wretch. (E.) Short 

for prov. £. hilderling or hinderling, a 

wretch. From M. E. hinderling, base. 

From A. S. hinder, adv., backwards, with 

I suffix -I'ing^ 



hinder. (E.) M. E. himirm, A. S. 
hindrian, to put behind, keep back. » A. S. 
hinder, hindan (above). Der. hindr-cmce 
(for hinder-ance), 

hindmost. (£.) Corruption of hind- 
mest, by confusion with most, Hindm-est 
is formed with suffix -^j/from A.S. hindema,. 
hindmost, itself a superl. form with suffix 
'fna (as in L. opti-mus). 4- Goth, hindu- 
mists, hindmost (=> hindu-m-ists, with 
double superl. suffix). 

Hinge ; see Hang. 

Hint; see Hunt. 

Hip (i), the haunch. (E.) M. E. hupe. 
A. S. hype, + Du. heup, Icel. huppr, Dan. 
ho/let Swed. hbft, Goth, hups, G. hiifte, 
O, H. G. huf. Orig. 'a bend* or 'a 
hump ; * cf. Gk. icv<J>6t, bent, Kwpo^, a hump, 
ir^^ciy, to bend. (-^KUP.) Allied to Heap. 

Hip (a). Hep, fruit of the dog-rose. 
(E.) M. E. hepe. A. S. he(fp, a hip; 
heSpbrymelt a hip-bramble. + M. H. G. 
hiefe, O. H. G. hiufo, a bramble-bush. 

Hippish. (Gk.) Short for hypochon- 
driacal, adj. of Hypochondria, q. v. 
Hence hippish = hyp'ish. The contraction 
was prob. suggested by hipped, foiled, 
which may well have been due to the phr. 
' to have on the hip,* Merch. Ven. t 3. 47, 
iv. I. 334. 

Hippopotamus. (L.-Gk.) L. hippo- 
potamus.^GV. Ivirtytt&raixoi, the river-horse 
of Egypt. •• Gk. finro-y, horse ; iroTa^<5-5, 
river. Gk. twos is cognate with L. equits ; 
see Equine. iroTafi6s is fresh water, allied 
to Potable. 

Hire, sb. (E.) M, E. hire, A. S. hyr, hire, 
wages. + Du. huur, Swed. hyra, Dan. 
hyre, G. heuer, hire, rent. 

Hirsute ; see Horrid. 

His ; see He. 

Hiss. (E.) M. "Ef. hissen, hisshen. A. S. 
hysian, to hiss. ^ O. Du. hisschen. An 
imitative word. 

hist, an interjection enjoining silence. 
(E.) A mere variant of hush or hiss, Cf. 
Dan. hys, silence I hysse, to hush. Milton 
has ^}>/=: silenced, hushed, II Pens. 55. 

hush. (E.) M. E. hushen, to make 
silent; whence pp. husht, silenced. A 
purely imitative word, allied to hiss. 

whist^ a game requiring silence. (E.) 
From the use of the word whist to enjoin 
silence; cf. hist and hush. Chancer has 
both hush and whist in the sense of 
'AJenced * or 'quiet;' tr. of Boethius, b. ii. 
met s, 1. JS41. 


Histology, the science treating of the 
structure of tissues of plants, ftc. (Gk.) 
Gk. l(xr6'S, a web (hence tissue) ; -Xoyia, 
discourse, from Xiynv, to speak. Gk. 
lffr6'S (also a mast) is allied to ttmifUf to 
set, place. (^STA.) 

History. (L.-Gk.) M. E. histories 
L. historia.'^QV. laropia, a learning by 
enquiry, information. — Gk. Icrrop-, stem of 
Tarojp, tffTcap, knowing; put for W-T«p*"» 
Gk. IS., base of cWcVai, to know. . (-/WID.) 
Allied to Wit. 

Story (I). (F. - L. - Gk.) M. E. itorie. 
— O. F. estoire, estore (and prob. estorie*), a 
history, tale. — L. historia (above). 

Histrionieal, relating to the stage. (L.) 
From L. histrionicus, relating to an actor. 
L. histrioni', crude form of histrio, aa 
actor. Prob, * one who made others laugh ; * 
cf. Skt. has^ to laugh, hasra, a fool. 

Hit, to light upon, strike, attain to. 
(Scand.) M. E. Aj//w.-Icel. hitta, to hit 
upon ; Dan. hitte. Clearly assimilated from 
hinta*, cognate with Goth, hinthan, to 
cntch, as in frahintJian, to seize. Sec 

Hitch, to move by jerks, catch slightly. 
(E.) M. E. hicchen, to move, remove. Cff. 
Lowl. Sc. hai'chy hatch, to move by jerks. 
A weakened form from a base HIK, 
expressing convulsive motion, as in hic- 
cough, ^ Not allied to hook. 

Hithe, Hythe, a small haven, (E.) 
M. K. hithe. A. S. hy^, a haven. Lit. *a 
shelter ; ' allied to Hide (i) and Hide (a). 

Hither ; see He. 

Hive, home for bees. (E.) M. K hint 
(= hive^. From A. S. hiw, z. house; 
preserved in hiiurSdcn, a household, hiwan, 
pi. domestics. Cf. Goth, heiwafrauja, the 
master of a house. Allied to L. ciuis, a 
citizen. (^^KI.) 

hind (a), a peasant. (E.) The final d 
is excrescent. M. E. hine, a domestic. A. S. 
hina*, a domestic, un authenticated as a 
nominative, and really agen. pi., so that hina 
stands for hina man^a, man of the domes- 
tics ; cf. hina ealdor = elder of the domestics, 
a master of a household. Hina *=■ hiwna, 
gen. pi. of hiivan, domestics (above). 

Ho, Hoa, a call to excite attention. (E.) 
A natural exclamation. Cf. IceL h6l hxiX 
hda^ to shout out ho ! 

Hoar, white. (E.) M.E. hoor, A.S. 
h&r. + Icel. hdrr, hoar. Cf. Skt. ^drc^ 
variegaled. \u cq\q>m» -aXi^a >jfiR5i <jC hair 


mixed with gn^y aod white. Der. hoar-y, 
a later form; hoarfrost 

hoarhound, horqhoTmd^ a plant. 
(E.X The true hoarhound is the white, 
Marrubium vulgare. The 6nal d is excres- 
cent. A. S. hdrhdne, also called simply 
htlne, -• A. S. hdr, hoar ; htiru, i.e. strongly 
scented ; cf. L. cuniia, Gk. tcoviXjj, a species 
of origanum, Skt kndy, to stinlc 

Hoard ; see Honse. 
' Hoarding, a kind of fence; see 

HoarhoTind ; see Hoar. 

Hoarse, having a rough* harsh voice. 
(£.) The r is intrusive, but sometimes 
occurs in M. £. hors, properly hitos, hoa,rse. 
A. S hds,', hoarse. + IceU hdss,. Dan. has, 
Swed. hes, Du. keesch, G. fuiser. 

Hoary ; see Hoar. 

Hoax ; see Hooub. 

Hob (I), Hub, the nave of a wheel, 
part of a grate. (£.) The true sense is 
•projection;* the lu^ of a fire-place was 
orig. ' the raised stone on either side of the 
hearth between which the embers were 
confined* (Webster).* Closely related to 
Hump, which is merely the nasalised 
form of it Der. hobnaiU a naU with a 
projecting head. 

Hob (2), a clown, rustic, a fairy. (F. 
— O. H. G.) 'Elves, hobs, and fairies;* 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Mons. Thomas, 
iv. 6. Hob was a common personal name, 
a corrapjtJQn of Robin (like Hodge from 
Roigitr). The name JRobin is F., and is 
a mere corruption of Robert, a name of 
O. H. G. origuL Der. hob-goblin ; see 

Hobble ; see 'EioT^ <i), , 

Sobby (i), an ambling nag ; see 
Hop (I). 

Hobby (a), a kind of falcon ; see 
Hop (I). 

Hobgoblin ; see Hob (a). 

Hobnail; see Hob (i). 

Hobnob, Habnab, with free leave, at 
random. (£.) Compounded of hob and 
nab, to have or not to have, hence applied 
to taking a thing or leavbg it, implying 
free choice, and hence a familiar invitation 
to drink, as in ' to hob-nob together.* Hob 
is from A. S. habban, to have ; nab is from 
A. S. nabban, put for ne hiebban, not to 
have; see Have. 

Hock (I) ; see Hough. 

Hock (j), a wine. \fi.) For Hochheim, 
the name oi Bj>}ace in GenDony, oa the 



livei; Main,; whence the wine coinea. J^ 
meaas/. high home.* 

Hockey, a game ; see Hook* 

Hoous-poous» a iuggler*s trick, a jpg* 
gler. (Low I^) As for as it can be said to 
belong to any language, it is a tort of 
Latin, having the L. termination -itf. 
But it is merely an invented term, used by 
jugglers in performing tricks; see Todd's 

hoax. (Low L.) Short for hocus, Le. 
to juggle, cheat. 

Hod, 9. kind of trough for carrying , 
bricks, (F. — G.) Corrupted from F. hoite, 
'a basket to cany on the back;* Cot,— 
— Prov. G. hotte, a tub, a vintager's dorser ; 
O. Du. hoiU, a pedler*s basket Allied to 

Hodge-podge ; see Hotchpot. 

Hoe ; see Hew. 

Hog. (C ?) M. E. hog. - W. htvch, a sow; 
Bret, houeh, hoch. Com. hoeh. Allied to 
Irish suig, a pig, A.S. ^^^ & sow; see 
Sow. . Doublet, sow, ^ Doubtful. 

Hogshead. (O. Du.) More correctly, 
oxhead. An adaptation of O. Du. okshoofd, 
oxhoofd, a hogshead ; of which, however, 
the lit. sense is ox-head. So also Dan. 
oxhoved, O. Swed. oxhufwtid, an ox-head, 
also a hogshead. No doubt the cask was 
at first named from the device or brand of 
an ' ox-head ' upon it. 

Holder, Hoyden; see Heath. 

Hoist, to heave. (O. Du.) The final / 
is due to the pp. hoist,, used for hoised. 
The verb is really hoise, (Cf. graft for 
grajf^^O.T^Vi. hyssen, Du. hijsschen, to 
noise i^y sounded as £. long. t). 4- Dan. 
heise, hisse ; Swed. hissa, to hoist (whence 
F. hisser), % Not allied to F. hausser, to 

Hold (x), to keep. (£.) A. S. healdan. 
4- Du. houden, Icel. kalda, Swed. hdlla, 
Dan. holde^ Goth, haldan^ G. halien. Der. 
hold, sb^; also be- hold, with prefix be" (£• 
by) ; upfhold, 

upholsterer. (E.) Lengthened from 
upholster, put for uphold-ster^ another fonn 
of upholder, which was formerly used of a 
dealer in furniture, lit. one who Jiolds up to 

Hold (a), the 'hold' of a ship; see 

Hole. (£.) M. £. hole, hoi, AS. hoi, 
a cave. -4- Du. hoi, Icel. hoi, Dan. huj, 
Swed. hid, G. hohl, Cf. Goth, us-hulany, 
to hollow OMl, ^ 'tioXi. K.^, Kol\& Sawow 




hol-en, pp. of str. vb. helan, to cover ; see 
Hell. Or allied to Gk. icdiKoi, hollow. 

hold (a), the cavity of a ship. (Da.) 
Put for hoUt with excrescent d, due to 
confusion with the verb to hold, — Du. 
hoi, a hole, cave, esp. used of the hold of a 
ship (Scwel). 

AoUow. (E.) M. K hohve, adj. A. S. 
holht sb. a hollow place, also spelt holg. 
Extended from A. S. hoi, a bole, cave. 

Holibut, Holiday ; see Hale (i). 

Holla, Hallo, stop! wait! (F.) Not 
the same word as halloo^ to shout; but 
differently used in old authors. See Oth. 
i a. 56; As You Like It, iii. a. a57.»F. 
hold, ' an interjection, hoe there ; * Cot. — F. 
ho, inteij. ; and Id, there ( -»L. iliac), ^ The 
form hallo is due to a confusion vriih halloo, 

Holland, Dutch linen. (Du.) From 
Holland^ the name of the country. So also 
hollands^ spirits from Holland. 

Hollow; see Hole. 

Holly. (£.) M. £. holin\ so that an n 
has been dropped. A. S. holen, holegn^ 
holly. + W. cclyn^ Com. ccliny Bret kelen, 
Gael, cuilionn^ Irish cuileann^ holly. Cf. 
also Du. hulsi, G. hiilse, holly, O. H. G. 
hilliz (whence F. houx). 

holm-oak, the evergreen oak. (E.) 
Here holm is a contraction of M. E. holin^ 
a holly. * Holme, or holy [holly] ;* Prompt. 
Parv. ; and see Way's note. The Quercus 
ilex is a most variable plant ; the leaves are 
sometimes as prickly as a holly. 

Hollyhock ; see Hale. 

Holm, an islet in a river, flat land by a 
river. (E.) M. E. holm, A. S. holm^ orig. 
a • mound.'+Icel. hSlmr, hSlmi, holmr, an 
islet, flat meadow ; Dan. holm^ Swed. holme ^ 
G. holm^ hill, island, Russ. kholm\ a hill, 
L. culmen, hill-top. Allied to Culminate. 

Holm-oak ; see Holly. 

Holocaust ; see Caustio. 

Holster, a leathern case for a pistol. 
(Du.) Du. holster', lit. a cover. Allied to 
A. S. heolstor, a case, covering, Icel. hulstr, 
sheath, Goth, hulistr, a veil. The verb is 
Du. hullen, IceL hylja, Goth, huljan, to 
cover ; from the strong verb seen in A. S. 
helan (pp. holen), to cover. (^KAL, 
KAR.) % The suflSx -ster = -s-ter, a double 
suffix; see Spinster. 

holt, a wood. (E.) M.E. and A.S. 
holt, + Du. hout, O, Du. holt ; Icel. holt, 
G. ?iolz\ so also W. celt, a covert, from 
celu^ to hide. Orig. 'covert;* from the 
same root as the above. 

housings, trappmgs of a hone. (F.- 
Teut.) The old form was houis ; -ings has 
been added.— F. housse, a coverlet, ' a foot- 
cloth for a horse;* Cot. Low L. hucia, 
husia, hussia, the same ; also hulcia, hml" 
citum, — Du. hulse, a husk* slidl (hence, a 
cover, as in Dn. hulsel, a woman's head- 
attire). From the verb seen in O. H. G. 
and Du. hullen, to cover; see Holster 

huil (I), husk. (E.) U.'E., hule. A.S. 
hulu, a husk, lit. ' covering ;* from the same 
root as Holster. 

hull (2), body of a ship. (E.) Lit. 
* the shell * of a ship, and the same word 
as the above. Der. hull, verb, to float 
about, as when the sails are taken down 
and only the hull is seen. 

husk, shell. (E.) M. E. huske. This 
word has lost an /, preserved in the cognate 
languages. The A.S. has only the allied 
won! hulc, a hut + l^u. hulse, a husk ; 
Swed. hylsa\ M. H. G. hulsche, G. hiilse. 
From the verb seen in Du. hullen, Goth. 
huljan, to cover; see Holster. 

Holy ; see Hale (i*). 

Homage ; see Human. 

Home. (E.) M. E. hoom, A. S. Mm, 
^ Du. heim ; Icel. fieimr, a village ; Dan. 
hiem, Swed. hem, G. heim; Goth, haims, 
a village; Lithuan. kgmas, a village, Gk. 
»w/xi;, a village. (^KI.) 

hamlet. (F.-O.LowG) lJi.^,hame- 
let, dimin. of O. F. hamel (F. hameau), a 
hamlet. Formed, with dimin. suffix -el, 
from O. Fries, ham, a home, dwelling. 

Homer, a large measure. (Heb.) Heb. 
chdmer, a homer, also a mound (with initial 
r^^M). — Heb. root chdmar, to undulate, 
surge up. 

Homicide ; see Human. 

Homily ; see Homogeneous. 

Hominy, maize . prepared for food. (W. 
Indian.) W. Indian auhiiminea, parched 

Hommock ; see Hump. 

Homceopathy; see Homogeneous. 

HomogeneoTis, of the same kind 
throughout. (Gk.) Englished from Gk. 
dfioytvTis, of the same race. — Gk. dfio-s, 
same (cognate with E. Same), and ytvos, 
a race (cognate with E. Kin). So also 
homo-logous, corresponding, from X070S, a 
saying, Kiyuv, to say ; hom-onymous, like 
in sound, from ovvfia, a name. 

homily. (L.-Gk.) L. homilia. ^Gk, 
dfuKia, a living together; also converse, 


instrnction, homily. » Gk. l^/ukos, a throng, 
concourse. — Gk.d/i-^f, like, same, together, 
cognate with £. Same; and fXi;, cfAi;, a 
crowd, from (tXttp, to compress, shut in. 

homoeopathy. (Gk.) Englished from 
Gk. 6tMHovd$«ia, likeness in feeling or con- 
dition, mm Gk. S/jLoios,' like ; vaBtlv, aorist 
infin. of vd<rx((y» to suffer. See Same and 
Pathos. And see Homily. 

Hone. (E.) A.S. hdn, a hone, (with 
change from d to long o, as in bdn, bone). 
+ loel. hein^ Swed. hen ; Skt cdna^ a 
grind-stone, from fo, to sharpen ; Gk. Koivos^ 
a cone, peak. See Cone. 
Honest; see Honour. 
Honey. (E.) M.E.Ai/m. K.S.humg. 
+ Du. hofiig, Icel. hunang, Dan. honning, 
Swed. h&ning, G. honig. Perhaps orig. 
* grain-like,* or like broken rice; cf. Skt. 
katia^ grain, broken rice. 

honeycomb. (£.) A. S. hunigcamb, 
a honey-comb ; where comb is the usual £. 
word, though the likeness to a comb is 
Tather fanciful. 

honeysuckle. CE.) Lye gives A. S. 
hunigsucUy unauthorised ; but we find A. S. 
hunigstigty privet, similarly named. From 
A. S. stigan, to suck. 

Honour. (F.-L.) O.F./tonur.'^L, 
konoremt ace. of honor, better honos, 

honest. (F.-L.) O. F. honesie (F. 
konn^te).mm'L. honestus^ honourable; put for 
konas'tus*, from honas*, orig. form of 
konoSf honour. 

Hood, covering. (E.^ A.S. h6d.<^T>i, 
hoed, G. hut, O. H. G. huat, hSt, a hat. 
Cf. Gk, «)TvAi7, a hollow vessel. (v^KAT.) 
Allied to Cotyledon. 

hoodwink. (E.) To make one «/«»>& or 
dose his eyes, by covering him with a hood. 

-hood, -head, suffix. (E.) A. S. hdd, 
state, quality ; cognate with Goth, haidus, 
manner, way. 

Hoof. (E.) M. E. hoof, huf\ pi. hcrves, 
A. S. hSf. + Du. hoef, Icel. hSfr, Dan. hav, 
Swed. hof, G. huf, Russ. kopuito, Skt. fapha. 
Hook. (E.) M. E. hok. A. S. hdc. + 
Du. haak, Icel. hcU^i, Dan. hage, Swed. 
hake. G. haken. Allied to Gk. R^K\oi, 
a circle, Skt. kuch, to bend. And see 
Hatch (i). 

hackle (2), any flimsy substance unspun, 
as raw silk. (Du.) So named from its 
appearance, as if it has been hackled; see 
heckle ^below). 



hake, a fish. (Scand.) Norw. hakefisk, 
lit. * hook-fish;' from the hooked under- 

heckle, hackle, hatchel, an instru- 
ment for dressin? flax or hemp. (Du.) 
Du. hekel, a heocle; dimin. of hciak, a 
hook (above). + l^&n* hagle, from hage ; 
Swed. hdckla^ from hcUke; G. hechel, the 
same as hdkel, a little hook, dimin. of 
haken, a hook. 

hockey, a game. (E.) Also called 
hookey, because played with a hooked stick. 
huckle-bone, the hip-bone. (E) 
Huckle is the dimin. of proy. E. huck, 
a hook. A huckle is a * small joint.* Cf. 
Skt. kuch, to bend. 

Hookah, Hooka. (Arab.) Arab, hu^ 
qa, a casket ; also, a pipe for smoking. 

Hoop (i), a pliant strip of wood bent 
into a band. (£.) Ui.'E. hoop, hope. A. S. 
h6p. ^ Du. hoep. Cf. also Icel. ndp, a bay, 
from its circular form, prov. E. hope, (i) a 
hollow, (2) a mound, according as the cur- 
vature is concave or convex. Cf. Sk t. chdpa, 
a bow, Gk. inifivrcty, to bend. Allied to 
Hop (i), Hnmp. 

Hoop (3), Whoop, to call out, shout. 
(F.-Teut.) M. E houpen, to shout- 
O. F. houper, 'to hoop unto;* Cot Of 
Teut. origin; cf. Goth, hwopjan, to boast, 
hooping-cough, a cough accompanied 
by a hoop or convulsive noisy catch in the 
breath. (Formerly called chincough,) 

Hoopoe, the name of a bird. (L.) L. 
upupa, a hoopoe ; the initial h is due to 
the F. huppe, also derived from upupa.^ 
Gk. cvo^, a hoopoe. Of imitative origin. 
% The F. huppe, a tuft of feathers, is from 
huppe, a hoopoe (from its tufted head) ; 
not vice versi. 

Hoot. (Scand.) M. E. houten. — O. 
Swed. htita, to hoot — Swed. hut I inteij. 
begone I of onomatopoetic origin. So also 
W. hwtl Irish utl expressions of dislike. 

hue (2), clamour, outcry. (F. — Scand.) 
In the phr. * hue and cry.' M. E. hue, a 
loud cry. — O. F. huer, to hoot — O. Scand. 
huia, to hoot (above). 

Hop (i), to leap on one leg. (E.) M. E 
hoppen, huppen. A.S. hoppian, to leap, 
dance. + Du. hoppen, Icel, hoppa, Swed. 
hoppa, Dan. hoppe, G. hiipfen. The orig. 
sense is * to go up and down.* (-^ KUP.) 
Dep. hopper (of a mill) ; hopp-le, a fetter 
for horses ; hop-scotch, a game in which 
children hop over scotches, Le. lines scored 
on the ground. 



hobble; to limp. (E.) M. £. kcielen. 
Reallr for kopp-U ; fireqiiaitatiTe of A^.^ 
DiL hobbeUn, pror, G. hoppeln. 

hobby (i), hobby-hone, a tojlike a 
horse, ambling na^ a favourite ptusait (F. 
« O. Low G.) CorruptioD of M. £. hobin^ a 
txas.^O,Y,hobin, • a hobby;* Got-O. F. 
hwer, 'to stirre, remove from place to 
place ;* Cot. — O. Dn. hobben, to toss, 
move np and down ; weak form of happen, 
to hop. Ct Dan. hoppe, a mare ; N. Frfes. 
ho^, a horse (in children's langnage). 

JDobby (2), a small falcon. (F.««0. 
Low G.) Obsolete. M. £. hobi, koby. 
Closely allied to O. F. hobnau ( -hob^r-et), 
* the hawke teanned a hobby ;* Cot— O. F. 
Mifber, to stir, move aboat (see above). 

Hop (2), a plant. (Du.) Introduced 
from the Netherlands ab. 1524.-00. h^, 
hop. ^ G. hopfetiy hop. We also find IceL 
humall, Swed. Dan. Aumle, O. Da. hommel 
(whence late L. humulus) \ prob. allied 

Hope (i), expectation. (£.) M. £. hope, 
A. S. Acpa, hope ; whence Acpian, to hope. 
^Da. Aacp, Dan. Aaab, Swed. Aopp, M.H.G. 
hOjffi, sb. ; whence Da. hopen, Dan. haabe, 
Swed. hojpas, G. hoffen, to hope. Perhaps 
allied to L. cupere^ to desire. 

Hope (2), a troop ; see Heap. 

Horde, a wandering tribe. (F. — Turk.— 
Pers.) F. horde, — Turk, ordtl, a camp. — 
Pers. 6rdii, a court, camp, horde of Tartars ; 
urdiif a camp. 

Horehound ; see Hoar. 

Horizon. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. horizon. 
•■ L. horizon (stem horizont-), — Gk. 
6pl(wv, the bounding or limiting circle; 
orig. pres. pt of ifi{*iy, to limit. —Gk. 
Spot, a boundary. Der. horizont-al. 

aphorism, a definition. (Gk.) Gk. 
bxpoptff/ibs, a definition. •- Gk. &popi{€iyt to 
define, limit — Gk. d^-, for dw6, off; 6fii{tiy, 
to limit 

Horn. (E.) A. S. horn, + Icel. Dan. 
Swed, G. horn ; Du. horen, Goth, haurn, 
W. Gael. Irish eom, L. eomtt. Allied to 
Gk. W/)-«, a horn. (VKAR.) 

hornet, a kind of large wasp. (£.) So 
called from its antennae or horns. A. S. 
hymef, a hornet - A. S. horn (with the 
usual vowel-change from to y). 

Horologe, Horoscope; see Hour. 

Horrible; see Horrid. 

Horrid. (L.) Spenser has it in the 
sense of 'rough;' F. Q. i- 7« 3i«-L. hor- 
ridus, rough, bristly. - L,homrc, to bristle; 


also todiead, with reference totfaeMtfllB|( 
of the hair through terror. Of. Skt MiOti 
to bristle^ esp. as a token of fear or ojf 
pleasure. (VGHARS.) 

abhor. (L.) L. ah-horrert^ to shfhdc 
from through terror. 

hirsute. (L.) L. himttus^ bris^, 
rough. Allied to L. horrere (Skt. htisk), te 
bristle (abore). 

horrible. (F. - L.) O.F. horrU^. 

— L. horribilis, dreadfid.— L. horrerti to 
dread (above). v 

horrify. (L.) Coined, by analo^gr 
with F. words in -fyf from. L. kcrrijieam 
to cause terror. — L. horri-, for korrert, to 
dread ; -Jicare, ior facere^ to make. 

horror, dread. (L.) L. horror, *■ L. 
horrere, to dread (above). 

ordure, excrement (F.— L.) Y, ordure, 
—O.F. ord (fem. orde), filthy, foul, tigly, 
frightful.— L. korridus, rough, frightfuL 

Horse. (E.) M.E. ^rr.-A.S. hon, 
pi. Jiors, it being a ncut. sb.+Icel. hross, 
hors, Du. ros, G. ross, O, H. G. hror. lit 
*a runner;' cf. L. currere, to run. 

Hortatory, fiiU of encouragement (L.) 
As if from L. hertaiorius*y coined from 
horiaior, an encouragcr. — L. hortari, to 
encourage; prob. allied to L. horior, I 

exhort. (F.-L.) O. F. exhorfer,^h. 
ex-hortari, to encourage greatly. 

Horticulture, gardening. (L.) Coined 
from L. horti, gen. case of hortus, a garden ; 
cultura, cultivation ; see Culture. L. 
hortus is allied to Y^.yard (i). 

Hosanna, an expression of praise. (Gk. 

— Heb.) Gk. dxraKKd. — Heb. hSshidhnnA, 
save, we pray. — Heb. hdshfa, to save (from 
ydslia*) ; and nd, a particle signifying en- 

Hose. (E.) M. E. hose, pi. hosen, A. S. 
hosa, pi. hosan^ho^t, stockings.^ Du. hoos, 
Icel. hosa, Dan. hose, G. hose, Cf. Russ. 
koshulia, a fur jacket. Der. hos-i-er (cf. 
bow-yer, law-yer). 

Hospice, Hospitable, Hospital ; see 
Host (I). 

Host (i), one who entertains guests. 
(F.-L.) M. E. host, hos/e.^O. F. hos/e. 
Cf. Port hospede, a host, guest. — L. 
hospiiem, ace. of hospes, (i) a host, 
(2) a guest. The base hospit- is short 
for hostipit; where hosti- is the crude 
form of hostis, a guest, an enemy, see 
Host (1) ; and pit- means ' lord,* being 
allied to \u.potens, powerful ; cf. Skt /o/^ 


a master, governor, lord ; sec Possible. I 
Thus hospes = hostipets ♦, guest-masler, a 
master of a house who receives guests. Cf. 
Ross, gospode, the Lord, gospodare, a 
governor, prince, from goste, a guest, and 
-poJi (*SKt. pati), lord. I>er. host-ess, 
from O. F. hosiesse, 'an hostesse ;' Cot. 

hoi^pioe. (F. - L.) F. hospia, - L. 
bospUium, a house for guests. — L» hospiti-^ 
cntde form of hospes (above). 

hospitable. (F. - L.) F. hospiiable. 
From Low L. hospitare, to receive as 
a guest. «i L. hospit-, stem of hospes 

hospital. (F. - L.) M. £. hospital. - 
O.F. hospital, ^Ijom L. hospitaie, a larpe 
boose, a sing, formed from L. pi. hospiialia, 
apartments for 8trangen.*L. hospit-, stem 
ot hcspot (above). 

hostel, an inn. (F.-L.) O. F. hostel^ 
Low L. kospitale ; see hospital above. 

hostler, ostler. (F.-L.) Orig. the 
innkeeper himself, and named from his 
hostel (above). 

hotel, an inn. (F.-L.) Mod. F. hetel, 
the same as O. F. hostel; see hostel above. 

Bpittle(a), a hospital. (F.-L.) M.E. 
spitiL ^ O.F. ospital, hospital \ see hos- 
pitsl (above). 

Host (2), an army. (F.-L.) The orig. 
sense is 'enemy* or 'foreigner.' M.E. 
hast^ ai/.— O. F. host, a host, army.— L. 
haOtm, ace of hostis, an enemy (orig. a 
stianger,.a goest) ; hence, a hostile army, 
a hiMt.4>Russ. goste, a guest, stranger; 
A. S. gast ; see Quest. Doublet^ gtust. 
Host (3), the consecrated bread of the 
eudurist. (L.) L. hostia, a victim in a 
sacrifice; O. "LsX^fostia^ lit. 'that which 
is slain.* «L. hostire, O. Lat. fostire, to 
strike. (VGHAS.) 
Hostage ; see Sedentary. 
Hostel, Hostler ; see Host (i). 
Hot. (£.) M.E. hoot (with long 0), 
A. S. hdt, hot.+I^u. heet, loel. heitr, Swed. 
JU/, Dan. lud, G. heiss. Allied to IceL 
JUti, heat, Goth, haisy a torch, Lithuan. 
AuM^heat (VKII) 

heat. (£.) M. E. hete. A. S. k^tu, 
kJtiQ\ formed from hdt, hot, by the usual 
vowel-change. + Dan. hedct Swed. hetta. 
Vie also find A. S. hatan, verb, to heat. 
Hotch-pot, Hodgepodge. (F. — Du.) 
Hodgepodge is a corruption of hotchpot, a 
confused medley. — F. hochepot, a medley. 
mO.Do. hutspot (lit. shake-pot), hodge- 
podge^ beef or . mutton cut into snudl 



pieces. — O. Da. huiscHj Jiot^cn, to shake; 
poty a pot. See Hustle and Pot. 

Hotel ; see Host (i). 

Hottentot, a native of the Cape of 
Good Hope. (Du.) A name given them 
by the Dutch, in derision of their speedi, 
which sounded like stammering, or a repe- 
tition of the syllables hot and /I0/. En is 
Dutch for ' and ; ' hence Du. hot en tot ^ 
'hot* and 'tot.' Cf. Du. hateren^ to 
stanmier, tateren, to tattle. 

Houdah, Howdah, a seat fixed on an 
elephant's back. (Arab.) Aralx hawdaL a 
litter carried by a camel, a seat placed on 
an elephant's back. 

Hough, Hook, the joint in the hind-leg 
of an animal, between knee and fetlock ; in 
man, the back part of the knee-joint (£.) 
Now u%Vi9}i\y hock\ formerly hough, M.K 
houch, A.S. hdh, the heel. + IceL hd, the 
hock ; Dan. ha, Cf. Du. hak, the heel, L. 
coxa, the hip, Skt. kaksha, an arm-pit. 
Der. hough, verb, also spelt hox. 

Hound, a dog. (£.) A. S. hund. -f Du. 
hond, Icel. hundr, Dan. Swed. G. hund^ 
Goth, hunds. Allied to L. canis, Gk. 
Kviflf (gen. KwU\ Skt. coan^ a dog ; also 
to Irish cUf W. ci, a aog, Russ. suka, a 

Hour. (F.-L.-Gk.) O.F. hore (F. 
heure), — L. hora. — Gk. &pa, a season^ 
hour. Prob. allied to Skt. ydtu, time. 
(V YA, from 4/ 1, to go.) 

horologe, a clock. (F. — L, — Gk.) 
O.F. horologe (later horloge),^!*, horolo' 
gium.^ Gk, iipok6rf lov, a sun-dial, waier- 
clock. — Gk. itpo^ for &pa, hour; -Xoyiok, 
teller, from Xiymv, to tell. 

horoscope. (F. — L.— Gk.) F. horo- 
scope, ^h. horoscopuSf a horoscope, from 
horosa^ms, ziSl)., observing the hour.— Gk. 
ofpoa/MTot, observing the hour (also as sb.)ir 
— Gk. <&po-, for &pa, hour ; a«oirciV, to con* 
sider, allied to CMinrofjuu, I consider ;• see 

Hotiri, a nymph of Paradise. (Pers.) 
Pers. htlrlt one viigin of Paradise, ktlrd, 
htlr, a virgin of Paradise, black-eyed 
nymph. Cf. Arab, hawrd, fern, of ahwar, 
having fine black eyes. 

House. (E.) M. £. hous, A. S. hits, 4- 
Du. huts, Icel. hds, Dan. huus, Swed. kus, 
Goth, hus, G. haus, Cf. Skt. hosha, hofo, 
a coop^ a sheath, an abode. 

hoaj^ a store. (£.) A. S. hord,^JctL 
hodd, G. hort, Goth. huzd. The Goth, 
form shows that the. orig. sense was 'a 



thing housed,* from Goth, has, a house 


husband. (Scand.) Icel. hihbSndi, 
the master of a house, the goodmaa ; 
short for hiUbtiandum^ \ce\. Ads, house; 
btiandit dwelling in, pres. pt. of biia, to 
dwell ; see Boor. Dor. husband-man, 

hUBsi^ a case for needles, thread, &c. 
(Scand.) The final /is due to confusion 
with huswife^ for which see hussy, below. 
*Icel. htlsi, a case, as in skariskilsi, a 
scissors-case.— Icel. hils, a house. 

hussy, a pert girl. (E.) Short for hus- 
wife, which is put for house-wife (like hus- 
band for house-band), 

hustings. (Scand.) The mod. use is 
incorrect ; it is properly hustings sing., 
and means a council, an assembly for the 
choice of a candidate. M. £, husting. 
A. S. hiisting. •'IctX, htls^ing, a council, 
meeting. — Icel. htts, a house ; ^'ng, a thing, 
also an assembly ; see Thing. Cf Swed. 
and Dan. fing, the same as Icel. 'ping ; and 
the Swed. form better accounts for the £. 
huswife. (E.) I.e. house-wife. 

Housel, the eucharist. (E.) The orip^. 
sense is ' sacrifice.* M. E. house/, A. S. 
htisei. ^ Goth, hunsi, sacriBce. Cfl Gk. 
italvHVt to kilL 

Housings ; see Holster. 

Hovel, a small hut. (E.) M.E. hovel, 
hovil; dimin. of A.S. hof hofa, a house. 
+ IceL hof temple, hall ; G. hof yard, 

hover. (E.) A frequentative of M. E. 
houen ( = hoven\ to stay, tarry, wait, orig. 
to dwell, a verb formed from A. S. hof a 
house, dwelling (above). Cf. O. Fries, hovia, 
to receive into one*s house ; O. Du. hoven, 
to entertain, lodge. % The W. hofo, to 
hover, is borrowed from M. E. houen. 

"H-OW (i), in what way ; see "Who. 

How (2\ a hill ; see High. 

Howdah ; see Houdah. 

Howitzer, a short cannon. (G. ■• 
Bohemian.) Borrowed from G. haubitze, a 
howitzer; formerly spelt hauffniiz.^^^o- 
hemian haufnice, orig. a sling for casting a 

Howl. (F.-L.) M.E. houkn.^O.Y, 
huiler.^'L, u/uiare, to shriek, howl. — L. 
ulula, an owl ; see Owl. So also G. 
heulent to howl ; from euie, an owl. 

Hox, to hamstring ; see Hough. 

(i), a kind o£ sloop. ^Du.) Du. 


heu, heude, a flat-bottomed meidia&t- 
ship ; Flemish hut, a hoy. 

Hoy (a\ stop! (Du.) Dn. huiIhoj\ 
come 1 well ! Allied to Ho. 

Hoyden, Hoiden ; see Heath. . 

Hub, a projection ; the same as Hob (i). 

HubbUD ; see Whoop. 

Huckabaok, a sort of linen doth. 
(Low G. ?) The orig. sense was prob. ' ped- 
Iar*s ware ; ' cf. Low G. hukkebak, G. kmk' 
back, pick-a-back. See Hawker. 

Hucklebone ; see Hook. 

Huckster ; see Hawker. 

Huddle. (E.) M. E. hoderen, hodrtu, 
which is an equivalent form, meaning to 
huddle together, as under a covert or shdter. 
Frequentative of M. E. huden ; to hide ; see 
Hide. It seems also to have been confosed 
with Du. hoetelen, Swed. hutla, Dan. hutU, 
to bungle, which are allied to Hustle, q. v. 

Hue (i), show, appearance, colour. (E) 
M. E. hewe. A. S. hiw^ heow, heS, appearance. 
•^ Swed. hy, skin, complexion, Goth, hitui, 
form, show. 

Hue (2), clamour; see Hoot. 

Huff, to puff, bluster, bully. (E.) The 
old sense is to puff, blow hard ; hence to 
bluster, vapour. An imitative word, like 
fuff. Cf. Lowl. Sc. hauch, a forcible puff, 
hech, to breathe hard; G. hauchen, to 
breathe. % To huff, at draughts, simply 
means 'to blow;' it was customary to 
blow upon the piece removed ; cf. LowL 
Sc. blaw, to blow, also to huff at draughts; 
Dan. bl(Bse en brikke, to huff (lit. blow) a 
man at draughts. 

Hu^, to embrace closely. (Scand.) The 
orig. sense was to squat, or cower down. 
Palsgrave has : * I hugge, I shrink in my 
bed. It is good sport to see this little boy 
hugge in his bed for cold.' Of Scana. 
origin ; cf. Dan. sidde paa hug (lit. to sit in 
a hook), to crouch down ; Swed. huka sig, 
to crouch down ; Icel. hiika, to sit on one s 
hams. So also O. Du. huken, G. hocken, 
to couch, Skt. kuch, to bend. Allied to 

Huge, vast. (F.-Teut.?) M.E. huge, 
hogge. An initial a has dropped. — O. F. 
a//tt^, huge, vast (12th cent.). Prob. from 
the old form of mod. G. erhohen, to exalt, 
increase, which is from hoch (M. H. G. 
hotich), high ; see High. 

Huguenot, a French protestant. (F. - 
G.) F. huguenot; named from some per- 
son of the name of Huguenot, who was 
doubtless conspicuous as a reformer. This 


niime was in me two centnries at least 
befote the Reformation, and is a dimin. of 
F. Hugms, Hngh {Jj^tsjeannot from/eam), 
• M. H. G. £&g, Hugh, lit a thoughtful 
man.^O. H. G. Au^, thought; allied to 
L*. cogiiare^ to think. % See 15 false ety- 
molo^es of this word noted by Scheler. 

Hulk, a heavy ship. (Low L. - Gk.) 
M. £. hulke.^ljovt L. hulka, better hulcus, 
^ihu, akind of ship. — Gk. 6Xirdr, aship which 
is towed, also a heavy ship, merchantman. 
•■Gk. IXircir, to draw, drag, ^f" Lithuan. 
welku, I pull. (VWARK.) Der. hulk- 
ing, i, e. bulky, unwieldy. ^ Distinct 
from M. £. kulke, A. S. huic, a hovel. 

Hull (I), a husk ; see Holster. 

Hull (2), body of a ship; see Holster. 

Hum (i), to buzz. (E.) M. £. hummen ; 
an imitative word. 4* G. hummen^ Du. 
hommelen, to hum. 

^ hum (a), to trick, cajole. (E.) A par- 
ticnlar use of hum^ to buzz ; it also meant 
to utter a sound expressive of contempt 
(Cor. V. I. 49) ; also to applaud ; see 
Richardson, and Todd*s Johnson. Hence 
it meant to flatter, cajole, trick. So also 
Port, numbir, to buzz, zombart to jest; 
Span, sumbar, to hum, also to jest. Der. 
hum, sb., a hoax. 

bumblebee, a humming-bee. (E.) From 
the verb humble^ put for humtnle, frequen- 
tative of hum. Cf. Du. hommelf a humble- 
bee, from hommeleftf to hum ; G. hummel, 
a humble-bee, from hummen^ to hum. 

humbug^, a hoax, piece of trickery. 
(E.) * Humbugs a false alarm, n bugbear,* 
Dean Milles MS. (cited in Halliwell). 
' Drolleries, bonmots, and humbugs ; ' about 
A.D. 1740. Compounded of hum, hoax, 
and bug, a spectre, ghost, bugbear; the 
orig. sense being 'sham bugbear; see 
konti (a) and bug. Der. humbug, verb. 

humdrum, dull, droning. (£.) Com- 
pounded of hum^ a buzzing noise, and 
drum, a droning sound ; see Drum. 
Human. (F.-L.) Formerly humaine. 
• O. F. humain, 'humane, manly;' Cot. 
— L. humanus^ human. — L. homo, a man; 
lit 'a creature of earth,' from humus, 
ground ; see Humble. 

homage. (F. — L.) M. E. homage, — 
O. F. homage, the service of a vassal to his 
lord. — Low L. homaticum, the service of a 
vassal or man. — L. hom-o, a man. 

homicide, man-slaughter, also a man- 
tlayer. (F. — L.) F. homicide, meaning (i) 
manslaughter, from L, /icmicidiumi (a) a 



man-killer, from L. homicida.^'L, hom-c, 
a man; -euiium, a killing, or -cida, a slayer, 
from eeedert, to kilL 

humane. (L.) Directly from L. hu- 
manus, (i) human, (2) kind. 

ombre, a game at cards. (F.— Span.— 
L.) F. ^m^^.— Span, juego del hombre, 
lit. 'game of the man.' — L. hominem, ace. 
oihomo, a man. 

Humble. (F. - L.) F. humble. - L. 
humilem, ace. of humilis, humble, lowly, 
near the ground. — L*. humus, the ground. 
Cf. Gk. x^l*^* on the ground, Russ. 
umlia, earUi, land. 

exhume, to disinter. (L.) Coined from 
ex, out of; humus, the ground* 

humiliate. (L.) From pp. of L. 
kumiliare, to humble. — L. humilis, humble 

humility. (F.-L.) M. E. humilitee. 

— O. F. humiliteit, humility.— L. humili- 
totem, ace. of humilitas, humility. — L. 
humilis, humble. 

Humble-bee, Humbug ; see Hum (i). 

Humdrum ; see Hum (i). 

Humeral, belonging to the shoulder. 
(L.) Low L. humeralis, belonging to the 
shoulder. — L. humerus, the shoulder; 
better umerus, ^ Gk. t&ftot, Goth, anua, 
Skt. amsa, the shoulder. 

Humid, moist. (F.-L.) F. humide.^ 
L. humidus, better umidus, moist — L. 
humere, umere, to be moist; cf. uuens, 
uuidus, udus, moist. Gk. ^Tp^r, moist. 
(VUG, for WAG.) 

humour, orig. moisture. (F. — L.) See 
Trench, Select Glossary, and Study of 
Words. The four humours, according to 
Galen, caused the four temperaments of 
mind, viz. choleric, melancholy, phlegmatic, 
and sanguine. — O. F. humor (F. humeur). 

— L. humorem^ ace of humor, moisture. — 
Is, humere, to be moist (above). 

Humiliate, Himiility; see Humble. 

Hummook ; see Hump. 

Hump, a lump, bunch, esp. on the back. 
(E.) * Hump, a hunch, or lump,' West' 
moreland\* Halliwell. Not found in 
M. £. It is a nasalised form of heap, and 
from the same base as heap and hop (i); 
see Hop (i). Cf. Gk. KiA^f, a nump, 
Lithuan. kumpas, hunched, Skt kubja, 
hump-backed. Parallel to hunch, q. v. 

hummock, hommock, a mound, hil- 
lock, rounded mass. (£.) It appears to be 
merely a dimin. of hump\ put as if for 
humP'Ock^, Ci. hiii-ock ViotCL Kill. 



Hunch, a hump, round mass. (£.) A 
nasalised form of iiok, q. v. Cf. G. hucke, 
the bent back, hdcker, a bunch on the 
back. And cf. Skt. kuiUh, to bend, with 
ktichf to bend. 

Hundred. (£.) lli.'E. hundnd. A. S. 
hundred; a compound word. — A. S. kund, 
a hundred ; and rM, rad^ speech, discourse, 
but here used in the early sense of * reckon* 
ing* or rate, to denote the rate of counting. 
Cl Icel. Aund-ra^f hundred, dtt'rai^r^ 
eighty, ii-ratSr, a hundred (ten-rate). This 
simix is allied to Bead, q. v. fi. The A. S. 
Aund is cognate with L. centum, answering 
to an Aryan form KANTA, short for 
DAKANTA, i.e. tenth, as appears from 
Goth, taihun-taikund, a hundred (lit. ten- 
tenth). In fact huftd=t'enth without the /, 
ju&t as L. centum is for de-centum. See Ten. 

Hunger. (£.> A. S. hungor. -f Icel. 
kungr^ Swed. Dan. hunger, Du. hcnger, 
G. hunger; Goth, huhrus, hunger. Prob. 
allied to Skt. kufUht to contract ; so that 
hunger denotes the feeling of being shrunk 

Hunt, to chase wild animals. (£.) M.. £. 
hunten. A. S. huntian^ to capture. Allied 
to Goth, hunths, captivity, which is from 
hunihans, pp. of hinthan^ to seize, capture 
(pt. t. hanth). Thus the Teut. base is 
HANTH, to seize. Cf. Skt. fdtaj^a, to 
fell, to drive, causal of cad, to fall. 

hint, a slight allusion. (£.) Hint is 
properly 'a thing taken' or caught up; 
short ior M. £. hinted^ pp. of htnUn or 
henten, to seize.— A. S. hentan, to seize, 
hunt after; from the Teut base HANTU 

.Hurdle. (E.) M. £. hurdel, A. S. 
hyrdel ; a dimin. from an A. S. base hurd-*^ 
not found ; but see the cognate words. ^ 
Du. h^rdct Icel. hur^, G. hurde, M. H. G. 
hurt, a hurdle; Goth, haurds, a door. 
Cognate with L. crates, a hurdle, Gk. 
leikpTdKoi, a (woven) basket Cf. Skt. krit, 
to spm, chrit, to connect The sense is a 
•woven* thing. (V KART.) Doublet, 

hoarding, a kind offence. (F.-Du.; 
or Du.) Not old. Either from Du. horde, 
a hurdle, or from F. horde, a palisade, 
barrier, which is the same word. 

Hurdyg^urdy, a kind of violin, played 

by turning a handle. (£.) A derisive name, 

from the grating sound. Cf. Lowl. Sc. 

Aurr, to snarl, ^rr, to growL * Som vsej 


strange wlaffyng, chytering^ harryng amd^ 
garryng* » some people use a strange bab-, 
bling, chattering, snarling and growling; 
Spec of English, ed. Monis and.Skeat, p^ 
241, 1. 163. Formed on the model of 
hurly-burly. See Huny. . 

Hurl ; see Hnrt. 

Hurly burly, a tumult (F.— L.; and 
£.) A reduplicated word, the lecond syl- 
lable being an echo of the first The 
simple form hurly is the original ; se^ |K. 
John, iiL 4. 169. » F. hurler, to howl, jcU ; 
a corruption of huller, to howl ; see Howl. 
So also Ital. urlare, uiulare, to howl ; L. 
ululare, to howl. 

Hurrah; see Hussah. 

Hurricane, whirlwind. (Span.— Carib- 
bean.) Span, huracan, — Carib. huracan 

Hurry. (Scand.) Not allied to ^harry^ 
Formed from an older word hurr; so also 
scurr^y from shir, M. E. horien, to hurry 
(AUit Poems, ed. Morris, B. 883). -0. 
Swed. hurra, to swing, whirl round ; 
Swed. dial, hurra, to whirl, whence hurr, 
sb. hurry, haste. Cf. Dan. hurre, to hum, 
whir ; Icel. hurr, a noise. Allied to 'Whir, 
being an imitative word. 

Hurst, a wood. (E.) M. K hurst i 
A. S. hyrst, + M. H. G. hurst, a shrub, 
thicket. Lit. * interwoven thicket ; V allied 
to Hurdle. 

Hurt, to dash against, to harm. (F^—Cli 
M. E. hurten, hirten, (i) to push, dash 
against; (a) to injure. — O.F. hurter (K. 
fuurter), to strike or dash against. Of Cel- 
tic origin ; W. hyrddu, to ram, push against 
hwrda, a push, a thrust, hwrdd, a ram ; Com. 
hordh, a ram ; Manx heurin, a he-goat 

hurl, hurtle. (F.-C. ; with E. suffix>^ 
Hurl is short for hurtle ; and hurtle, i. e. 
to keep on dashing against, is the frequen- 
tative of hurt, in the old sense of 'dash 
against' See hurtleth — pushes down, 
Chaucer, C. T. 3618, where some MSS. 
have hurteth; also hurlid, Wyclif^ Luke, 
vi. 49, in six SiSS., where seventeen MSS, 
have hurtlid. 

Husband ; see House. 

Hush ; see Hiss. 

Husk ; see Holster. 

Husky, hoarse. (E.) Corrupted from 
husty or hausty, by confusion with the 
commoner word husk. ^ Haust, a dry 
cough ; * Coles (1684). From M. £. hoost, 
host, a cough. A. S. hwdsta, a cough. 4* 
iDu. hotsix IceL hasti^ Dan« hostd, Swed. 


kcstOf G. htisten, a odbgh. Allied to Skt. 
kdsa, a coQgh. ( yKAS.) 

Hussar. (Hungarian.) So called because 
Mathias Corvinus, king of Hungary and 
Bohemia, raised a corps of horse-soldiers in 
1458, by commanding that one man should 
be chosen out of twenty^ in every village. 
^Hung. huszar, twentieth; from husz^ 
twenty f Littr^, Scheler). 

Hussif, Hussy, Hustings ; see 

Hustle, to jostle. (Du.) Put for hutsU, 
— Du. hutseien, to shake up and doMOi, 
huddle together; frequent, of O. Dn. hutsen, 
Du. hotsen^ to shake. See Hotchpot. Cf. 
Lowl. Sc. koity to move by jerks, hotter^ to 

Hut. (F.-O. H. G.) M. E. hotie.^Y, 
hutte, a cottage ; Cotgrave. -• O. H. G. 
hutta (G. hiiiU), a hut. -f- Swed. hydda, 
a hut. Cf. Skt. knti, a hut ; from kui, to 
bend (hence to cover). 

Hutch, a box, (F.-Low L.) M. E. 
kuchef hucche. * F. huche, a hutch, bin. — 
Low L. huHca, a hutch, box ; of unknown 
origin. Prob. Teutonic; cf. O. H. G. kuaian 
(G. huten\ to take care of. See Heed. 

Huzzah (G.), Hurrah (Scand.) Buz- 
tah is the older form ; also written huzza, 
G. hussa, huzzah 1 So also Swed. and Dan. 
hurra, hurrah I Ct Dan. hurre, to hum, 
buzz. See Hurry. 

Hyacinth, a flower. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
F. hyacinthe, — L. hyacinthus. ■• Gk. v<&* 
Kiv$os, an iris, larkspur (not our hyacinth). 

jacinth, a precious stone. (F.->L. — 
Gk.) O. Y.jacinthe. •• L. hyacinthus, a 
jacinth. — Gk. ifoxwBos, a jacinth; Rev. 
xxi. ao. 

Hysana ; see Hyena. 

Hybrid, mongrel. (L. - Gk.?) L. hi- 
hrida, hvbrida, a mongrel, a hybrid. 
Usually derived from Gk. i/^pi5-, stem of 
v/Spfff, insult, wantonness, violation. 

Hydra, a water-snake. (L. — Gk.) L. 
hydra. •■ Gk. 0Spa, water-snake. — Gk. 08-o;p, 
water. Cf. Skt. udras^ a water-animaX 
otter, A S. oitr, Doubleti otter. And 
see "Water. 

dropsy ; see hydropsy (below). 
hycGrangea, a flower. (Gk.) A coined 
name, referring to the cup -form of the 
capsule, or seed-vessel. From Gk. ^Sf»-, for 
i»8tti^, water ; 6rfftiw, a vessel. 

hydraulic, relating to water in motion. 
(F.«-L.-*Gk.) F. hydraulique. 'm'L, hy- 
draulicus,^G\L l^pavXutSs, belonging to a 



water • organ. •- Gk. ' (iSpaiAtf , an organ 
worked by water. — Gk. i;9/>-, for tSuf, 
water ; ah\&t, a pipe, tube (from the bas»c 
af, to blow ; see Air). 

hydrodjnianLics, the science relating 
to the force of water in motion. (Gk.) 
Gk. tZpo-, for vZofp, water; and E. dyna- 
mics, a word of Gk. origin ; see Dynamics, 
hydrogen, a very light gas. (Gk.) 
The name means 'generator of water.' — 
Gk. ^Zpo-t for v3a'p, water; and the base 
7/K-, to produce ; see Genesis. 

hydropathy, the water-cure. (Gk.) 
Gk. vhpo-f for v&vp, water ; vaB-os^ suffer- 
ing, endurance of treatment ; see Pathos, 
nydrophobia, fear of water. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. ^Zpo-, for i;5ay), water; 
^iSoy, fear. (V BHA.) 

hydropsy, dropsy. (F. - L. - Gk.) 
Formerly dropsie or ydropsie; the form 
dropsie being due to loss of /-. -■ O. F. 
hydropisie. ■- L. hydropisis, hydropisia, — 
LAte Gk. htp&ima%%*, not found, from Gk. 
vipo^, dropsy, extended from CSpo-, for 
vSwp, water. Der. dropsi-c-a/, 

hydrostatics, the science which treats 
of fluids at rest. (Gk.) Gk. C^po-, for 
irSarp, water ; and Statics, q. v. 

Hyena, Hjmna, a sow-like quadruped. 
(L. «> Gk.) L. hyana. — Gk. (muki, a hyena ; 
lit. * sow-like.' — Gk. C-y, a sow. cognate 
with E. Sow ; with fcm. adj. suffix -aiva. 

Hymen. (L. - Gk.) L. hymen, - Gk. 
u/z^v, the goa of marriage. 

Hymn. (F. - L. - Gk.) 1A,'E.ympne 
(with excrescent /). — O. F. ymne (later 
hymne).^'L, hymnum^ ace. of L. hymnus, 
— Gk. ^yivost a song, festive song, hynm. 

Hsrpallage, an interchange. (L.-Gk.) 
L. hypallage. * Gk. {ntaXkarf^, an inter- 
change, exchange. — Gk. ln-6, under; dA- 
XaT^, change, from dXA<i(racty, to change, 
which from lUAos, another. See Alien. 

Hyper-, prefix, denoting excess. (L.- 
Gk.) L. hyper-, for Gk. inrkp, above, be- 
yond, allied to L. super. Hence hypers 
baton, a transposition of words from natural 
order, lit. ' a going beyond * (from fiaivtiy, 
to go) ; hypir-barean, extreme northern 
(from fiop4ai, north wind) ; hyper-bole, ex- 
aggeration, Gk. inrtpfioK^ (from fiaX\*ty, 
to throw, cast). 

Hyphen, a short stroke (-) joining two 
parts of a compound word. (L. * Gk.) 
L. hyphen, for Gk. inpiv, lit 'under one.' 
-Gk. ^^, for inr6, under; tv, neut. oith, 



Hypo-, prefix. (Gk.) Gk. ivS, under ; 
c^nate with L. sttd. 

£Lypochondria» a mental disorder in- 
ducing melancholy. (L. — Gk.) Named 
from the spleen (which was supposed to 
cause it), situate under the cartilage of the 
breast-bone. * L. hypochondria, s. pi. — 
Gk. jvox^y^pca, s. pL, the parts beneath 
the breast-bone.— Gk. inth, under ; xM^t^ 
a com, grain, gristle, cartilage of the 
breast-bone. Der. hipp-ish^ q. v. 

Hyi>oorifly, pretence to virtue. (F. —L. 

— Gk.) O. F. hypocrisie, •• L. hypocrisis, 
I Tim. iv. a. — Gk. inrdtcpiffts, a reply, 
answer, pla3ring a part on a stage, acting 
of a part. — Gk. hnoKplyofiatt I reply, play 
a part. — Gk. {nr6, under ; lepiyofuu, I con- 
tend, middle voice of tsplvu, I judge. See 
Gritic. Dop. hypocrite, F. hypocrite^ L. 
hypocrita^ Gk. inroKpiTfii, a dissembler, 
Matt. vi. 3. 

Hypogastric, belonging to the lower 
part of the abdomen. (F. — L. — Gk.) 
O. F, hypogctstrique. — Late L. hypogas- 
tricus, belonging to the lower part of the 
belly. — Gk. imc^trrptoy, lower part of the 
belly ; see Hypo- and Qaatrio. 

Hsrpostasis. (L.-Gk.) L. hypostasis, 

— Gk. twStrraaiSf a standing under, ground- 
work, subsistence^ substance, a Person of 


the Trinity. — Gk. ^w^, under; ord^ir, a 
standing, from ^STA, to stand. See 

Hsrpotenuse. (F. - L. - Gk.) Also 
hypothenuse (badly). — F. hypot^mse.^'L. 
hypotenusa, — Gk. ^irorctVovao, the sub- 
tending (line) ; fem. of pres. part, of ^vo- 
Tf/yciv, to subtend, lit to sketch under. 

Mypotheo, a kind of mortgage. (F.— 
L. - Gk.) Englished from O. F. hypo- 
theque, a mortgage. — L. hypotheca (the 
same). — Gk. \ntc$^ici\^ lit. ' under prop ; ' a 
pledge, mortgage.— Gk. hrth^ under; iii-, as 
m Tt-Orf'/u, I place. (V DHA.) 

hypotheeds, a supposition. (L."-Gk.) 
L. hypothesis. — Gk. inroOicit, a placing 
under, supposition. — Gk. inr6, under ; 9ioa, 
a place ; from the same root as the above. 

Hsrssop, a plant. (F. - Ln - Gk. — Heb.) 
M. E. ysope. — O. F. hyssope, — L. hyssopus, 

— Gk. vaffojiros, an aromatic plant (not oar 
hyssop). — Heb. /»^^, a plant (not exactly 
known what plant). 

HyBterio, convulsive, said of fits. (F.— 
L. — Gk.) O. F. hysterique, — L. hystericus, 

— Gk. vaT€piie&9, suffering in the womb; 
hysterical. — Gk. baripa, the womb. Prob. 
from Gk. darepos, latter, lower, comparative 
from the Aryan base UD, out ; see Out. 

I, nom. case of first pers. pronoun. (E.) 
M. E. (Northern) ih, i; (Southern) ich, 
uch, f . A. S. ic. 4- Du. ikt Icel. ei, Dan. 
/'eg-, Swed. jag; Goth, ih, G. ich, W. i, 
Kuss. ia, L. ego, Gk. ty&, H^y Skt. aham. 
(Ar)'an form, AG AM.) % Me is from a 
different base. 

I-, neg. prefix ; see In- (3). 

Iambic, a certain metre, a short and a long 
syllable («-). (L. — Gk.) "L, iambicus.^ 
Gk. lafifiiHSs. — Gk. tapfios, an iambic foot, 
iambic verse, lampoon. So called from 
use in satiric poetry. — Gk. Idirrtiv, to 
throw, cast (hence attack;. Allied to 
Jet (I). 

Ibex, a genus of goats. (L.) L. i6ex. 

Ibis, a bird. (L. - Gk. - Coptic.) L. 
idis, — Gk. Jfiis, an E^ptian bird. Of 
Egyptian or Coptic origm. 

fee. (E.) M. E.^j, »f>. A,S. /j.+Du. 

f/s, Icel /ss, Dan. iis, Swed. is, G. eis. 

(y^JS, to glide,) Cf, Icel. eisa, to go 

swiftly, Skt Ish, to hasten. Ber. ice-berg, 
quite a modem word ; the latter element 
is the Du., Swed., and G. berg, a mountain ; 
cf. Du. ijsberg, Swed. isberg, Dan. iisberg, 
G. eisberg, an ice-beig; (prob. a Dan. 
word). Also ice-blink, Dan. iisblink, a 
field of ice, from Dan. blinke, to gleam. 

icicle. (E.) M. £. isikel, iseyokeli 
from M. E. ys, ice, ikil, a point of ice. — 
A. S. is-gicel, an icicle ; also written ises 
gicel, where ises is the gen. case. Gicel 
IS a dimin. form, meaning ' a small piece of 
ice ; * cf. Irish aigh, Gael, eigh, ice. ^ led. 
iss-jokull, though jokull is gen. used by 
itself in the sense of icicle, and is a dimin. 
of jaki, a piece of ice ; Low G. is^hekei, 

ichneumoxL (L. — Gk.) Imichneumon, 
— Gk. Ix^tiiiojv, an ichneumon (lizard); 
lit ' a tracker,* because it tracks out (and 
devours) crocodiles' eggs. — Gk. lxy^v€iy, 
to trafiV.,— Ok.,tx*Wj a. footstep. 


Xohor, the juice in the veins of gods. 
(Gk.) Gk. Ixo^p, juice; allied to UfMs, 
moisture. CC Skt. sich, to sprinkle, wet. 


Ichthyography, description of fishes. 
(Gk.) Gk. Ix^o-, crude form of Ix^w, a 
nsh ; jp&^ip, to describe. So also ichthyo- 
logy, urom A^or, a discourse, Ki^uv, to 

xdole ; see loe. 

loonoolast, a breaker of images. (Gk.) 
Coined from Gk. tlicovo-, for cU^k, an 
image ; Kkiurrip, a breaker, from uXativ, to 

Icosahedron, a solid figure with twenty 
equal faces. (Gk.) From Gk. ff/roiri, 
twenW ; {'pa* a base, lit a seat, from the 
base I0-, to sit ; see Sit. 

Idea. (L. - Gk.) L. idea, - Gk. ma, the 
look or semblance of a thing, species (hence, 
notion). -Gk. W«>, to see. (^WID.) 
See VT'it. 

Idol. (F.-.L.-.Gk.) 0,Y, idole.^l.. 
idoium. '^Gk, cfSoiXoy, an image, likeness. 
«■ Gk (fdo/MU, I appear, seem ; llkiv, to see. 
(^WID.) Dap. ublairy (corruption of 
iaolo-iatry), from O.F. tdokUriet Low L. 
idolatria, ^ortened form oiidololairiayUom. 
Gk. ctSfloXo-XaTpc/a, service to idols (where 
karf>€la, service, is from Xarpif, a hired 
servant, Kdrpw, hire). Hence idolater^ &c. 
idyl, idyll, a pastoral poem. (L. — Gk.) 
l^.idyllium, — Gk. dt^KUov, a short descrip* 
tive poem. -• Gk. cTSos, form, shape, figure. 
— Gk. f?5o/icu, I appear (see above). 

Identical, the very same. (L.) Formerly 
identic, identick. Formed as if from Low 
L. identicus *, adj. suggested by L. identUas ; 
see Identity. 

identity, sameness. (F. — Low L. — L.) 
F. iderUiti, «> Low L. ace. identitatem, 
sameness. — L. identi-, occurring in idenii- 
dem^ repeatedly; with suffix -tas, — L. idem, 
the same. — L. i-, and -dem \ from Aryan 
pronominal bases 1 and DA. 

Idee, the 15th day of March, May, July, 
October; 13th of other months. (F.— L.) 
F. f<^. — L. idtis, ides. 

Idiom, peculiar mode of expression. (F. 
« L. — Gk.) F. idiome. — L. tdioma. — Gk. 
lUot/ta, an idiom, peculiarity of language. — 
Gk. llkSw, I make my own. — Gk. t£os, own. 
Allied to Skt. svqyam, self (Curtius). 

idiosyncrasy, peculiarity of tempera- 
ment (Gk.) Gk. mo'S, own; (X^-Kpacn^ 
a blending together, from cvy- {—(r&v), to- 
gether, Mpaffts, a mingling. See Gratis. 



idiot. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. idiot - L. 
idioia, an ignorant, uneducated person.— 
Gk. lliioTfis, a private person ; hence, one 
who is inexperienced (i Cor. xiv. 16). — Gk. 
Ihi6ca, I make my own. — Gk. t^ios, own. 

Idle. (E.) M. E. ideL A. S. {del, vain, 
empty, useless. ^^Du. ijdel, vain ; Dan. idel, 
Swed. idel, mere; G. eitel, vain, trifling. 
The orig. sense seems to have been ' clear ' 
or * bright ;* cf. Gk. I0ap6s, clear, pure (as 
a spring). (VIDH.) 

idol, Idyll ; see Idea. 

If, conj. (E.) M. E. if, A. S. ^/+IceL 
e/, if, O. Fries, ie/, gef, ef, O. Sax. ef; 
Goth, iba, ibai, perhaps. We also find 
Goth, jabai, if (compounded oijah, and, 
ibai^ perhaps) ; with which cf. Du. of, if, 
or, whether, G. ob, whether. Also O. H. G. 
ibu, if, lit. 'on the condition,* dat. of ib<i, 
condition, stipulation, p. The E. if, Icel. ef, 
Goth, ibai, O. H. G. ibu, are from a Teut 
type E6AI, dat. of EBA, stipulation, doubt, 
seen in O. H. G. iba (as above) ; cf. L. op-, 
in op'inus, imagining, op-inari, to suppose. 
Prob. from V ^P, to obtain. 

Ignition, a setting on fire. (L.) F. ig- 
nition. As if from C. ignitio * (not used). 

— L. ignitus, pp. of ignire, to set on fire.— 
L. ignis, fire.HhSkt. agni, fire. Hence also 
ignis fatuus, a vain fire ; igne-ous, adj. 

Igpioble, Ignominy, Ignore ; see 

Iguana, a kind of American lizard. 
(Span. — W. Indian.) Span, iguana. Of 
Caribbean origin. 

H- (i), put for in-, prefix, from L. in, 
prep., when / follows. Exx.: il-lapse, il- 
lusion, &C. 

H- (2), put for in; negative prefix when 
/ follows. Exx. : il'legai, il-legible, il-legiti- 
mate, il-liberal, il-limitable, il-literate, il- 
logical', for which see legal, legible, &c. 
And see illicit, 

niac, pertaining to the smaller intestines. 
(F. — L.) F. iliaque, belonging to the 
flanks. Formed from L. ilia, s. pL, flanks, 
groin. See also Jade (2). 

Iliad, an epic poem. (L. — Gk.) L. 
Iliad; stem oillias, thelliad. — Gk.'IAiriJ-, 
stem of 'lAtdf, the Iliad. — Gk.'IAto;, Ilios, 
the city of Ilus, commonly known as Troy. 

— Gk. 'lAof, Ilus, grandfather of Priam, 
and son of Tros (whence Troy), 

HI; seeEviL 
Ulapee ; see Iiapse. 
Illation, an inference. (F.-L.) T.illa- 
tion.'m'L, aoc illationemy a brim^in^ ixk« 



inference. *L. i7- (for i«), not; laius ( = 
tlaius\ borne, brought (=»Gk. rXi/r^), 
from V TAL, to lift. See Tolerate. 

Illicit, iinlawful ; see Iiicenoe. 

Uliaion, a striking against ; see Iiesion. 

Ulude ; see Iiudiorous. 

Illuminate ; see Iiocid. 

Illusion ; see Iiudicrous. 

Illustrate. (L.) From the pp. of illus- 
irarif to throw light upon. — L. il-, for in, 
upon ; lustrart, to shine. See Iiucid. 

Illustrious. (F.-L. ; <>rL.) A badly 
coined word; either from F. iUiistrCt or 
from the L. illtistri-s^ Wright, renowned. 
(Imitation of industrious. ^ p. The origin 
of illustris is disputed ; the prefix il- = in, 
upon ; 'lustris is either allied to L. lustrum, 
a lustration, from'^LU, to wash; or it 
stands for lu-c-stris*, from the base luc-^ 
light, as in Iiuoid, q. v. The latter is 
more likely. 

Im- (I), prefix. (F. — L.; or E.) 1. In 
some words, im- is put for em-, the O. F. 
form of L. im-y prefix. This prefix stands 
for L. in, in, before b, m, or/. 2. Or it is 
substituted for E. in, as in im-bed, for in- 

Im- (2), prefix. (L.'^ L. im-, put for in-, 
in, when b, ;/i, ox p follows. 

Im- (3>, prefix. (F. — L.; <>/-L.) Nega- 
tive prefix ; put for L. 1/1-, not. Exx. : 
im-rnaierialf im-inature, im-mcasurabU^ 
im-memorial, im-modcrate, im-niodcst, im- 
morale im-mortal, im-movablc, im-mutable, 
im-palpable, im-parity, im-partial, im-pass- 
abU, im-passive^ im-patient^ im-pcccable, 
im-penetrable, im-penitent, im-pcrceptible^ 
im-perfecty im-perishabU^ im-personal, im- 
pertinent t im-perturbable, im-piety, im- 
pious, im-placable, im-polite, im-politic, 
im-ponderable, im-possiSle, im-potent, im- 
practicable, im-probable, im-proper, im- 
provident, im-prudent, im-pure', for which 
see tfuiterial, mature, &c. 

Image, a likeness, statue. (F.-L.) F. 
intake. '^It. imagittcm, ace. of imago, a 
likeness. Formed, with suffix -ago, from 
im-itari, to imitate ; see below. 

imagine. (F. — L.) F. imagifter, to 
think. — L. imaginari, to picture to oneself, 
imagine. — L. imagin-, stem of imago, an 
image, picture ; see above. 

imitate. (L.) From pp. of L. imttari, 
to imitate ; frequentative of imare % not 

Imbecile, feeble. (F.— L.) Formerly 
rare as an adj. ; but the verb imbJcil, to 


enfeeble, was rather common. •■O. F. ^ 
becille, 'feeble:' Cotgrave.— L. twibedilem, 
ace of imbecillis, feeble. (Root imlauyim.) 
Hence probably £. embevUe, q. t. 

Imbioe, to drink in ; see Bib. 

Imbricated, bent and hollowed like a 
gutter-tile. (L.) BotanicaL FromnpiQf 
L. imbricare, to cover with a gutter^tue.* 
L. imbric; stem of imbrex, a gutter-tile. « 
L. imbri; crude form of imber^ a Aams 
of rain. -4-Gk. S/ifipoi, a shower; Skt 
ambhas, water, abhra, a raifi-dood. 

Imbrue, Smbrew, to moisten, drendL 
(F.-L.) See Bib. 

Imbue, to cause to drink, tinge. (L) 
See Bib. 

Imitate ; see Image. 

Immaculate ; sec Mail (i). 

Immediate ; see Medium. 

Immense ; see Measure. 

Immerge ; see Merge (i). 

Immigrate ; see Migrate. 

Imminent; see Eminent. 

Immit ; see Missile. 

Immolate, to offer in sacrifice. (!L) 
From pp. of L. imrnolare, to sacrifice^ Ut 
to throw meal upon a victim.— L. im* (for 
in'), upon; mola, meal, cognate with £. 
Meal (I). 

Immunity, freedom from obligatioQ. 
(F. — L.) F. immunity, immunity. — L. wt- 
munitatem, ace. of immunitas, exemption. 
— L. im munis, exempt from public ser- 
vices. — L. im- (for in), not ; mum is, serving; 
obliging (whence also communis, camsnoa.) 

Immure ; see Mural. 

Imp, a graft, offspring, demon. (Low 
L. — Gk.) Formerly in a good senses 
meaning a scion, offspring. M. E. imp, a 
graft on a tree ; impen, to graft. Shortened 
from Low L. impotus, a graft (Lex Salica) ; 
whence also Dan. ympe, Swed. ympa^ G. 
impfen, O. H. G. impitSn, to graft. — Gk. 
tfjupvTos, engrafted, James, i. at. — Gk.l/»> 
<pv(iy, to implant. — Gk. Ifi-, for Ir, in; 
^i^civ, to produce, fix>m ^BHU, to be ; see 

Impact ; see Fact. 

Impair, to make worse. Injure, weaken. 
(F. — L. ) M. E. empeiren. — O. F. empeirer, 
later empirer, 'to impaire,' Cot. — Low L. 
impeiorare, to make worse. — L. im-, f6r 
in, prep., with intensive force ; and peior, 
worse, a comparative form from a lost 

Impart ; see Fart. 


ssive ; see Patient. 

kwn ; see Fane. 

laoh, Impede ; see Pedal. 

1 ; see Pulsate. 

ind ; see Pendant. 

native, Imperial ; see Pare. 

rvious ; see Viaduct. 

tua ; see Petition. 

age ; see Pact. 

anient ; see Plenarj. 

loate; see Ply. 

ore ; see Deplore. 

y ; see Ply. 

•rt, Importable ; see Port (i). 

>rtune ; see Port (a). 

ae; see Pose (i). 

aition ; see Position. 

athume, an abscess. (F.»L.— 

Better apostume, as in Cotgrave.— 

postume, 'an apostume, an inward 

f full of coitupt matter.* A still 

pelling is F. aposieme, also in Cot- 

> L. apostema. » Gk. dviSan/fia, a 

\ away from, hence, a separation of 

matter. » Gk. dv^, away ; tm;-, base 

14, 1 set, place, stand. (^STA.) 

Btor ; see Position. 

veriah ; see Pauper. 

ecate ; see Precarious. 

egnable ; see Prehensile. 

egnate ; see KataL 

Baa ; see Press. 

Int ; see Press. 

iaon ; see Prehensile. 

omptu ; see Exempt. 

opriate ; see Proper. 

Dve ; see Probable. 

oviae; see Vision. 

dent, shameless. (P.— L.) F. im- 

- L. impudent-^ stem of impudens, 

ss.^L. im-f for in^ not; pudens, 

pres. pt. of pudere, to feel shame. 

gn ; see Pugilism. 

lae ; see Pulsate. 

nity ; see Fain. 

te ; see Putative. 

jp. (E.) A. S. in, + Du. in^ Icel. 
Dan. i, Goth, in, G. in, W. yn^ 
in, L. in^ Gk. iv, M. In is a 

d form of en^ as in Gk. kv ; the 

seems to be a locative case, and 

*r related to Gk. dvd, 'E. on\ see 

^ronom. base ANA.) Der. inn-er, 

mra ; in-most, A. S.- innetmst (i. e. 

fj/, a double superl. form). The 

ntrmost is also a corruption of 

ncniest. Also in-ward, thire-in. 



where-in, vnih-in^ in-as-mtuh, in-^o-mueh, 
in-ter-, in-tro-. And see inn ^below). 

inn, sb. (£.) M. E. f n, inn, • A. S. fifif , 
f If, sb. • A. S. in, inn, adv., within, indoors. 

"A. S. in, prep., in (above), -f- Icel. inni, 
an inn ; inni, adv., indoors. 

inning. (E.) Properly the securing or 
housing of grain, from inn, verb, due to 
inni sb., above. Hence innings, as a term 
at cricket, invariably used in the plural, 
because the side which is in consists of 
several plajrers. 

In- (x), prefix. (E.) In some words, it 
is only the prep, in in composition. Exx. : 
in-barn, in'breathe, in-bred, in-land, &c. . 

In- (a), prefix. (L.) In some words, it is 
the L. prep, in in composition. £lxx. : in- 
augurate, in-carcerate, &c. Sometimes, it 
has passed through French ; as in-dicaticn, 
&c. % It becomes sT- before /, im- before 
b, m, and /, »>- before r. 

IJi- (3)» negative prefix. (L.; ^rF.—L.) 
From L. neg. prefix in-, cognate with E. 
neg. prefix un- ; seeUn- (i). ^ It becomes 
I- before gn, as in i-gnoble ; i7- before / ; 
im- before b, m, and p ; ir- before r. Der. 
in-ability, inaccessible, &c, &c. ; for which 
see able, access, &c. 

Inane, empty, silly, useless. (L.) L. 
inanis, void, empty. Root unknown. Der. 

inanition, exhaustion from lack of food. 
(F.— L.) F. inanition, 'an emptying;' 
Cot. From the pp. of incmin^ to empty ; 
from inanis (above). 

Inaugurate ; see Augur. 

Inoandeacent ; seeOandid. 

Incantation ; see Cant (i). 

Inoareerate, to imprison. (L.) L. in, 
in ; and carceratus, pp. of carcerare, to im- 
prison, from career, a prison. 

Inoamadine ; see Carnal. 

Incarnation ; see Carnal. 

Incendiary, Inoenae ; see Candid. 

Incentive ; see Cant ( i ). 

Inceptive ; see Capacious. 

Inceaaant ; see Cede. 

Inceat ; see Caste. 

Inch, the twelfth part of a foot. (L.) 
M. E. inche, A. S. ynce. • L. uncia, an 
inch ; also an ounce ; orig. a small weight* 
Cf. Gk. Syieot, bulk, weight. 

ounce (X), twelfth part of a pound. (F. 
-• L.) O. F. unce. — L. uncia (above). 

uncial, large, applied to letters. (L.) 
L. uncialis, adj. from uncia, inch. (From 
the size of the letters.) 



Ineidamt ; see Oadenoe. 

Incipient ; see Gftpaoious. 

Incise; seeOnrara. 

Incite ; see Cite. 

■Tnolina, to lean towards. (F.— L.) F. 
incliner.^'L. inclinare.^'L, in, towards; 
ctinptre*, to lean, cognate with £. Iiean (i), 
q.T. (y KRI.) Donbletk en<lin€. 

decdenjsdon. (F.-L.) 0,Y, decUntd' 
son, used for the ' declension ' of a noun. — 
L. declifiationem, ace of declimitioy de- 
clination, declension. "L. declinaitis, pp. of 
duHnare (below). 

dedine. (F.-iL.) O.F. decHner.^'L. 
de-^Unare, to lean or bend aside from. 

endine. (F. — L.) M.£. tnclinm.^ 
O. F. enclimn^'L, inclinare ; see Incline, 
recline. (L.) L. re-clinare, to lean 
back, lie down. See also Aoclivit7. 

Inclose, Include ; see Olauae. 

Incognito ; see Noble. 

Income ; see Gome. 

Incommode ; see Mode. 

Incorporate : see Cknporal (3). 

Increase, Increment ; see Crescent. 

Incubate, Incubus ; see Covey. 

Inculcate ; see Calk. 

Inculpate ; see Culpable. 

Incumbent ; see Covey. 

Incur, Incursion; see Current. 

Incurvate ; see Curve. 

Indeed; see Do (i). 

Indenmifisr, Indemnity; see Damn. 

Indelible; see Delete. 

Indent : see Dental. 

Index, Indicate ; see Diction. 

Tndict, Indiction ; see Diction. 

Indigenous ; see Qenus. 

In^gent, destitute. (F.-L.) F. indi- 
gent, '^'L. indigent', stem of pres. part, of 
indigere, to be in want.— L. ind-, for indo 
or indu, an O.Lat. extension from in, in 
(cf. Gk. Mo¥, within) ; egere, to want, be 
in need; cf. L. indigos, needy. Cf. Gk. 
^xh^* poor, needy (Theocritus). (V AGH.) 

Indigo, a blue dye. (F.-Span.-L.- 
Gk.-Pers.-Skt.) F. indigo. ^Spnn. indigo. 
— L. indicum, indigo; neut. of Indictis, 
Indian (hence Indian dye). — Gk. ivliK6v, 
indigo ; neuL of ly&ic^j, Indian. p» Pars. 
Hind, India ; a name due to the river Indus. 
— Skt sindhu, the river Indus; a large 
river. - Skt syand, to flow. % The 
Persian changes s into k. 

Indite ; see Diction. 

Indolence ; see DolefnL 
Xndomitahle ; see Daunt. 


Indubitable ; see DoaL 

Induce, Induct ; see Duke. 

Indue (z), to invest or clothe nHO, 
supply wiUi. (L.) In Spenser, F. Q. iit 6. 
35. —L. induere, to pat into, put dv dolfce 
with. The prefix is rather ind' than ite 
(for this prenx see Indigent) ; cC ex^umm, 
spoils, ind'Uuia, clothes. See IDzaviau 

Indue (a), a corruption of Bndue, q. ▼. 

Indulgence. (F.-L.) F. indulgtnu. 

— L. indulgentia,^\t, indulgent^, stem of 
pres. pt. of indulgere, to be courteous to^ 
indulge. (Of unknown origin.) 

Indurate ; see Dure. 

Industry. (F.-L.) F. industrie.^L. 
indtistria. — L. indusirius, diligent Origin 
uncertain ; perhaps from O. Lat. indo, 
withm, and stru-ere, to arrange, build ; see 

Inebriate; seeEbriety. 

Ineffable ; see Falto. 

Inept ; see Apt. 

Inert ; see Art (a). 

Inexorable ; see OraL 

Infamy ; see Fame. 

Infant, Infantry ; see Fate. 

Infatuate ; see Fatuous. 

Infect; see Fact. 

Infer ; see Fertile. 

Inferior. (F.-L.) O.F. inferieur.^ 
L. inferiorem, ace of inferior, lower, comp. 
of inferus, low, nether. Strictly, inferus 
is itself a compar. form, answering to Skt 
adhara, lower, from adhas, adv., underoeatb, 
low, down. 

infernal. (F. - L.) F. infernal, -I* 
infemalis, belonging to the lower regions. 

— L. infemus, lower ; extended from inferus 

Infest, to harass. (F.— L.) F. inf ester. 
p*L. infcstare, to attack.— L. infestus^ 
attacking, hostile. Infestus ^infedtus*\ 
from in, against ; andy^-, base 01 femlere, 
to strike, as seen in offendere, defendere. 

Infidel ; see Faith. 

Infinite ; see finite, under Final. 

Infirm, Infirmity, Infirmary; see 

Inflate; see Flatulent. 

Inflect ; see Flexible. 

Inflict. (L.) L. inflictus, pp. of us* 
fligere, to inflict, lit. to strike upon.— L. in, 
upon ; 9x16. fligere, to strike. ( ^ ^HLAGH.) 
See AfEliot. 

Inflorescence : see Floral. 

Influence^ Influenza, Influx; see 


l; leeVorm. 

don, InfHzige ; see FragUe. 

Erte; see Vury. 

; see Fqbo (i). 

louSi Ing^nuatui: see Oentu. 

fire. (C.) Gael, and Irish aingeal, 

ed to L. ignis, Skt agni, fire. 


a mass of unwroaght metaL (£.) 

5gv/, Chaucer, C. T. 16677, &c., 

means a monld for molten metal. 

roe sense is ' that which is poured 

iss of metal. -■ A. S. m, in; and 

3ured, pp. oigeStan^ to pour, fuse 

Cf. Du. ingieierty Swed. ingjtUti, 

in. Also Du. giefen, G. giessen^ 

a (pp. gotinn\ Dan. gyd^y Swed. 

>th. giutan^ to pour, shed, fuse; 

with L. fundere. (V GHU.) 

^ lingotf put for fingot. + G. 

I pouring in, also an ingot. 

n ; see Grain. 

iate ; see Grace. 

Lient, Ingress ; see Grade. 

lal, relating to the groin. (L.) 

I-, stem of inguen, the groin. 

It ; see Habit. 

I ; see Exhale. 

mt ; see Hesitate. 

t ; see Heir. 

t; see Habit. 

nl ; «ee Amatory. 

ty ; see Eqtial. 

.; see Itinerant. 

; see Jet (1). 

rtion; see Join. 

•; see Jury. 

ee Xncaustio. 

a kind of tape. (F.— L.) In the 

Parv, (1440) we find, * Lynyolf, 

If, threde to sow wythe, fynolf* 

ws that the M. £. liniolf some- 

)eared without the initial /. This 

to O. F. lignel, Ugnioul, ligneul^ 

ip. shoemaker's thread ; called in 

lingel^ lingle. We may conclude 

r b a corrupt form of ingle^ which 

the word lingU without its initial 

en for the French def. article /*). 

Hngot^ an ingot, from £. ingots 

! /has, contrariwise, been supplied. 

\ ligrul is from ligne^ thread. » L. 

n. of linens, hempen, flaxen. »L. 

ax. See Linen. 

g, a hint, intimation. (Scand. T) 

tkling, a whisper, murmur, low 

, Alexander, when in disguise, 



feared he was discovered, because he ' herd 
a nyngkiling of his name,' Allit romance 
of Alexander, 3968 ; where a nyn^ling 
stands for an yngkiling, 'To incU the 
trathe ' >■ to hint at the truth, Alisaunder 
(in app. to Wm. of Paleme), 616., I 
suspect it to be corrupted from Dan. 
ymte^ to murmur, mutter, an iterative verb 
from ytnja^ to mutter, hum (of imitative 
origin) ; so also Icei, jftn/a, to mutter. 

Inn ; see In. 

Innate ; see XTataL 

Innliig^ ; see In. 

Innocent, Innocuous ; see Nozioos. 

Innovate ; see Now. 

Innuendo ; see Nutation. 

Inoculate ; see Ocular. 

Inordinate ; see Order. 

Inquest, Inquire ; see Query. 

Inscribe, see Scribe. 

Inscrutable ; see Sorutiny. 

Insect ; see Secant. 

Insert; see Series. 

Insidious ; see Sedentary. 

Insignia ; see Sign. 

Insinuate ; see Sinus. 

Insipid ; see Sapid. 

Insist; see State. 

Insolent. (F.-L.) M. E. insolent. ^F. 
insolent, saucy. «>L. insolent-, stem of insol' 
ens, not customary, unusual, insolent. «■ 
L. in, not ; solens, pres. pt of solere, to be 
accustomed, be wont 

Insi)ect; see Species. 

Inspire ; see Spirit. 

Inspissate, to make thick. (L.) From 
pp. of L. inspissaret to thicken. «-L. in, 
in ; spissus, thick, dense. 

Instance ; see State. 

Instead ; see Stead. 

Instep, die upper part of the foot, where 
it rises to the front of the leg. (£.) For- 
merly instup and instop (Minsheu). The 
probiabilitv is that instep is a corruption, 
and that tne true etymology is from in and 
stoops i. e. 'the in-bend * of the foot 

Instigate ; see Stimulate. 

Instil; see Still (3). 

Instinct; see Distinguisli* 

Institute ; see State. 

Instruct, Instrument ; see Structure. 

Insular. (L.) L. insularis, insular.— 
L. insula^ an island. Prob. from L. in 
salo '^in the main sea, where salo is abl. of 
L. salum, the maia sea, cognate with Gk. 
a&kot, surge, swell of the sea. Allied to 



isle, an island. (F.-L.) O. F. isle (F. 
tie.) — L. insula^ an island (above). 

isolate, to insulate. (ltal.-L.) Sug- 
gested by Ital. isolato, detached, used as a 
term in architecture. —Ital. isolUt an island. 
— L. insula, an island. 

Insult ; see Salient. 

Insurgent, Insurrection ; seeBegent. 

Intaglio ; see TaUor. 

Integer ; see Tangent. 

Intellect, Intelligence ; see Iiegend. 

Intend, Intense ; see Tend (i). 

Inter ; see Terrace. 

Inter-, prefix, amongst. (L.) L. inter, 
among ; a comparative form, answering to 
Skt. aniar, within; closely allied to In- 
terior, q. V. 

Intercalate ; see Calends. 

Intercede ; see Cede. 

Intercept ; see Capaoioos. 

Intercourse ; see Current. 

Interdict ; see Diction. 

Interest (i), profit, advantage. (F.- 
L.) O. F. interest (F. interit), an interest 
in a thing, interest for money. — L. interest, 
it is profitable; 3 pers. sing, of interesse, 
to concern, lit. ' be among.* — L. inter, 
among; esse, to be. See Inter- and 

interest (2), to engage the attention of 
another. (F. •- L.) A curious word ; formed 
(by partial confusion with the verb above) 
from the pp. interest d of the obsolete verb 
to interess, uced by Massinger and Ben 
Jonson. — O. F. interessi, * interessed, or 
touched in;* Cot. — L. interesse, to con- 
cern (as above). Der. Hence dis-inter^ 
ested, from the verb disinterest, orig. a pp. 
and put for disinteress'd. 

Interfere ; see Ferule. 

Interior. (L.) L. interior, comp. of 
interns, within. In-terus itself was orig. 
a comparative form, answering to Skt. an- 
tara, interior. The positive is the L. in, 
in ; see In. 

deniasen, a naturalised citizen, inha- 
bitant. (L.) Formerly denisen, — O. F. 
deinzein (also denzein), used in the Liber 
Albus to denote a trader within the privi- 
lege of the city franchise, as opposed to 
forein. Formed by adding the suffix -ein 
( =L. -anus") to O. F. deinz, now spelt dans, 
within. — L. ^ intus, from within. — L. 
de, from ; intus, within, allied to interior 

entrails, the inward parts. (F. — L.) 
O, F. eu/ra///es, intestines.— Low L. in/m- 


lia, also (more conectiv) intrunea, entraiU, 

— L. interanea, entraiU, neut. pL of ut- 
teraneus, inward, adj., from inter, within. 

internal. (L.) Coined from L. fit* 
temus, inward ; extended from ifUer^, in- 
ward ; see interior (above). 

Intexjacent,Intexjection; see Jet (i). 

Interloper ; see Iieap. 

Intermit ; see Missile. 

Internal ; see Interior. 

Internecine, thoroughly destructive. 
(L.) L. intemecinus, thoroughly destruc- 
tive. — L. intemecio, utter slaughter. — L. 
inter, thoroughly ^see White) ; and necare, 
to kill. 

Interpellation ; see Pulsate. 

Interpolate; see Polish. 

Interpose ; see Pose (i). 

Interposition ; see Position. 

Interpret, to explain. (F.-L.) M. E. 
interpreten. mmY, interpreter, wm\^ interpret- 
ari, to expound. — L. interpret-, stem of 
interpres, an interpreter, properly an agent, 
broker. The latter part of the word is 
related rather to Gk. <ppd(fi»('^^pdi5-j^ur), 
to speak, than to Gk. wpdrrtiv, wpdcffta^, 
to do. 

Interregnum ; see Regent. 

Interrogation ; see Bogation. 

Interrupt ; see Bupture. 

Intersect ; see Secant. 

Intersperse ; see Sparse. 

Interstice ; see State. 

Interval; see'WalL 

Intervene ; see Venture. 

Intestate ; see Testament. 

Intestine. (F. - L.) F. intestin, adj., 
' intestine, inward ; ' Cot. — L. intestinus, 
inward. Formed from L. intus, within, 
cognate with Gk. Ivr6s, within ; extended 
from L. in, in. 

Intimate (i), to announce, hint. (L.) 
From pp. of L. intimare, to bring within, 
to announce. — L. intimus, inmost, superL 
corresponding to comp. interior; see In- 

intimate (a), familiar. (L.) This form 
is due to confusion with the word above. 
It is really founded on O. F. intime, * in- 
ward, secret, deer, entirely affected ; ' Cot. ; 
from L. intimus (above). 

Intimidate ; see Timid. 

Into, prep. (E.) M. E. into ; orig. two 
words. A. S. in tS, in to, where in is used 
adverbially, and t6\&^ preposition ; see In 
and To. 

Intonfi, to chant. (Low L.-L. oii^Gk.) 


.Low L. ifttonarg, to sin^ according to tone. 
■■L. in iomtm, according to tone; where 
t9Hum is ace. of tonus, borrowed from Gk. 
r6voi \ see Tone. 

Intozioate. (Low L. — L. and Gk.) 
From pp. of Low L. intoxicare, to make 
drunk. «- L. in, into ; toxicum, poison, 
borrowed from Gk. ro^ixdy, poison for 
arrows. Gk. to^ikSv is der. from r6^ov, a 
bow, of which the pL T6^a is used to mean 

Intrepid ; see Trepidation. 

Intricate, perplexed, obscure. (L.) 
From the pp. of L. intricare, to perplex. • 
L. in, in ; irica, pU sb., hindrances, vexa- 
tioDS, wUes. 

extricate. (L.) From pp. of L. ex- 
tricare, to disentangle. — L. ex, out of; 
triag, impediments. 
intrifpie, to form secret plots. (F. * L.) 

F. intriguer, formerly spelt intriguer, * to 
intricate, perplex, insnare ; ' Cot. — L. in- 
tricare (above). 

Intrinsio ; see Sequence. 
Introduce ; see Duke. 
Intro8i>ection ; see Species. 
Intrude^ to thrust oneself into. (L.) 
I*, intrudere, to thrust into. — L. in, in, 
into ; trudere (pp. trusus), to thrust Al- 
lied to Threaten. 

abstnise. (L.) L. adstrusus, difficult, 
concealed; pp. of abs-trudere, to thrust 

detrude. (L.) L. de-trudere, to thrust 
extrude. (L.) L. ex-trudere, to thrust 


obtrude. (L.) L. ob-trudere, to thrust 

protrude. (L.) L. pro-trudere^ to 
tiirust forth. 

Intuition; see Tutor. 

Intumescence ; see Tumid. 

Inundation ; see Undulate. 

Inure ; see Operate. 

Invade ; see Evade. 

Inveigh ; see Vehicle. 

Inveigle. (Unknown.) In Spenser, F. Q. 
L 13. 33. Orig. unknown. % It can 
hardly be from F. aveugUr, to blind ; the 

G. aufwiegeln, to excite, stir up, answers 
better, but we can hardly have borrowed it 
from German directly. 

Invent; see Venture. 
Inverse, Invert ; see Verse. 
Invest; see Vest. 
Investigate; see Vestige. 



Inveterate; see Veteran. 

Invidious; see Vision. 

Invite. (F.— L.) F, inviter.^L,. inui- 
tare, to ask, request, invite. Origin un- 
certain. Doublet, vie, q. ▼• 

Invocate; seeVocaL 

Invoice ; see Viaduct. 

Invoke; seeVocaL 

Involute, Involve ; see Voluble. 

Iodine, an elementary body. (Gk;) 
Named from the violet colour of its vapour. 

• Gk. Idf^i/r, contr. form of coctdi;;, violet- 
like ; with suffix •iV^.^Gk. lo-v, a violet ; 
crS-of, appearance. 

Iota. (Gk. - Heb.) Gk. ISrra, the smallest 
letter of the Gk. alphabet. - Heb. ^<^, the 
smallest letter of the Heb. alphabet, with 
the power of ^. 

jot. (L.-Gk.«Heb.) Englished from 
L. iota. Matt. ▼. i8 (Vulgate). - Gk. ISna 

Ipecacuanha, a medicinal root (Port 

• Brazilian.) Port ipecacuanha (Span. 
ipecacuana). From the Brazilian name of 
the plant ; this is said to be ipecaaguen, 
and to mean ' smaller roadside sick-making 

It- (i), prefix, (L. ; or F. -L.) Put for 
L. in, in, prep., when r follows. 

Ix- (^2), prefix, (L.; <?r F.-L.) Put for 
L. neg. preBx in-, when r follows. 

Ire. (F. — L.) F. i>^. — L. xm, anger, 
irascible. (F.-L.) F. irascible,^!., 
irascibilis, choleric, from irasci, to become 
angry. -■ L. ira, anger. 

Iris, a rainbow. (L.— Gk.) L. m>.— 
Gk. rptr, a rainbow. Der. irid-esc-ent, 
irid-ium, from irid-, stem of L. iris, 

orris, a plant (ItaL— L.— Gk.) For- 
merly orice, oris. These are E. corruptions 
of O. Ital. irios (Ital. ireos\ — O. Ital. irios, 
' oris-roote,* Florio. Modified from L. iris, 

Irk, to weary. (Scand.) M. E. irken, 
to tire.— Swed.^r/6a, to urge, enforce, press, 
press upon ; co^ate with L. urgere, to urge. 
See iJrge. (VWARG.) 

Iron, a metal. (E.) M. E. iren, also ire, 
A. S. iren, older form isen, iron, both adj. 
and sb.+Du. ijzer, Icel. jdm (^contr. from 
O. Icel. isam), Dan. Sw^.Jem ; O. H. G. 
isam, G. eisen; Goth, eisatn, sb. (whence 
eisamein, adj.). And cf. W. haiam, Irish 
iarann, Bret houam, iron. p. The Teut. 
forms exactly correspond to an adj. form 
from ice ; perhaps iron was named from its 
smooth bajd SMnaccit \i\i<^\^f^^\xs!kK^ 




harness. (F. — C.) The olJ sense was 
* armour.* O. F, /lamcts, /lar/wts, armour. 
-■Bret, hamez, old iron ; also, armour. «■ 
Bret, houam (pi. hertC)^ iron ; cognate with 
W. haiam^ Irish iaran, iron. 

ironmonger, a dealer in iron goods. 
(£.) From iron and monger; see Monger. 

Irony. (F. - L. - Gk.) F. ironie (Min- 
sheu).«»L. ironia.^Gk. tlfiojvfia, dissimu- 
lation, irony. — Gk. ttptuv^ a dissembler, 
talker, one who says less than he thinks or 
means. — Gk. cfpciK, to say, talk. ( V W AR.) 

Irradiate; seeBadius. 

Irrefragable ; see Fragile. 

Irrigate, to water. (L.) From pp. of 
L. irrigare, to flood. *ll in, upon ; rigare, 
to wet, moisten. Allied to Bain. 

Irritate. (Li) From pp. of L. irritare, to 
snarl greatly (as a dog), to provoke, tease. 
A frequentative of irrire, hirrire^ to snarl 
as a dog ; which is prob. an imitative word. 

Irruption; seeBuptore. 

Is ; see Are. 

Isinglass, a glutinous substance made 
from a fish. (Du.) A corruption of O. Du. 
huyzenblas, mod. Du. huizenblas, isinglass, 
lit. 'sturgeon-bladder/ whence isinglass is 
obtained. (So also G. hausenblas€» sturgeon- 
bladder, isinglass.) •- Du. huizen^ a stur> 
geon ; blas^ a bladder, from blasen, to blow. 

Island. (£.) The s is inserted by con> 
fusion with F. isU, M. £. iland, A. S. 
igland.^A,S, ig, an island; land, land. 
The A. S. ig h also written icg^ ig (cf. 
Angles-ey)\ cognate with Icel. ey^ Dan. 
Swed. 0, island ; G. aue, meadow near 
water. Fick gives the orig. Teut. form 
as AHWIA, belonging to water, an adj. 
formed from AHWA, water, represented 
by A. S. edt O. H. G. aha, Goth, ahwa^ a 
stream, allied to L. aqua, water. Thus 
i'land^ water-land. 

Isle ; see Insular. 

Isochronous, performed in equal times. 
(Gk.) Gk. laQ-^t equal ; xpdvoi, time (see 

isosceles, having two equal legs or 
sides, as a triangle. (Lf.*Gk.) L. isosceles. 
— Gk. laocictkfp, isosceles. * Gk. tao'S, 
equal ; ckIK'Os, a leg, side of a triangle. 

Isolate ; see Insular. 

Issue ; see Itinerant. 

Isthmus, a neck of land connecting a 

Esninsula with the mainland. (L.—Gk.) 
. isthmus, — Gk. Mfi6f, a narrow passage ; 
allied to iBfio, a step. ( V^ to go.) 
Jt,' see He, 

Italics, a name for letters printed thus— 
in sloping type. (L.) Named ijx>m Aldo 
Manuzio, an Italian, about aj>. Z500.«-L. 
Italicus. — L. Italia, Italy. 
Itch. (£.) M. £. iken, iechm, fuller 
form ^iken (yiken). A. S. giccan, to itch. 4* 
'Dn.jeuken, G.jucken, to itch. 
Item, a separate article or particular. 
(L.) L. item^ likewise; in conmion use 
for enumerating particulars ; closely allied 
to it a, so. Cf. Skt. ittham^ thus, iii^ thni. 

iterate, to repeat (L.) From pp. of 
L. iterare, to repeat. — L. iterum^ a^^Gun; 
a compar. form (with sufRx -/ar) from the 
pronominal base I, as in i-tem, i-ta. 
Itinerant, travelling. (L.) From pres. 
part, of O. Lat itinerare, to travel.— 
L. itinera t stem of iter, a journey. —I* 
it'Um, supine of ire, to go. ( V^ *® g®-) 

ambient, going about. (L.) L. ami* 
lent', stem of pres. part, of amb-ire, to go 

ambition. (F. - L.) F. ambition, — "L. 
ambitionem^ ace. oiambitio^ a going round, 
esp. used of going round to solicit votes; 
hence, a seeking for preferment. — L. amb- 
itum, supine of amb-tre, to go about (bat 
note that ambitio retains the short i of 
Itum, the supine of the simple verb). 

circuit. (F. -L.) F.^'^rMtV.-L.acc 
circuitum, a going round.— L. circumitus, 
pp..of circumire (also circuire), to go round. 
— L. circum, round ; ire^ to go. 

commence. (F.— L.) F. commencer. 
(Cf. Ital. cominciare.) — L. com- (for cum), 
together; initiare, to begin; see initiate 

concomitant, accompanying. (F. — L.) 
Suggested by the F. sb. concomitance. Low 
L. concomitantia, a train, suite.— L. am- 
(for cum), together; comitari, to accom- 
pany, from comit', stem of comes, a com- 
panion; see count (i) below. 

constable, a peace-officer. (F. — L.) 
O. F. conestable (F. connJtable).^!^ comes 
stabuli, lit. ' count of the stable,' a title of 
a dignitary of the Roman empire and after- 
wards in use among the Franks. See count 
(i) below; and see Stable. 

count (I), a title of rank. (F-L.) 
The orig. sense was 'companion.*— O. F. 
conte, ako comte (which is better). — L. 
comitem, ace. of comes, a companion 
(stem com-it-y^h, com- (for cum), toge- 
ther ; and it-um, supine of ire, to go. Der. 
count-ess ; also count-y (below). 

couxLty, Qxi^. «L "^oNiELce ^vemed by a 


eomit. (F.-L.) M. £. cauntee,^0,Y, 
c9Mie (i.e. com'ti)t a province. * Low L. 
eami/ahim, ace. of comifatus, a comity 
(though the old meaning was a company or 
suite). •- L. comit-, stem of comts, a count ; 
see aboTe. 

exit. (L.) L. exit^ Le. 'he goes out/ 
used as a stage direction ; ^ pers. s. pres. 
of ex'tre, to go out 

eyre, a circuit. (F.— L.) M. £. eire, 
circuit, esp. of a judge. — O. F. eire, 
jonniey, way. tm L. iter, a journey ; see 
lUnerant (above). 

initial, pertaining to the beginning. (L.) 
L. im/ialis, adj. from initium, a beginning. 
•■L. tniius^ pp. of in-irCt to go in, to enter 
into or upon. 

i2iitiate, to begin. (L.) From pp. of 
L. initiare, to begin. • L. inUium (above). 

iamie, progeny, result. (F.-L.) M. £. 
issue^ sb.—0. F. iisuii 'the issue, end, 
event ; * Cot. Fern, of issu^ pp. of trxtr, to 
depart, go out.»L. ex-irct to go out. 

obit, a funeral rite. (F.-L.) O.F. 
ohit» «■ L. ace. obitum^ a going to or down, 
downfall, death.— L. obitum, supine of ob- 
irtf to go near. 

peruh. (F.-L.) U.E, periscAen.^F. 

ferisS', stem of pres. pt. of pen'r, to perish. 

wL. per-ire^ to come to naught, perish ; 

where per- is used with a destructive force 

(like E,for- infor^o), 

prstor, pretor, a Roman magistrate. 
(L.) L. prator, lit. a goer before, leader ; 
'paXiotpra'itor*.^L,,pra, before; itor, a 
goer, from ire, to go. , 

preterite. (F.-L.) M.E. preterit.^ 
O. F. preUrit, m., preterite, fem. — L. pra- 
teritus. pp. ol prater-ire, to pass by. 

eeditioii. (F. - L.) O. F. sedition, - L. 
ace. sedUiotum, a going apart, dissension. 



mutiny.— L. sed-^ apart; </•»», supine of 
ire^ to go. 
Budden. (F. - L.) M. £. sodain, — O. 

F. sodain, sudain (F. soudain), Cf. ItaL 
subitaneo, subitano, sudden. — Low ^ 
subitanus*, put for L. subitaneus, sudden, 
extended from subitus, sudden, lit. that 
which has come stealthily, orig. pp. oisub' 
ire, to come or go stealthily. 

trance. (F.— L.) F. transe, * a trance, 
or swoon ; ' Cot. Lit. a passing away 
(from consciousness).— L. ace. transiium, a 
passing away; see transit (below). 

transient. (L.) From transient^, 
supposed stem of L. transiens, passing 
away, though the real stem is transeunt' ; 
pres. pt. oUrans-ire, to pass across or away, 
transit. (L.) L. transitus, lit. a 
passing across. — L. transitum, supine of 
trans 'ire, to pass across. 

Ivory. (F. — L.) M. E. iuorie ( — ivorie). 
— O.F. ivurie, later ivoire.^h* eboreus, 
adj., made of ivory. — L. ebor-, stem of ebur, 
ivory. Perhaps allied to Skt. ibAa, an ele- 

Ivy, an evergreen. (E.) A. S. (/f^. + 
O. H. G. ebaA, Perhaps allied to L. opium, 
parsley, a word borrowed from Gk. dvcoK 
(whence prob. G. epheu, eppich), 

I^is, certainly. (E.) M. E. ywis, iwis, 
A. S. gewis, adj., certain {whence gntn'sUce, 
adv., certainly). + Du. gewis, adj. and adv.; 

G. gewiss, adv. Cf. Icel. viss, certain, sure. 
Allied to Wit. ( -/ WID.) f The M. E. 
prefix i- (A. S. ge-) is sometimes written 
apart from the rest of the word, and with a 
capital letter. Hence, by the mistake of 
editors, it has been printed / wix,'and ex- 
plained as * I know.' This is the origin of 
the fictitious word wis, to know, given in 
some dictionaries. 


Jabber, to chatter. (Scand.) Formerly 
jeAer and jable, weakened forms of gabber 
and gabble, which are frequentative forms 
from the base^^, as seen in Icel.^o^^, 
to mock. Cf. Du. gabberen^ to jabber. See 

Jacinth ; see Hyacinth. 

Jack (I), a saucy fellow, sailor. (F.-L. 

»Gk.-Heb.) Vf.E. Jacke, Jakke, often 

used as a term of reproach, as in *Jakke 

fooV Chaucer, C. T. 3708. [Really from F. 

Jofuis, but it is rtmajkabJe thaty^r^ was 

generally used formerly (as now) as a sub- 
stitute for John,"] — F. Jaques. — L. Jacobus, 
-Gk.*Ia«o;i3oy.-Heb. Yaaq6b, ]^coh', lit 
one who seizes by the heel. — Heb. root 
*dqab, to seize by the heel, supplant 
% The name was extended to oenote 
various implements, such as a smoke-jack, 
a boot-jack ; so also Jack-o^-lent, Jack-o^* 
lantern, Jack-puddingy Jack-an-apes ( '^Jack 
dapes, with inserted n to prevent hiatus). 

Jack (a), a coat of mail. (F.— L.-Gk. 
— Heb.) O.F. /a^ue« ^ ^vkdrs^, iQ^m^ «.\wdsH 



or coat of maile ; * Cot. Cf. Ital. gtacOf a 
coat of mail, Span.jrVz^^, a soldier's jacket, 
G./ur/^, a jacket Of obscure origin ; but 
prob. due to ihtjacqueriet or revolt of the 
peasantry nicknamed Jacques Bonhomme, 
A. D. 1358 ; and hence due to F. Jaques, 
James ; see above. 

Jacket, a short coat. (F.-L.-Gk.- 
Heb.) O. F. jaquttte, a jacket ; dimin. 
of O. Y.jaquCs a jack of mail (above). 

jacobin. (F. - L. - Gk. - Heb.) M. E. 
jatobin,'-Y,jatobin.^\jor9t Lat. Jacobinus, 
• adj., formed itom Jacobus, and applied to a 
friar of the order of St. Dominick. See Jaok 
(1). p. Hence one of they<zf ^m club in the 
French Revolution, which first met in the 
hall of the Jacobin friars in Paris, Oct. 
1789. Also the name of a hoo4ed (friar- 
like) pigeon. 
Jacobite, an adherent of James II. (L. 

— Gk. — Heb.) From L. Jacob-us, James. 
Jockey, one who rides a race-horse. (F. • 
L. » Gk. •- Heb.) A North. £. pronuncia- 
tion ot Jockey t dimin. oi Jack as a personal 

Jackal, a kind of wild animal. (Pars.) 
Pers. shaghdL Cf. Skt. fvigdla, a jackal, a 

Jacket, Jacobin, Jacobite ; see 

Jade (i), a sorry nag, an old woman. 
(Unknown.) Cf. Lowland ^. pfaud, yawd, 
a jade. Of unknown origm ; perhaps 
allied to Da. jagen, to chase, drive ; see 

Jade (a), a hard dark-green stone. (Span. 
•>L.) The jade brought from America by 
the Spaniards was called pUdra de ijada, 
because it was believed to cure pain m the 
side; for a similar reason it was called 
nephritis (from Gk. yf<pp6f, kidneys). • Span. 
t/ada, the flank. » Span, ijar, the flank; cf. 
Fort, ilka/, i/karga, the flank, side. — L. 
f/fVz, pi., the flanks. 

Jag, a notch, tooth. (C.) Irish gag", a 
cleft, from gagaim, I split, notch ; W. gag, 
Gael, gag, an aperture, cleft, chink ; Gael. 
gag, to split, notch. 

Jaguar, a beast of prey. (Brazil.) 
*Jagua in the Gnarani [Brazilian] language 
is the common name for tygers and dogs ; 
the generic name for tygers is jaquarete ; ' 
Clavigero, Hist of Mexico, tr. by Cullen, 
ii. 318. 

Jail ; see Gave. 

Jalap, the root of a plant. (Mexican.) 
Ifsmied bomJcUap